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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. Summary. POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.
And one decade later, some people who had believed in that message were celebrating one of the most sensational U.S. victories in the history of the Cold War: the withdrawal of 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from Afghanistan, marking the first time that the Maggie: Dead on the Streets, Red Army had withdrawn under fire from a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and cheever, a multi-billion dollar project to support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the on a, CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in the world. And at the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the celebrations, however, the war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for power, adding more civilian casualties to the 1 million who had already died. Although peace had broken out the swimmer cheever, between the superpowers, the legacy of their long and bitter rivalry lived on in the rocket-prone city of Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and the war-ravaged villages in thick coldblood the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Afghanistan. How is it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the john cheever, rugged crossroads of Asia and deemed strategically insignificant by the United States for decades, became a battleground for the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the 1980s? What stimulated the United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for a rebellion led by thick coldblood, Islamic religious leaders and fought by mountain tribesmen?
What was the nature of the the swimmer, debate among U.S. officials and congressmen as to what the rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against Essay, the armed forces of the the swimmer john, Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in South Asia, which played a crucial role in the war by providing sanctuary for the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the thick coldblood, U.S. The Swimmer John. intelligence and defense communities drawn from the Afghan conflict and applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of Essay Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to prop up a government that seemed constantly on the verge of collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to seize oil fields and warm water ports in the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to protect a new socialist government in a country contiguous to its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for itself against formidable odds? And how did the Afghan government manage to hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to answer these and the many other questions related to john cheever summary the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the thousands of pages of summary on a grecian State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Washington; intelligence reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from Agency for International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and other previously classified materials found in the swimmer john cheever summary this document set. An overview of U.S. policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for on Breast, approaching these questions and demonstrates the usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan.
Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and 1990--four coups, the intervention and the swimmer summary, withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces, the exile of one-third of in cold themes its population as a result of the war, and one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the the swimmer john cheever summary, same: to thick coldblood prevent excessive Soviet influence. John. Specifically, this meant denying the Soviet Union a foothold in american red cross Afghanistan from which to launch aggressive actions in the region. Afghanistan by itself was of little importance to the United States. But the area around it?the Persian Gulf and the sea lines and ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and friendly ties with Iran and Pakistan. The Swimmer John Summary. Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in Afghanistan also remained consistent: the Cancer and Skin Cancer, U.S. perception of Soviet goals in Afghanistan, and the balance of power in the region. Until the fall of the Shah of Iran in john cheever summary 1979, the facts, United States was able to the swimmer john cheever project its power into South Asia and protect its interests there with confidence.
In exchange for massive military assistance, the Shah provided the United States with access to military bases and thick coldblood, intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf to the swimmer john cheever the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. interests. Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and because the United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in the region, U.S. officials viewed Soviet policy in Afghanistan as part of a defensive strategy. A National Intelligence Estimate written in american 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the Shah to his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to the swimmer Afghanistan is part of a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in Essay Cancer the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.
The United States, while working to the swimmer cheever summary minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. In 1962, the State Department reasoned that US fostering of active hostility toward the USSR [could] only serve to weaken Afghanistan?s ability to survive.(3) In 1976, the annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on the Soviet Union. Still, it concluded that the United States is not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for the ?protection? of Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of power in the region favored the thick coldblood, United States, and no significant Soviet threat to that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of circumstances?which in U.S. policy parlance is described as regional stability?changed dramatically in 1979. The Shah of Iran abdicated his throne in john summary January, allowing an anti-American, Islamic government to summary on a grecian urn take power. Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the Red Army within striking distance of both Pakistan and a potentially vulnerable Iran. The balance in john summary the region had shifted. Essay. Soviet policy in Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by the White House as the gravest threat to world peace since World War II.
The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of these changes, one needs to go back to the early 1970s when the power of Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. The Swimmer Cheever. Afghanistan at this time was one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per capita GNP to on Maggie: Dead Streets be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of the swimmer john cheever 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in 1971-1972. Blood. Foreign aid, from such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and especially from the USSR, helped alleviate the country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. John Summary. The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only a titular head) since the on Breast Cancer Cancer, age of john cheever 19, when his father was assassinated in 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. In 1971, the U.S. Blood Themes. Embassy in Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to increased disillusionment and frustration with the john cheever summary, existing social/economic conditions and of ode on a grecian, the apparent inability or unwillingness of the leadership to the swimmer cheever tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the most disgruntled and organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
The PDPA had been founded in Essay 1965 by a group of 30 Afghans in the swimmer john Kabul. Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of its members looking to Moscow for guidance and inspiration. Many PDPA members, in fact, had studied or received military training in of ode on a grecian urn the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by quarrels and plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. The two leaders agreed on the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. They both also complained of the swimmer john Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to a maldistribution of wealth and on Dead, land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by cheever, traditional tribal and religious customs.
Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to implement them; Karmal and his supporters advocated the gradual introduction of socialist change, working within the state system, incorporating along the way different elements of red cross facts Afghan society. Karmal and several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the party and formed his own faction, also called the PDPA, but usually identified by the name of its newspaper, Parcham (banner). The Swimmer John Cheever. Parcham continued to strive for the same kinds of themes socialist reforms pursued by Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for the swimmer john cheever, its newspaper, but the blood, two competed for power nevertheless. By the early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. The Zahir Administration had shut down the Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and the swimmer john cheever, arrested party members and put them in jail. In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the Khalqis. Parcham and Essay The Phoenicians, Khalq were not the only groups opposed to john summary the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on the royal palace, as did several other former officials and thick coldblood, relatives of the king.
Realizing that a race was on the swimmer john, to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the military and red cross, Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. On July 17, 1973, while the king was vacationing in the swimmer john cheever Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and the minister of thick coldblood interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an end to the monarchy and the beginning of john a republican government. The exact nature of grecian urn Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. The Swimmer John Summary. Did the two agree on Essay, political objectives for Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of convenience? In any event, after ousting the royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to a reformist program and to his early backers was shortlived, however. Summary. Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by purging the government of leftists, replacing them with members of Streets his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. He also sought more economic independence from the cheever, Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and the United States. He was careful, however, never completely to shun the Soviet Union. As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.
Embassy in Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. In pursuit of american personal power and a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by Marxism, others were diligently studying the Koran. Many of the swimmer john these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in Egypt where they came into contact with and were influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood, an facts, organization which seeks the imposition of strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.
Some of those Afghans who studied in Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to Kabul determined to galvanize opposition first to Zahir Shah and then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. The Swimmer Cheever Summary. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and Essay on Breast Cancer, Islam to counter the disruptive influence of both capitalism and communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. Jamiat organized anti-government protests and other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and other Muslim leaders fled for the Afghan countryside and eventually to Pakistan where they received arms to fight the Daud government. U.S. officials knew very little about these Afghan rebels and the swimmer cheever summary, doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Some of the names listed in State Department cables were those of people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the United States in their jihad, or holy war, against blood, the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.
Especially alarming to the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of the swimmer a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Thick Coldblood. Roughly half of Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Millions of Pashtuns also lived on the other side of the john, Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an The Phoenicians, artificial line drawn by the British during the height of their colonial rule in India. These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only gain from pursuing such a goal, and Afghan leaders, in turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for pursuing it. What was appealing to Daud and other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into the NWFP by john cheever summary, annexing a good portion of Pakistan. Even if the border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Kabul for Pashtunistan always had the thick coldblood, potential for stirring unrest in Peshawar and other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, and Hekmatyar, an Islamist who sought to unite Afghans belonging to all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for keeping Daud off balance if he chose to pursue an aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to purge more leftists from the government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and the United States. The United States welcomed and encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.
In 1977, the State Department, remarking on Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to the swimmer john the improvement of regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and were anxious to see him removed from power. In Cold. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for having deluded themselves into thinking that the the swimmer john, PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. Summary Grecian. By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and united to the swimmer form one People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on on Dead, power. That day came on April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the PDPA and a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of interior.
Thousands of mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. His response provoked PDPA supporters in the military to john cheever take action. On April 27, the military in collaboration with the PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the coup as the themes, beginning of the Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and pro-Soviet bent of the new government caused U.S. officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in the PDPA takeover. U.S. Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in the coup and suggested a cautious approach to the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.
Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. The PDPA was in a better position than the john cheever, Islamicists to seize power because of its stronger influence over the military and within the capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. Thick Coldblood. The new government, the Democratic Republic of cheever summary Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to of ode urn foreign diplomatic posts.
Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from the swimmer cheever marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and advisors to Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to ignite strong opposition from most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. American Red Cross Facts. The security of rural women, for example, often depended on a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to help small farmers, were opposed by many for having alienated them from their former landowners, on whom they had always relied for help in growing and selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against the Taraki-Amin government or left the country. Some Afghans fled to john cheever summary Pakistan to join the Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and Hekmatyar. Essay The Phoenicians. Some of the more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Sufi leaders, had ties to the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for john cheever summary, most rebels), and Essay, formerly taught Islamic law in Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in parliament in the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.
There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from the swimmer cheever summary Afghanistan in 1974 after writing a book that criticized the Daud Administration. Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to galvanize Afghans in in cold themes his home province of Nangarhar to oppose the new government in Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and another who joined in 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to form the Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for summary, a jihad, or holy war, against the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the charge against the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. The Shiite Afghans also played an important insurgency role in the western half of Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in Iran where they received support from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the world?s attention, partly because the government of Pakistan, the host to most rebels and refugees and the foreign journalists writing about them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in red cross facts Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the cheever, PDPA?s ascension to power in Afghanistan.
This dilemma was summed up in a secret memorandum to Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the on a grecian, April takeover: We need to take into account the mix of nationalism and communism in the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the regime into a closer embrace with the Soviet Union than it might wish. Yet the memo also pointed out various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to the swimmer john cheever summary see if we acquiesce in or accept the communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and others of our friends in the area will see the situation clearly as a Soviet coup. On the american facts, domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the cheever, government while keeping channels open to the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the new government and on Maggie: Dead Streets, its radical reforms. To make matters worse, in February 1979, the U.S. John. ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the release of a political prisoner. Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Essay, Dubs was killed in the ensuing shootout. Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. The Swimmer. requests for thick coldblood, an independent investigation of the the swimmer, killing. Congress in summary of ode on a grecian turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and threatened to cut aid to the DRA.
In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of john cheever Herat responded to rebel calls for a jihad by massacring hundreds of DRA officials and Essay, Soviet advisors who were in charge of the swimmer john cheever introducing the women?s literacy program there. Afghanistan was beginning to draw attention from the outside world, including Washington. At the thick coldblood, White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the Soviet Union, with its hundreds of advisors in Afghanistan to assist in reforms and counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on Afghanistan and possibly the whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and john summary, others worried that the in cold, USSR might take advantage of its presence in Afghanistan in order to influence events in neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for years had helped safeguard U.S. interests in the region, namely access to oil and the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to john consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into on Breast Cancer Cancer a launching pad for aggression in the region. John Summary. Weeks after the Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the National Security Council (NSC) to thick coldblood be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for john cheever, moderate covert support for Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the themes, command of Rabbani and Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for years. Cheever Summary. According to a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in 1988, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the best use of U.S. aid. The following month, the themes, Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the Pakistani government considered the most militant and organized rebel group, the Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)
Freedom of Information Act requests for records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the cheever, U.S. Embassy in Tehran in thick coldblood November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the Soviet intervention and immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Cheever. Although most of the cables and memoranda released to date show that U.S. officials politely turned down rebel requests for U.S. assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and close monitoring of Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to in cold blood themes help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in Afghanistan at the time.
According to declassified documents and john summary, this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the summary of ode on a urn, Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and john, urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and broaden their political base by Cancer and Skin, including non-communists in the swimmer john summary the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for Soviet officials, were not in power. When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to induce political change, meeting with former members of the monarchy and other non-communists to on Dead Streets seek their participation in the DRA government. John. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in Kabul kept the U.S. Embassy informed of thick coldblood their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for Soviet counsel. The government responded to the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and the PDPA?s base continued to the swimmer john cheever narrow. Amin, who as the defense minister was in charge of the Essay The Phoenicians, failed counterinsurgency operations, became the focus of Soviet frustrations.
State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in Afghanistan to the rule of the swimmer john summary Taraki and Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to thick coldblood support the more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to the swimmer john assess the stability of the government. In September, Taraki, on his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in Cuba, stopped in Moscow where he and in cold blood, Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon his return and executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to summary Moscow and presented the Politburo with a grim picture of the situation below their border.
The Khalqi government had lost control of 23 of Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to on Maggie: Dead on the various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the Soviets drew up plans for military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of readiness. Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into an airbase near Kabul during the first week of summary December, laying the groundwork for what was to follow. On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of thousands of Soviet troops riding in tanks and on a, armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Moscow. Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and Doctrines of Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the limits of Soviet influence in Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the government through political means, Moscow attempted to do so with military force, much the same as the United States had done years before in Vietnam. The Swimmer John Cheever Summary. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on the Kremlin?s chessboard.
The invasion coincided with the decline of U.S. influence in Iran and other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in 1977 and Nicaragua in 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. It also coincided with an election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from american red cross conservatives for failing to the swimmer john prevent these Soviet gains. Many of these U.S. observers argued that the global balance of power, particularly the geostrategic balance in South Asia, had shifted in favor of the Soviet Union. The new dominant U.S. perception of Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in nature: the Brezhnev Doctrine of protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the Warsaw Pact. Essay The Phoenicians. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.
Control of Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to john the Indian Ocean and to domination of the Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the Soviet Union on thick coldblood, January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by any outside force to gain control of the summary, Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the U.S. and in cold blood, [would] be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the the swimmer john cheever summary, Carter Doctrine. Since, however, the United States was neither interested in nor prepared for a war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the Persian Gulf, Carter looked for alternative ways to slow down a potential Soviet drive and make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. He called for blood themes, international economic sanctions against the USSR and a boycott of the Olympic games being held in Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and Southwest Asian countries, and the swimmer john summary, provided more covert aid to the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in grecian urn this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in order to the swimmer john provide the Kremlin with a way out of what they believed was a political and on the, military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the Kremlin leadership to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. These advisors did not believe the intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the United States, Europe and China.
What is more, the deeply traditional and Islamic Afghans, in their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and Washington. A combination of fear, pride and superpower obligations caused the leader of the the swimmer summary, free world and the vanguard of socialism to struggle violently over a destitute country the size of Texas for the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the Soviet Union was on a roll in the Third World and had to be rolled back. Moderates thought the intervention, regardless of on a its purpose, was an egregious act for which the USSR should pay a price. All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from Afghanistan. The question was how to the swimmer convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Essay on Maggie: Dead Streets, Soviet Union?s willingness to negotiate in good faith. According to their view, the USSR would not withdraw unless and until it felt the costs of its occupation.
Most U.S. moderates and liberals fell into line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of john cheever resolving the conflict. The State Department believed that the rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at the White House, Carter opted for a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to Reagan in Essay on Maggie: Streets the 1980 presidential election signalled the end of the negotiation track. The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to make the Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the centerpiece of the Reagan Doctrine, an aggressive initiative designed to increase the the swimmer john, cost of Soviet support for Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to Essay Maggie: Dead on the Streets tie Soviet troops down in Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the cost of occupation became unsustainable. The key to this objective was Pakistan. Since the overthrow of cheever summary Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for make-shift tent villages in the Northwest Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Without the cooperation of Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the rebels would have had no sanctuary from which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to on Breast Cancer and Skin Cancer Pakistan in 1977 because of concerns about its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for human rights and the swimmer cheever, democracy.
There was ample evidence to suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. In addition, the Essay on Breast Cancer and Skin, Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to respond to Zia?s well-known history of brutal and dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by the swimmer john summary, overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. After promising elections within 90 days of the takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and Essay The Phoenicians, eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of human rights abuses paled in cheever significance when compared to the Soviet move into Afghanistan. Literally days after the thick coldblood, Soviet invasion, Carter was on the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of dollars in john summary economic and facts, military aid in summary exchange for cooperation in helping the rebels. Zia accepted this quid pro red cross quo, but his government remained wary of Washington?s stated commitment to cheever protect Pakistan from possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to gain Pakistan?s confidence by offering a huge, six-year economic and military aid package which elevated Pakistan to the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign aid. The Reagan White House had equal success in persuading Congress to accept Zia as a new ally.
The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and seemed uninterested in thick coldblood ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in charge of a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of supporting Afghan self-determination and the swimmer john cheever summary, opposing the Afghan puppet government, he and Essay Cancer and Skin, his military had their own agenda in Afghanistan. Zia chose to the swimmer john cheever favor the american red cross, more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in some cases, were no more popular or representative than the PDPA. He was able to divert a disproportionately large share of U.S.-supplied weapons to these groups, especially the most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Later in the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to Zia?s favoritism of the fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is still in question.
The relationship between the CIA and Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to the swimmer the rebels, is not well-documented. This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by Essay The Phoenicians, ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the most effective rebel organization, although some officials from Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Many secular Pakistanis outside of the government worried that foreign aid for Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to bolster the conservative Islamic forces in Pakistan, including the military. Summary. Available documents and thick coldblood, chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, U.S. officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and the swimmer summary, Covert Aid.
Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the Reagan Administration?s efforts to aid the contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and on Breast and Skin Cancer, successfully pushed for more covert funding for the swimmer, the Afghan rebels than the White House ever requested. Hence, the debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in scope although not without tension. While everyone seemed to support Afghan self-determination and a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of Congress, backed by conservative lobbying groups, criticized the administration for not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over of ode on a urn, the PDPA. John Summary. It was the CIA, ironically, that cautioned against summary grecian urn, too much covert aid for the rebels. Officials from CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Pakistan and would certainly be subject to the swimmer cheever summary leakages and american facts, corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to calls for providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in order to john plausibly deny U.S. involvement if the need arose. Throughout the The Phoenicians, Afghan war, the CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and elsewhere and transported them to the swimmer cheever summary Pakistan. Cables reveal that Chinese and Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in blood themes Pakistan as early as 1980.
This covert purchasing process not only covered U.S. tracks, but ensured the availability of weapons that were compatible with the kind captured by the rebels from their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by john, Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. material aid for the rebels in their fight for thick coldblood, freedom from the swimmer john cheever summary foreign domination. The Phoenicians. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the Tsongas-Ritter resolution to the swimmer cheever summary increase the themes, size and quality of the rebel covert aid program. While Washington and Moscow poured more weapons into Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to end the war. In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to find a way for the United Nations to mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.
For the next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and forth from New York to South Asia to the Soviet Union and to Geneva. He tried to convince the numerous parties to the conflict?the Afghan government, the various rebel groups, the cheever, Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on a set of principles or conditions under which the Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Cordovez and his U.N. colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to Geneva on numerous occasions to discuss conditions for a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to Maggie: Dead Streets move back and forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to sit at cheever summary, the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of mistrust between the superpowers. On a number of occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from summary of ode on a grecian allowing material aid for the rebels to pass through its territory in cheever exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the thick coldblood, timing or conditions of the accord. To most U.S. The Swimmer Summary. officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. In March 1983, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in a settlement.
About the same time, Charles Cogan, then the CIA?s official in charge of covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to of ode sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the swimmer john, the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the U.S. Blood Themes. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Was Moscow supporting U.N. efforts as a smokescreen for its strategy of subjugating the mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and others argued? Or did increased U.S. aid for the rebels cause the USSR to dig in deeper, suspecting that the United States was not interested in a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in galvanizing congressional backing for the swimmer cheever, a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of Essay on Maggie: Dead Streets corruption in both the cheever, military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in Essay Maggie: on the Streets covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. By 1987, the john, United States was providing the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from thick coldblood Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on the swimmer john, the House Intelligence Committee to tack on an additional $50 million for Afghan covert aid and convinced the facts, CIA to john cheever purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the Hind Mi-24 helicopter.
The CIA went even further in 1985, purchasing the sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. And in 1986, due to red cross facts pressure from several congressmen and a number of bureaucrats at the State and Defense departments, the CIA provided the mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of the swimmer cheever a covert insurgency support operation, and the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. Policy.
The dislocation of thick coldblood 3 million Afghan refugees in john cheever Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the war?was something Congress, the White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the country, testifying to the destruction and chaos caused largely by on Breast, heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. In 1981, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the mujahidin by focusing attention on john, U.S. influence in the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to help the refugees and rebels as long as they were provided with the necessary resources to facts do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of aid through favored NGOs and urged other countries to cheever either aid the same organizations or to contribute to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In the end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of summary of ode grecian urn it ended up in cheever summary the hands of american red cross rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over the millions of Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for providing aid to the refugees in Pakistan, the United States also sought to alleviate political and economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for cheever, the rebels. Facts. In 1982, the CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan would help generate political unrest and retard economic development until the end of the century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and john summary, tolerance for the refugees, others despised their presence.
Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over scarce resources and political, religious and personal differences. Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and money from the Afghan government to disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the Afghan government?s infiltration of Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and proved key to its survival. The Phoenicians. The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to buy or rent the loyalty of Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the border). Weapons and money were doled out to tribal militia who in turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in the swimmer Pakistan. Some tribal leaders responded to on Breast Cancer Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the Pakistan-based tribes? support for the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and ultimately contributed to the rise of Najibullah, the KHAD?s director and the swimmer summary, the man responsible for this counterinsurgency campaign, to of ode grecian urn the leader of the DRA in 1986. Other kinds of counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the the swimmer, mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on government-held garrisons and thick coldblood, cities, were some of the john, principal causes of the thick coldblood, refugee flow into Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the most damage. Congress, determined to counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.
The Agency for International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and rebels alike?with the means to survive without having to flee to Pakistan. The mass exodus of Afghans had been putting too much pressure on the swimmer cheever, Pakistan, and the empty Afghan villages left the rebels with little material or moral support inside the country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the richest documents in the collection, describing the situation inside the normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the bizarre politics of the mujahidin. Essay. As part of a pro-insurgency operation, the program was unique and controversial. The Swimmer John Cheever Summary. AID was being used to maintain and build up the rebels? infrastructure.
As one U.S. advisor explained to this author in Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. The Soviets were trying to drain the sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into action to coordinate U.S. government agencies to enhance U.S. national security and counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. Thick Coldblood. U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in the swimmer summary Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the National Security Council, in keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to discuss ways of increasing media coverage of the war and generating sympathy and american, support for the mujahidin. News coverage of the war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the longest war in Soviet history, the john cheever summary, largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the thick coldblood, bloodiest regional conflict in the world at the time. Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to station a reporter in Peshawar, Pakistan, the john summary, base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to Essay the Khyber Pass for a glimpse of the the swimmer john, war.
A major reason for this, of course, was the risk involved in reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. Blood Themes. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to be biased toward the the swimmer, mujahidin. Several factors explain this. Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to Peshawar or managed to go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to tell about losing homes and relatives to thick coldblood Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from Soviet bombs marked the john cheever summary, landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and Essay, many Afghans who found their way to Pakistan walked the streets with artificial limbs, victims of land mines. In addition, the Afghan government often proved to john cheever summary be an unreliable source of information, causing Western journalists to Cancer Cancer rely heavily on U.S. officials for details of the the swimmer cheever, war.
The DRA in 1980, for example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on on a grecian, a visit into Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. John Cheever Summary. That same year the DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for biased coverage. When the government allowed journalists to Essay on Maggie: Dead on the Streets return to the country in 1986, the the swimmer john cheever summary, journalists discovered in Kabul another side to the story: victims of on Maggie: Dead on the rebel land mines and indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on the capital. Thus, for much of the war most reporters found it physically and journalistically safer to rely on john summary, Western diplomatic sources in Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at Cancer and Skin, the Consulate in Peshawar or the Embassy in Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. John Cheever Summary. officials still complained of its limited nature. On Breast. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the United States Information Agency (USIA) to teach Afghan rebels how to film and write about their jihad.
The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of Communications to train Afghans in Peshawar to become television and newsprint journalists. This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from professors at the university and several American journalists who called the exercise in public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. Summary. Documents on the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and several private organizations to increase and improve coverage of the war. The United States was also able to influence coverage by taking advantage of Western journalists? inability to american cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Kabul. These Sitreps were to serve two purposes. They provided U.S. officials at home and abroad with detailed information on john summary, the political and military situation in Afghanistan. They also formed part of the Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to on on the Streets punch holes in the Soviet news blackout. The Swimmer John Summary. The press, however, was usually allowed to red cross facts hear only the first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to government human rights abuses and mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and bizarre war being fought on more levels than just that of the swimmer john summary Soviet-backed communists against freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the refugee camps and press conferences in Pakistan, a real and very destructive war was going on inside Afghanistan.
Cables from Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and journal articles by the few reporters who bravely ventured into war zones reveal how pockets of mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and Essay on Maggie:, U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against summary, well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. In Cold Themes. Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of the swimmer john cheever summary PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on summary of ode, government-held garrisons and cities and the swimmer john cheever, other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from Kabul. Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and Jalalabad, where the Essay, mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to observers of this war just as Hue and the swimmer john cheever, Khe Sanh had in Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and in cold blood themes, South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the the swimmer john, Muj were not the Viet Cong. It is on Breast and Skin true that U.S. military aid improved the rebels? battlefield performance. One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and air support changes in the last quarter of 1986 and the first quarter of 1987 than in the previous 7 years of the conflict.(21) Also, more and better land mines allowed the rebels to disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the cheever, mujahidin remained fractious. It was not uncommon for Essay on Dead Streets, one rebel group to turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of rebel infighting even before the Soviet intervention.
In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. officials that they likened the idea of a dissident provisional government to the swimmer john summary putting five different animals in summary on a the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to coalesce and cheever, form a united opposition front. Yet foreign aid often did more to divide the rebels than to unite them. The Saudi government, which deposited many of its contributions into Essay The Phoenicians a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of the swimmer john Islam which was alien to the majority of Afghans. Iran supported the Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in the western part of the country but were left out of power-sharing arrangements made by the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. For its part, the Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of CIA-purchased weapons to Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the arms against rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to overthrow the Essay The Phoenicians, PDPA. The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.
In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for Zahir Shah as an john cheever, alternative head of state for Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and other leaders denounced the poll as propaganda by Maggie: Dead on the, the monarchists. But U.S. officials had evidence from their own observations and conversations that many Afghans might unite around the former king for summary, an interim period if only to help find a more expedient way to negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and an end to the war. Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to oppose the unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Diego Cordovez and Essay The Phoenicians, his U.N. team also recognized the cheever, king as a potential key to on Breast Cancer a settlement and the swimmer, kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at Essay Maggie: on the Streets, his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to grant Zahir Shah a visa and cheever summary, kept a close eye on pro-Zahir activities. Essay. Pakistan?s President Zia and his supporters in the military were determined to cheever put a conservative Islamic ally in power in Kabul. U.S. officials and private experts yielded to the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the king?s return would do little good. Some of these officials argued that as a result of the war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and toward the mujahidin commanders and Cancer, their political/religious leaders in Peshawar.
The Soviet presence and Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and ethnic groups to fight a common enemy. That unity was soon put to john cheever a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the on Dead Streets, world by announcing that the Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from Afghanistan. The Swimmer John. Three days later, in Essay The Phoenicians the midst of celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in his office. His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by a string of assassinations and acts of intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to a fundamentalist government in Afghanistan as they were a communist one. John Cheever Summary. Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only widen further. The Geneva Accords and on Breast, the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the the swimmer john summary, fragmented nature of the rebel movement worked to its advantage for much of the war. Essay Cancer And Skin Cancer. The USSR could find no central rebel base of cheever operations to bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to infiltrate, no single popular leader to negotiate with?or eliminate.
The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from Essay on Dead all directions in this war without borders. Gen. Boris Gromov, the last commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in and out of service in Afghanistan and the swimmer cheever, brought home all the Essay, signs of john cheever summary a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and more.
The war also hit home in other ways. Billions of rubles were spent on Afghanistan instead of the crumbling Soviet economy. In the troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the Afghan jihad when, at various points during the war, rebel bands crossed the thick coldblood, sensitive Soviet border to foment unrest among the Islamic population. The impact of the Afghan war on Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.
Gorbachev and the swimmer cheever summary, his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to summary of ode grecian Third World governments, some of which seemed to rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to tie future foreign assistance to certain understandings, one being that the recipient government had to the swimmer summary concentrate on Essay on Breast Cancer and Skin, building a broad base of support before implementing social and summary, economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in Moscow?s strategy to protect the Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in Moscow that the Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to Kabul and immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an effort to broaden the government?s political support base. He announced a cease-fire and an amnesty for armed oppositionists.(25) But the of ode on a urn, war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to withdraw for quite some time.
In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the withdrawal was to be completed, a top official in the U.S. Embassy in the swimmer summary Kabul claimed that the Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from unraveling. Although most of his colleagues disagreed, the diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the on a, Soviet occupation was based on a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the withdrawal. Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in the swimmer summary keeping the PDPA in power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and others also distrusted the Essay The Phoenicians, Soviet initiatives.
Months before the U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to stop the White House from the swimmer john cheever guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the mujahidin even after the USSR had withdrawn. As a co-guarantor of the accords, the United States was obligated to cut aid to the rebels on the first day of the pull-out. The Phoenicians. Humphrey and others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from the swimmer john cheever Moscow. Secretary of State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to accord the Afghan rebels the same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Soviet and Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. The rebels refused, calling the offer a ploy to keep the PDPA in in cold themes power. Due to summary congressional pressure and over Soviet objections, the United States created a separate, unwritten clause to the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the rebels as long as the Soviet Union aided Kabul. Essay Dead Streets. The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the signing of the accords. At the last minute, after the United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to drop its demand for a coalition government as a precondition to john cheever summary signing, Pakistan insisted on the formation of red cross a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of rebel and other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.
President Reagan called President Zia and assured him that the United States would stand by the rebels until they seized power, and that since the USSR was probably going to withdraw with or without an summary, agreement, Pakistan ought to sign. Besides, the White House had been advised that the PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed?with the USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from any form of interference in each other?s territory, and to give all Afghan refugees the opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the superpowers pledged to stop interfering in summary of ode grecian Afghanistan, with the USSR agreeing to withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the other elements of the accords would be rendered obsolete by positive symmetry. To Washington, however, that seemed not to matter, for a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the corner. Cheever Summary. On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the and Skin Cancer, Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?
Journal of the swimmer john cheever summary Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of State, Elements of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of Essay on Breast Cancer and Skin State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Maxwell J. Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1974, p. 4. 6. Cheever Summary. United States Department of State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Strategy for the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.
9. On Dead On The Streets. United States Department of State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Carter Would Fight for cheever, Persian Gulf; Seeks to Essay Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.
14. Author?s interview with present and summary, former U.S. Thick Coldblood. officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.
United States Department of State, Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 1980. 17. The Swimmer John Cheever Summary. Selig S. Harrison, Inside the Afghan Talks. Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. United States Department of State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.
19. Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Summary On A Urn. Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. United States Army, Impact of the Stinger Missile on Soviet and Resistance Tactics in Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of State, Nature of the Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.
23. United States Army, Lessons from the War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. A Diplomatic Solution to Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.
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Tip Sheet: An Admissions Dean Offers Advice on Writing a College Essay. Periodically, in john, a feature called “Tip Sheet,” The Choice will post short items by admissions officers, guidance counselors and themes, others to help applicants and their families better understand aspects of the admissions process. As an inaugural post in the swimmer, this series, Martha C. Merrill, the red cross facts, dean of john admission and financial aid of Connecticut College, and a graduate of the class of 1984, encourages incoming high school seniors to begin contemplating their college essays this summer. In Cold! She also offers perspective on the swimmer cheever, what she looks for in an applicant’s essay. Prospective students will often ask me if a good essay will really get them accepted. The truth is that while no essay will make an thick coldblood, unqualified student acceptable, a good essay can help a qualified applicant stand out from the competition. A good essay just might be what turns a “maybe” into a “yes.”
The college application process takes time, preparation and creativity, which is the swimmer john cheever summary, a lot for summary grecian any active senior to handle. Cheever Summary! Summer, however, typically offers about 10 weeks free of classes and homework and thick coldblood, many of the other stresses that come with high school. The pressure of the looming college application deadline is still months away, which allows students the freedom to john cheever, play around with different ideas, test different angles and and Skin Cancer, solicit feedback from the swimmer summary friends and family. Another reason to focus your summer energy on crafting a quality essay: at this point in the admission process, it is on Maggie: on the, one of the few things you can still control. This is your chance to show us what you are capable of when you have time to think, prepare, rewrite and polish. While there is the swimmer john, no magic formula for thick coldblood the perfect admission essay, there are a few things prospective college students should know.
Here are my Top Ten tips: Write about yourself . A great history paper on the Civil War might be very well written, but it doesn’t tell me anything about the writer. Regardless of the topic, make sure you shine through your essay. Use your own voice . I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior. Cheever! Focus on thick coldblood, one aspect of yourself . If you try to cover too many topics in your essay, you’ll end up with a resume of john cheever summary activities and and Skin, attributes that doesn’t tell me as much about you as an in-depth look at one project or passion. Be genuine . Don’t try to john summary, impress me, because I’ve heard it all. Thick Coldblood! Just tell me what is important to you. The Swimmer! Consider a mundane topic . Sometimes it’s the simple things in life that make the best essays. Some of my favorites have included essays that reflect on the daily subway ride to Essay on Maggie: Dead on the, school, or what the family goldfish observed from the fishbowl perched on the swimmer cheever, the family kitchen table.
It doesn’t have to be a life-changing event to be interesting and informative. Don’t rely on “how to” books . Use them to get your creative juices flowing, but don’t adhere too rigidly to their formulas, and definitely don’t use their example topics. While there are always exceptions, the Essay on Breast Cancer, “what my room says about cheever summary me” essay is way overdone. Share your opinions, but avoid anything too risky or controversial . Your essay will be read by a diverse group of individuals from american facts a wide range of backgrounds, so try to appeal to the broadest audience possible. Tell a good story . Show me why you are compassionate; don’t tell me you are. Show me that you have overcome great difficulty; don’t start your essay with “I have overcome great difficulties.” Don’t repeat what is already in the swimmer summary, your application . If you go to Essay on Breast and Skin, a performing arts school and all of your extracurricular activities and awards relate to dance, don’t write about how much you love dancing. Summary! Tell me something I couldn’t know just from reading the in cold blood themes, other parts of your application. Finally, don’t forget about the supplements . The Swimmer John! The supplement questions are very important – you should plan to spend as much time on them as you do on your essay. A well-written essay won’t help if your supplement answers are sloppy and thick coldblood, uninformative. If you’ve been through this process before — either as a practitioner, student or parent — and cheever, would like to add, or respond, to Ms.
Merrill’s list, use the comment box below. If you’d like to propose a future subject for “Tip Sheet” — one you’d want to read, or perhaps even propose writing — please send a short email message to us at [email protected] Comments are no longer being accepted. Another piece of advice is to have someone proofread your essay, but DO NOT have multiple people give you advice about the essay. It is easy to spot the student essays that have been “finished” or “edited” by friends and family. And the in cold blood themes, worst essays are the ones that have been edited to meet the comments of john cheever summary multiple readers. As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is a hint at that student’s future approach to writing assignments. I think you could do your readers a big favor by on a urn compiling a list of states that offer an early path to college. Here in cheever summary, Texas, it’s called the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS).
It’s a two-year program at the Univ. of thick coldblood North Texas in Denton for john cheever summary high school juniors #038; seniors; it has about 400 students total. Basically, the students take their first two years of Essay college, and get credit for their last two years of the swimmer john summary high school. My wife and I have two children, both graduated from TAMS. Summary On A Grecian! Best thing is, the state covers tuition, fees, and books; only cost to us was room #038; board and a program fee. check it out by googling “tams”. I have some PDFs I could email you, too, if you’re interested. Dripping Springs, TX. All nicely said but if all this was true there would have been the huge numbers of essay coaches or books we have out today. Ask the entrants to any Ivy league school about whether they used coaches or guides and you will get a different answer. it would be good to start thinking about this college application essay… (still a year away) Ms.
Merrill’s Top Ten tips are an excellent guideline for the college admissions essay. I’m currently a college sophmore and vividly recall going through this process. One additional tip I would add is keep it lite. I think college admissions panels are tired of reading about how you spent your summer wielding a hammer for Habitat for Humanity or ladling soup in the swimmer summary, a homeless shelter. Forget the essay – play a sport and be really, really good at it. If you are also a decent student that will be your ticket.
Trust me — athletes have a huge competitive advantage in the college admissions game. The admissions people won’t come right out and american, say it, they’ll say things like “We try for balance in every class”, but if Amherst doesn’t beat Williams, Yale doesn’t beat Harvard, etc. etc., they will get a lot of john cheever pressure. Summary Of Ode Grecian Urn! If the violin section is a little off one night, or the lead in the swimmer, the play is a bit weak, it won’t really matter. I’m not cynical, just realistic. I would avoid grammatical errors such as Martha’s “I can tell the difference between the of ode on a, voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior” and Mary’s (reader 1) double error: “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is a hint at that student’s future approach to writing assignments.” I’m certain that Martha meant “I can tell the the swimmer john cheever summary, difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and that of a high school senior,” and that Mary meant “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, I note that the application essay is of ode on a urn, a hint at the swimmer john cheever summary students’ future approaches to writing assignments.” the best thing you can do is try out a lot of ideas. my english teacher senior year made us write a different personal essay every day for the first month of school. American Red Cross! i never would have thought of my ultimately successful topic if i hadnt been for being forced to do so much writing. John Cheever! if you really feel you must start over the summer, try out lots of ideas and on Breast Cancer, dont commit. The Swimmer John Cheever! ask an english teacher or recent ivy grad for advice, your parents may not have the best sense of of ode on a grecian urn a relevant and not trite topic. once you have your topic, draft and fine tune. i went through at john cheever least 40 full drafts. In Cold Blood Themes! luckily my topic answered every essay question i came across. finally, i think the the swimmer summary, mundane topics advice is risky. On Streets! true, you can have a very good essay on a mundane topic, but you also run the risk of sounding like everyone else and being trite. if you are writing about your subway ride as a metaphor for your dreams in john cheever summary, life, it had better be a really sparkling, innovative essay.
These tips, while a good guide, are confusing. If some of the best essays she’s read include what your life is like from the POV of a goldfish on themes, the kitchen table, then what’s wrong with a creative essay on what my room says about me? That story can be equally as creative. As a 60-year-old graduate student who has also been a journalist for 11 years and recently published a book about my life, I believe in the power of personal story. Not all teens have found their “voices” yet, and so they try on others for size, so of course that will come through the essay. But your voice is unique. It’s you. Don’t try to be anybody else. So… Keep it simple, be honest, use more verbs than nouns and avoid adjectives and adverbs as much as possible. Tell how an the swimmer john cheever summary, experience you had made you feel and what you learned from it.
Describe what sets your heart on fire. As the parent of two college-aged sons, I could not agree with this advice more. One wrote about a challenge that he overcame and the other about being compassionate. Both essays were about summary on a grecian events that happened in their everyday school lives. Both were written in active voice and were little windows into their characters. Neither used the words challenge or compassionate. John Cheever Summary! I am convinced that it was the strength and Essay and Skin Cancer, sincerity of their essays that opened the doors at the top schools that said “Yes” to my sons. The essays were the differentiating factor in all the numbers that are part of an application. I encourage other parents to suggest that their kids just be themselves in their essays – small is good, generalities are boring, tell about the swimmer john something that makes you you.
Oh, and thick coldblood, read The Gatekeepers – – it offers the best insights into the college admissions process of any of the dozens of books I read on the topic. I wonder if, at the most competitive colleges/universities, anything makes a difference beyond sociology: My daughter is john, a National Merit Finalist (actually won a National Merit Scholarship at a school she chose not to attend), had an “unweighted” GPA over 3.9 at a magnet International Baccalaureate program, had an SAT score of 2290 with an 800 in critical reading (only took it once), had three “5” scores on AP exams before her senior year and every SAT II over in cold blood themes 700. She was accepted at every small college she applied. Rejected at Harvard, Yale, wait-listed at Columbia (and then told there is no place) and at john Duke….but then, 25 of 26 applicants from her (public) school were rejected from Yale…the one acceptance: a superb musician, triple-legacy, Presidential Scholar. She IS an athlete, but not good enough to play at the schools that rejected her (and plans to at the small college she will attend). Oh…she’s upper middle class white (and competing in a major metropolitan area against many white legacy kids at Essay on on the Streets these top schools). “been through it” might think himself realistic for advising that everyone get ‘really really good’ at john summary a sport, but being a non-sports person with a non-sports kid, our (IMO rather more sure-fire) resolution to Essay Maggie:, this particular problem is – – apply only to the swimmer cheever summary, technical colleges; they do not require essays. Tongue only Essay on Maggie: Streets, partly in cheek…
Not all Ivy League admits use coaches or guides- I didn’t. I took a risk in writing my application three years ago- I wrote a genuinely personal essay. It was frightening for me to do bec it revealed things about my background that I wasn’t sure Harvard could handle. But it was a risk that paid off. So, my perspective is- take a risk, expose yourself, share why admission truly matters to you. Thank you, Ms. Merrill. As a parent whose daughter is at the swimmer summary the very very beginning of in cold this process, I’d love to see more advice on john, the admissions process from you — please keep it coming! And thank you NYT for passing along practical, applicable information. Most college admission officers agree that a student’s character is the Essay Maggie: Streets, most difficult thing to cheever, measure on the application. Essay Dead On The Streets! College essays are the the swimmer cheever summary, place for students to reveal their personal stories in an authentic, engaging and sincere way . In addition to what has already been mentioned, it’s important to read the essay prompts carefully and summary on a grecian, understand the intent of the question.
Jeannie Borin, M.Ed. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 – Don’t try to john summary, sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and Essay The Phoenicians, stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of john summary mind. Of Ode On A Grecian! That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and the swimmer cheever summary, bad. Then let a trusted person compare the summary of ode on a, versions. Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better “flow,” and john summary, you can improve on that in the editing process.
It’s a little cynical to american red cross, suggest that all Ivy League admits use coaches and guides. A friend currently at Yale was told by a college counselor that her essay was terrible (it read too much like a “story” and didn’t have a “message”), and she sent it anyway. John Cheever! I wrote my essay on american facts, my own and got into a school famous for its English program. Probably the best advice is to john summary, stay far away from american “moral of the story” lines. The Swimmer! I’ve seen plenty of facts books that praise essays about the writers’ overcoming of obstacles, blah blah blah, with all their lines about “through my experience, I learned…” I would get pretty darn bored of that if I were an admissions officer. Neither of my children used a coach or had special classes.
We checked the grammar and spelling on their essays and let them focus on their interests in and out of school. One is at the swimmer john summary an Ivy one is at a small, tier one school. Cancer And Skin! I expect the one going to the swimmer, the small school will get the better education. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of mind. Dead On The! That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the the swimmer cheever summary, topic) without caring if the thick coldblood, essay is summary, good and bad.
Then let a trusted person compare the versions. Urn! Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better “flow,” and you can improve on john cheever, that in the editing process. P.S. – Sorry, forgot to american, tell you great post! Barbara’s #2 is a great solution to any time one gets ‘writer’s block’. From Thank You notes to funding proposals, it works. Also, the ‘trusted person’ who reads and edits the outcome of the “devil may care” effort can be oneself – but not until the next day. Read the essay to someone else. Read it as if you are telling a story.
You will hear what sounds clumsy, and you will see if it captures attention. I suggest that a good deal of time and money would be saved if admissions officers would simply put all those applicants who seem to meet standards for a college education into a lottery. John! That random choice is fair and is better than officers playing God as to who is fit to adorn their insitution, My College Admissions Essays: 1. What work of art, music, science, mathematics or literature has surprised, unsettled or challenged you? : A 64-slice CT scanner that the local hospital that I volunteered at had just gotten. 2. What’s your favorite word and why?: Determination (Probably not the “best” choice but it really is and I think I showed it was genuine) 3. Choose any topic of your choice: I wrote a descriptive essay of my trip to the Eiffel Tower and how I was blown away by in cold themes the beauty and cheever, grandeur of the structure. And this was also an essay that I had used in an English class for a writing contest and my teacher had rated the paper as an A+ so hey, it was probably my best writing. Currently at the University of Virginia as a 3rd year student.
Admissions does sometimes seem like a lottery… And Doc? Does your daughter’s school mascot happen to be a rocket? I think I go to the same school, based on thick coldblood, the information you gave. As someone who was admitted to some Ivy Leagues and waitlisted at some Ivy Leagues, and john cheever, who played a sport but was not recruited, I must say that the essay was probably the key in helping me stand out grecian from the thousands of middle-class, white, suburban applicants. The essay is the swimmer cheever, really one of the only aspects of the application in which you can show who you really are. Resumes are nice, but they show what you do–which is meaningless unless this provides insight into who you are and how your character’s been shaped by what you do. I’m sure many people would probably make blanket statements that are hard to understand…”don’t write about something too grandiose” “don’t write about something too mundane” “don’t make it too intellectual-sounding” “don’t make it sound like intellectualism is not a part of your life”–but the best advice I can give is figure out a writing style that works for on Maggie: Dead Streets you, and run with it.
If you look hard enough, you will find people in your life who know you well enough to john cheever summary, give you tips on your writing style while staying true to grecian, yourself and making it genuine. The Swimmer! Take this advice with a grain of salt. Consider it carefully and remember…colleges are not looking to accept your neighbor, or your English teacher, or your friend’s mom who works at a newspaper. They are looking for true insight into your character, and you should seize this opportunity to reveal what it is that makes you who you are.
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10 Points to john cheever remember when answering a RFE (Request for Evidence) 10 Points to remember when answering a RFE (Request for Evidence) from blood themes, USCIS (Immigration Services) A Request for the swimmer john cheever, Evidence (RFE) is Essay on Breast Cancer, a common tool used by the USCIS (Immigration services) to ask for additional proof in order to make a decision on your case. RFEs are often in point form requesting factual information from either the the swimmer john summary beneficiary or petitioner. Thick Coldblood! While many RFEs are simple, lately many RFE’s have become more complicated and tend to require legal assessment before they can be answered. Our law firm, having filed more than 1000 immigration cases, is the swimmer john, quite familiar with responding to RFEs. Based on our experience, we have compiled a 10 Point legal guide to assist you in answering your RFEs.
Note that this guide does not cover every single RFE related issue. We highly recommend that you retain a lawyer to help you on red cross facts your case. A well prepared case can avoid an RFE. RFEs are usually requested because either the petitioner or beneficiary has not provided sufficient proofs or clarification in their original package. Therefore, preparing a completed and the swimmer cheever summary detailed package with your application or answer at the outset is crucial to the success of your case. On the other hand, putting irrelevant and The Phoenicians unnecessary information in your application or petition can harm you. Professional help in preparing your case is summary, always recommended. A good lawyer can make a big difference for the final outcome of your case. Having dealt with so many RFEs, we have noticed that many people do not want to read the RFEs properly or they simply do not understand the lingo. If you do not understand all the questions or statements, please consult with a lawyer. Essay The Phoenicians! Do not panic when you receive the RFE.
As mentioned earlier, RFEs are common tools in the USCIS toolbox. You should not panic. On the other hand, you shouldn‘t take it lightly. If you do not have the the swimmer cheever courage or knowledge to deal with them, seek help with a lawyer familiar with immigration law to assist you. Do not miss the deadline when answering the RFE. Answer your RFEs on time. Indeed, many people believe that they can request additional time to answer their RFEs.
Unfortunatly, USCIS has not been giving additional time to answer RFEs lately. Essay On Streets! Missing the deadline will most likely result in a denial. John Cheever Summary! At this point, you may have to The Phoenicians file an appeal or a motion to reopen the case. Therefore it bears repeating: Do not be late . Do not file the RFE in parts. Many of our clients tend to the swimmer cheever think that they can answer part of the RFE and then wait for blood themes, USCIS to the swimmer summary ask for more. Unfortunately, the way USCIS (or Immigration Services) functions, they rarely send another RFE to give you another chance. The first RFE you receive is normally your only Maggie: Dead Streets chance to give USCIS the clarification they require. Therefore, it is essential that you answer all the questions as concisely as possible and provide all the evidence requested of you at the same time. Failure to do so will probably result in a denial. Organize your answer in a clear manner.
Remember you are not writing an essay. Stay concise and to the point. Make sure you document your answer with exhibits. Also make sure you have a table of contents. Write your RFE in a way that’s easy to navigate. Keep in mind that an actual person will be reading your RFE, thus the more comprehensible your RFE is the better your chances for approval.
Use a lawyer to answer, if possible. Using a lawyer can make a big difference. Often times RFEs have important points of law which need to be addressed by someone with legal knowledge. For example, lately, the Neufeld Memo regarding H-1Bs involves many important points of law that only someone with legal knowledge will be able to summary adequatly tackle. You should remember that only an attorney can give legal advice. Do not be fooled by The Phoenicians, unscrupulous “consultants” not licensed to practice law. Is it worth losing your immigration case just to save some money? Do not forget that denial of your case can result in a permanent ban. Again, having a good lawyer on the swimmer cheever summary your side can make a big difference. Remember to put the colored paper at thick coldblood, the top of john cheever summary, your answer. Most RFEs are sent in colored paper (usually blue).
It is facts, essential that this cover letter goes above all your answers including the cover letter. Failure to do this might delay your case or even possibly lead to cheever summary a rejected case. Make sure you are mailing to the right address. On On The Streets! The RFE will indicate where you should mail your answer. Make sure you are mailing it to the swimmer john cheever the right address. If you fail to Essay and Skin Cancer comply, the cheever answer will probably be lost and Essay on Breast Cancer and Skin Cancer you may get a denial. Be polite when answering.
Last but not least, be polite when you write your RFE. I have seen cases where the person answering will be insulting USCIS because they have either asked for something already submitted or asking for clarification in a non relevant matter. The Swimmer John! Remember, many cases are decided by the discretion of the adjudicating officer. Answering in a polite and in cold civilized manner can go a long way towards helping your case. The above are just a few points to the swimmer cheever summary remember when answering an Dead Streets, RFE. Unfortunately, there are many other issues to cheever consider in The Phoenicians, your answer. We always recommend having legal assistance while filing a case. The Swimmer John Summary! Remember a well prepared case usually results in a positive outcome.
The information contained in this article is provided for thick coldblood, informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter. No recipients of the swimmer john cheever summary, content from this article, clients or otherwise, should act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in the site without seeking the appropriate legal or other professional advice on the particular facts and circumstances at issue from an attorney licensed in the recipient#8217;s state. I have engaged Shah’s law firm to The Phoenicians represent me for employement based permanent residency. Cheever! So far I am extremely happy with the professional commitment shown by american red cross, Shah in dealing with my case. I had a quick approval of my PERM. He was very helpful and proficient in dealing with my I140 RFE. Unlike many other immigration lawyers, I found Shah as a honest, knowledgeable and committed law attorney. Inspite of all the expertise Shah has, he is very affordable. I would highly recommend Shah to anybody seeking any expert help in immigration matters. ” Important: The testimonials or endorsements on this website do not constitute a guarantee, warranty, or prediction regarding the summary outcome of your legal matter.
Each case is different and success in one case does not warrant or guarantee success in other similar cases or situations. Download our FREE Apps for Updates on your mobile. ITunes and Adroid. Shah Peerally Law show on KLOK 1170 AM Radio. Thursday from 10 am to thick coldblood 11 am (PST)
Immigration Delays and Citizenship. [email protected] (510)742-5887 37600 Central Court, Suite 202, Newark, CA 94560. Shah Peerally is a Bay Area Immigration Lawyer offering immigration legal services in the San Francisco Bay area. As an Experienced immigration attorney in the Bay Area, his law firm situated in the swimmer cheever, Fremont-Newark focuses on immigration laws with an thick coldblood, emphasis on john cheever employment based immigration H1B visa, L1A, L1B visas, PERM Labor Certification. American Red Cross Facts! His law firm in Newark, California also handles Family based immigration petitions and the swimmer john cheever summary VAWA self-petitioner petitions. H1B Attorney USA Shah Peerally provides US Visa services to clients in Northern California, Silicon Valley and blood themes Southern California including: San Jose, Fremont, San Francisco, San Rafael, San Mateo, Millbrae, San Bruno, South San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Hayward, Pleasanton, Redwood City, Milpitas, Saratoga, Livermore, Richmond, Santa Clara, Palo Alto, Dublin California, Mountain View California, Mt.
View California, Silicon Valley, South Bay, Campbell, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Sunnyvale California, Los Angeles California, and San Diego California. John Cheever Summary! Disclaimer: The information in this web site does not constitute legal advice. We make no guarantees about the accuracy or adequacy of the information contained or linked to this web site.
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English Form 2 Essay Essays and Research Papers. English 102: Essay # 2 10 October 2012 Virtual World Violence In the high definition world of the swimmer john cheever summary video games . Themes. today, a relatively recent trend has taken hold of younger people. The rise in the swimmer john popularity of the First Person Shooter (FPS) game has become very evident among teens and college students. This genre of game involves the player controlling a character in summary on a urn the first person perspective. The character being controlled usually wields one or multiple firearms in order to cheever, defeat enemies. Essay Dead. Most of. First-person shooter , Game , Grammatical person 1102 Words | 3 Pages. com/past_papers/ english - essay -1438.aspx English Essay . Tweet. Search another past paper . John Cheever. . Study Abroad. Resources.
Interact. Discuss. Fun. In Cold Themes. Multimedia. Directories. Contact. English Essay 0 . John Cheever. Essay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Essay The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, to try or to themes, attempt. The Swimmer Cheever. In English essay first meant a trial or an Essay on attempt, and this is the swimmer john, still an alternative . English Essay , Junior English essays www. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Karachi 466 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lauren Gutowsky Professor Moore ENGL 1301 Essay 2 October 2 , 2014 Dear Chief Acevedo, Speaking as an owner of . two small dogs that I consider to be like my very own children, it is Maggie:, hard not to become outraged and disgusted with the many cases of the swimmer john cheever summary police brutality toward dogs.
Horrific videos of police officers shooting innocent dogs, who impose no threat, have gone viral. These cases have recently been brought to the public’s attention and most of those who hear about these cases all have the summary, same. Abuse , Dog , Guide dog 953 Words | 4 Pages. Literature in its purest form has the remarkable ability to transport us to the time and place that it is summary, set. It can even give us insight . into the time period the literary artists lived in summary of ode and how it affected their works. Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress,” set in the 1650’s, has an overarching theme of mortality, in that one must make the most of what little time they have alive. Similarly, Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind,” set in the early 1800’s, has a mortality theme, although. Andrew Marvell , England , Mary Shelley 1864 Words | 6 Pages. ?Jin-Sil Kim Professor Kamffer English 100 November 6, 2011 Analysis Essay : A Modest Proposal In A Modest Proposal, Jonathan . The Swimmer John. Swift presents a literary work that attacks the vices of the English Protestants, Irish politicians, and on Breast and Skin Cancer even the summary, naivety of the Irish themselves. Essay On Maggie: On The. Being a Protestant and native Irish himself, Swift proposes a mocking resolution to the dreadful state of the swimmer john cheever Ireland in blood themes his piece. He conveys his views towards the poor by the swimmer john cheever summary offering a fictitious solution to their unpleasant situations.
A Modest Proposal , Dublin , English people 883 Words | 4 Pages. Example English Form 2 Paper 2 2012. WRITING [ 25 marks ] Your School has just finished the annual uniformed body camping. On Breast And Skin Cancer. Write a letter to your friend telling him/her of the camping . programme. The Swimmer Summary. 1. School field-decorated with colourful flags-students-getting ready for marching 2 . March-past-smart-their uniform bodies-Negaraku 3. Marching events-follow leader’s commands- no mistakes-very proud 4. Winners-prizes-everyone enjoyed-grand affair You may use all the points given. Elaborate all the 4 points. Your writing. 815 Words | 5 Pages.
Mary Ellen Zaglewski English 1101, Fall 2012, CRN 86404 TR: 9:50-11:05 G211 CRN 89139 TR: 11:15-12:30 G221 Office Hours: 11:30-3:30 . MW, 3:30-5:30 TR, others by appointment. Office: G110K E-mail: [email protected] Phone: 678-466-4880 Clayton State University - English 1101 Course Syllabus Course Title: English Composition I Course Description: This course focuses on summary of ode skills required for effective writing in a variety of. Academia , Clayton State University , Essay 1286 Words | 5 Pages. An Argumentation on the Bilingual education and English -only Movement The question of whether the the swimmer john, U.S should have an official language and red cross facts . whether bilingual language education can be accepted is cheever summary, highly controversial. Hispanic concentrated areas like California, the Southwest and Florida are especially troubled by the proposed English -only movements.
People stands for English -only movement claims that linguistic divisions is harmful to thick coldblood, political unity, while single official language can provide. English language , Federal government of the the swimmer summary, United States , Language 1496 Words | 5 Pages. First Examination 2014-2015 P.1 of 2 Form 5 Examination Syllabus Subject ???? Syllabus Duration ??????? ??:???? 25% ??:???? . 25% (???? 100 ?) ???,????,??????? 800 ?,??????? 700 ?? ??????? ??:??????? 17.5 % ?? ????(??? 20%) ?? ????(??? 80%) ---?????????,????? ??????? ?,????? 500 ?,????? ???? ??:???? 12.5% ??? ???? English Paper 1 Reading (40 marks) - Part A (1 text) ; Part B (1- 2 texts) Paper 2 Writing (45 marks) - Part A (200 words) ; 1 hour 30 mins 2 hours Part B (300-350 words) Paper. Andromeda , Book , Economics 557 Words | 2 Pages. akml 2rayet el essay ele ana ft7to m4 aktr . we hwa 3mal ybw5 , a3ml eh tyb . aktb ad eh ya bay5 enta . American Red Cross Facts. wah . deh m4 tre2a . t3amlo beha el dyof bto3ko 5als . ento btkrhona fe el mge 3ndko . The Swimmer Cheever. we kda ht5sro kter www.studymode.com › Home › Health › Medicine Read this college essay and over in cold blood, 1800000 others like it now. . Cheever Summary. Success is not a gift, it should be hard to red cross, achieve and it matters how it is john cheever summary, accomplished. Essay Dead. Free success Essays and Papers -.
Essay , Essays , Failure 510 Words | 4 Pages. to analyze the Perfect forms in English as they have always presented difficulties to learners and also because opinions of . linguists differ greatly as far as these forms are concerned The aim of my paper was, on the one hand to investigate the main peculiarities of the perfect form trying to define their basic functions, meanings and their position within the system of the English verb, and on the other hand, bringing into comparison the verb systems of the English and cheever summary Romanian languages. Future , Grammatical aspect , Grammatical tense 1268 Words | 4 Pages. ?MINUTES OF ENGLISH PANEL MEETING (15 Jan 2013 @ 1.35 pm, Physics Lab) Attendance : 1. Puan Adila bt Ahmad (Head of Panel) . 2 . In Cold Themes. Puan Julaila bt Yahya (Senior Teacher of john cheever Language Department) 3. Thick Coldblood. Puan Zuraini bt Abdullah 4. John. Puan Suhaila bt Kayat 5. Puan Syazrin Syimee bt Sharifuddin 6. Puan Zuhira @ Suria bt Ghazali 7. In Cold. Puan Asmaton bt Mohd Nawawi 8. Puan Robitah bt Nordin 9. Puan Santhi Nair a/p Baskaran Nair 10. The Swimmer Cheever. En Mohd Azlan b. Mohd Ali Secretary : En.Azlan bin Mohd Ali Absentees. Education , English people , School 997 Words | 6 Pages. An eye for an eye, if you kill somebody you die. Some might argue that this system of execution is communism.
Many people get their image of summary of ode on a grecian urn communism . mixed up with a sort of military totalitarianism form of the swimmer cheever summary government, but there are extreme differences between the two as well as different forms of communism that may stimulate the Essay on Maggie: Dead, North American economy. For example communism suggests that all property be owned by the state for john cheever, equal distribution but this does not call for any restrictions to our. Capital punishment , Crime , Criminal justice 1089 Words | 4 Pages. freedom. The ideal American would have to have that same inner strength to fight for what is red cross, right, and cheever be able to set their personal safety to the side. . The ideal American would need to embrace the many facets of Essay The Phoenicians courage. The most undervalued form of courage is john, moral courage.
When one thinks of the meaning of courage they think of a soldier standing at the American border defending their freedom. Thick Coldblood. In “Courage: Working our Way Towards Bravery” by Steven Kotler he says, “Moral courage is cheever, the. Chocolate , Chocolate chip , Chocolate chip cookie 1702 Words | 5 Pages. only matter. But the risk of further health problems increases dramatically if you are overweight, such as developing type 2 diabetes, heart . disease, some forms of arthritis, and several cancers.
Michelle Obama, one of the most popular political figures behind the fight against childhood obesity today, is thick coldblood, a prime example of how one source can help understand another. John Summary. The essay Remarks to the NAACP National Convention is written from an Essay excerpt of one of her speeches, outlining the main points for. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Maria Cancino Lopez English 100 Instructor: Ted Shank July 3, 2013 Let’s Go to the Beach! It was summer, last year; in the swimmer john cheever July 15th the . hotter day of the season made me took to american facts, my young son, my niece, and cheever my mom to the beach. It was noon, when I noticed that my mom to come from Essay Cancer, Mexico who was visiting me for some months was getting bore at home.
Because she loves to be in Mexico, when she visited me I have to do fun thinks to extend her stay with me. The Swimmer John. Thinking what should I do to make her happy. English-language films , Family , Left-handedness 1711 Words | 4 Pages. ?Eric Blasko Alice Griffen English 1A 21 September 2014 Saviors of Our Furry Companions It doesn’t take much to create a city, just roads, . buildings, and some people thrown in. But what does it take to makes a community? When groups like charities, support groups, activity centers and Dead Streets many more arrive to a city, they can help it flourish into a community that people are proud of. One group in particular, which I will be observing, is a nonprofit animal rescue. Animal rescues help communities by. Adoption , Alan Price , Animal 1887 Words | 6 Pages. ? During this essay the writer will evaluate the extent to the swimmer john summary, which Freud’s theory of psychosexual development can help to Essay The Phoenicians, understand a client’s . presenting issue.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in in cold early medieval England and is now the most widely used language in the world. It . is spoken as a first language by the majority populations of the swimmer john cheever several sovereign states, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Essay on on the Streets Caribbean nations; and it is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states. It is the john, third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and. Anglo-Saxons , England , English language 835 Words | 3 Pages. OUR OWN ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL, ABU DHABI GR.8, HISTORY NOTES TOPIC: REVOLT OF 1857 ? GREASED CARTRIDGES INCIDENT: 1. New . rifle introduced-Enfield, cartridge covered with greased paper wrapper. 2 . Sepoys had to bite off the cart., before loading the cartridge into the rifle. (it had gunpowder and an iron ball) 3. News spread that the grease was made from fat of blood cows and pigs. 4. Hindus consider cows: sacred Muslims consider pigs: dirty . Begum Hazrat Mahal , British Raj , Indian Rebellion of 1857 735 Words | 4 Pages.
Essay # 2 I. When the Nelsons mail their letter on October 5th, there is no immediate legal effect on the Cleavers’ proposal. The Swimmer Cheever. . This is Essay, due to the Rejection Mail Box Rule which states that a rejection is effective when it is received by the swimmer john cheever the offeror. When the Cleavers receive the letter, they will understand that the Nelsons have rejected their offer and have proposed a new offer. The type of rejection used by the Nelsons here is called a counteroffer. A counteroffer is a clear refusal of the blood, original. Common law , Contract , Offer and acceptance 995 Words | 3 Pages. Essay /Paper Debriefing Form Course ____________________________________________________________________ . John Cheever Summary. Essay /Paper __________________________________________________________________ Due Date _________________________________________________________________ Grade _____________________________________________________________________ Part 01: Preparation Techniques Which of the themes, following strategies were used to prepare your essay /paper? In-class Prewriting ______ Out-of-class Prewriting ______ . Essay , Following , Literature 516 Words | 3 Pages. ? English Essay – Elliot Davenport INTRO The Messenger by Markus Zusak is a novel published in the swimmer john cheever summary 2002. The plot centers itself . around a 19 year old, underage cab driver named Ed Kennedy, his friends; Marv, Rickie Audrey and his dog, the doorman. Ed receives a card in the mail with three addresses and times for each address, Ed uses his intuition and thick coldblood discovers that he has been chosen as a “messenger” he is given many more addresses and has to figure out for himself how to the swimmer john cheever, help these people, whether. Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis , Love , Markus Zusak 803 Words | 3 Pages.
My essay is describing the life of J.R.R Tolkien and what he did before and in cold themes during the summary, time he was an author. He was born in summary urn Bloemfontein, . John Summary. South Africa on american January 3, 1892. J.R.R Tolkien stayed in South Africa with his brother and parents. But the weather was very harsh on his mother so she decided she would move to john, England with him and his brother and their dad would come later. But later J.R.R. Tolkien’s dad died because of a brain hemorrhage so he never ended up meeting up with J.R.R.
Tolkien. Bilbo Baggins , J. R. R. Tolkien , Sauron 1183 Words | 3 Pages. English essay : Analyse how the blood, writers of the two poems you have studied have developed an important theme? POEM 1: Still I . Rise By: Maya Angelou You may write me down in history With your bitter, twisted lies, You may trod me in the very dirt But still, like dust, I'll rise. Does my sassiness upset you? why are you beset with gloom? 'Cause I walk like I've.
African American , Black people , Human skin color 1257 Words | 5 Pages. ? Your Name Pro. English ENGL-101 January 28, 2014 Diagnostic Essay You cannot get to the end of the rainbow and summary . there are no leprechauns safekeeping a pot of gold. A rainbow is like a mirage. Thick Coldblood. It is not an object, and john cheever summary cannot be approached. Maggie: Dead Streets. Rainbow is a full circle of color in the sky caused by the swimmer summary water droplets viewed from a certain angle relative to the sun ray's. It will be impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the. 1996 albums , Abraham , Earth 374 Words | 3 Pages. Tori Taylor English 1301.
Feb 11,2013 Second Language Speaking Affects Peoples Lives Learning to on a, speak a different language is hard. If . you are a second language speaker different emotions go through one’s mind. Some families only summary, speak one language in Cancer and Skin the household; therefore the kids grow up speaking just that language as well. The Swimmer John Summary. Second language speakers go through and feel different emotions on a day to day basis. Thick Coldblood. A feeling of being misunderstood, alienated, limited from doing certain things. Emotion , Foreign language , French language 1088 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 2 1 Casual Analysis Argument About The Media Jeremiah Barwick ENGL 101 Prof. Hartless June 16, . 2014 Essay 2 2 Abstract Joe Camel exemplifies my position that advertising cartoons in adult ads have a negative effect on American youth. The tobacco industry markets to children. The American Medical Association, Federal Trade Commission, and President Clinton agree.
Keywords: Camel, Joe Camel, tobacco, desensitizing Essay 2 3 Causal Analysis. Advertising , American Medical Association , Chewing tobacco 1019 Words | 7 Pages. ? Essay # 2 Henry David Thoreau and Frederick Douglass had two very different ideas of protest. Thoreau’s idea was passive and . done individually. Douglass’s idea was active and also done individually. Frederick Douglass was trying to expose the the swimmer john cheever, horrible aspects of grecian urn slavery and Henry David Thoreau was protesting slavery and against the government.
However, Frederick Douglass’s idea of protest was better and the swimmer summary more effective. Henry David Thoreau was an Essay activist writer. His essays were philosophical and. Abraham Lincoln , Civil disobedience , Henry David Thoreau 1160 Words | 5 Pages. literacy and language.
The writer Helen Keller wrote The Day Language Came into My Life, an essay where she tells the reader her experience . Cheever. with how she learned how to Essay, speak, read and write even though she is blind and deaf. Amy Tan wrote Mother Tongue, an essay where she talks about the trouble of speaking English as an the swimmer summary immigrant in a new country. Frederick Douglass wrote Learning to Read and Write, an essay where he talks about becoming literate during a time when slaves were not allowed to read. Anne Sullivan Macy , English language , Helen Keller 1304 Words | 4 Pages. of the themes, book because the island has now turned into a battleground between two groups of teenage boys. This shows the characterization of Jack as a deeply . violent human-being.
These two quotes show the inherent evil within humanity in the most pure form possible, the Lord of the Flies threatening Simon in john cheever the first, and thick coldblood Jack torturing innocent children in the swimmer summary the second. Both of them show Golding’s perceptions of life on the island, but they are portrayed as boys, to make the reader feel intrigued with. Good and evil , Jews , Million 1258 Words | 4 Pages. ?Valerie Acosta Professor Desai English 101-01 February 17, 2014 Essay # 2 Throughout the decades, human . beings from a small age start learning the characteristics of a male and in cold blood female. Whether it is from media, clothing and to the way one is brought up, society has similar views of what it means to the swimmer john, be a man or a women. Men are envisioned to Essay on Breast Cancer, be strong, aggressive, successful, and someone who avoids feminine characteristics. The Swimmer Cheever. Women are perceived to be submissive, delicate, passive, dependent. Gender , Gender differences , Gender identity 1163 Words | 4 Pages. Madeleine Noriega Professor Fong English 1A.32W 1 October 2012 Revolutionize the Future When was the Essay, last time you craved for burger, . fries, or even a milkshake?
Or how about the last time you bought a pack of cigarettes? These days, advertisements from the swimmer john, various industries have managed to draw people’s attention and lure them into buying the products that are presented to them. As a result, fast foods and thick coldblood tobaccos have ultimately become a major part of our lives. Cheever Summary. These advertisements have been. Advertising , Cigarette , Fast food 2615 Words | 7 Pages. CLASS XII / HOLIDAY HOMEWORK(2013-14) Subject: English 1. Draft a poster to The Phoenicians, be issued by cheever the department of thick coldblood health suggesting . John. ways how you can prevent diarrhea during the monsoons (50 words) 2 . Close on Essay Cancer and Skin the heels of recording the largest number of women dying during child birth, the country now occupies another top spot.
According to finding of john UNICEF, India records the highest number of deaths of children who die before reaching their fifth birthday. Essay Dead. Draft a letter to the swimmer john cheever, editor, giving. Maxwell's equations , Quadratic equation 688 Words | 4 Pages. C LIT 271 WQ 2013 Assignment # 2 :Sequence Analysis Length: 850-1,000 words (printed in Times New Roman, pt 12, double-spaced; state the word . count at the top of the paper). The task: Analyze the sequence assigned to your section (make sure you are writing about the thick coldblood, correct sequence!). Make an argument about how formal elements, such as mise-en-scene, sound, and editing, to convey content: how the john summary, formal elements develop characters and the relationships between them, how they organize the plot, or. Fibonacci number , Logic , Rhetoric 1172 Words | 4 Pages.
Sentence Pattern A sentence comprises smaller units which are called elements of sentence structure. They are: 1. Subject(S) 2 . . Essay. Verb(V) 3. Complement(C) 4. Cheever. Object(O) 5. American Red Cross. Adjunct(A) 1. The Swimmer Summary. SUBJECT is a word or group of words (phrase) in a sentence about which something is said. 2 . VERB is a word or phrase expressing existence, action or occurrence. 3. COMPLEMENT is a word or phrase that usually come after ‘be’ verb such as am, is, are, was and were to make the sense complete. Gender-neutral pronoun , Phrase , Sentence 602 Words | 4 Pages.
listening skills through close and relevant analysis of two speeches with a thorough integration of the listening component • Understanding of the . argument/structure and rhetorical techniques in two speeches • Appropriate use of language and essay structure General Comments: The purpose of this feedback is to help you better understand the strengths and on Breast and Skin weaknesses of the swimmer john your responses. Essay The Phoenicians. • The task was designed to test your knowledge, understanding and level of engagement with your texts. Audience , Audience theory , Aung San Suu Kyi 1205 Words | 6 Pages. Royal Military College of Canada Department of English ENE 110-4: Introduction to Literary Studies and University Writing Skills . Monday, 1000-1050; Wednesday, 1240-1330 ; Friday, 1000-1050 Instructor: Dr. Cheever Summary. Huw Osborne Office: M323 Phone: 6269 Email: [email protected] Office Hours: by appointment Course Objectives There are two primary goals for this course: 1. Of Ode Urn. Above all, we are concerned with exploring literary expression with a simple desire to improve our abilities. An Imaginary Life , Final examination , Modern Language Association 872 Words | 6 Pages. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES INTRODUCTION: It is a rapidly growing segment of the English for Specific Purposes sector. It . aims to provide learners with the john cheever, skills needed for academic study in a context of English at higher educational system specifically Tertiary students. Andy Gillet (University of Hertfordshire): EAP is a branch of ESP in The Phoenicians that the teaching content is matched with the cheever summary, requirements of the learners. Thick Coldblood. SIGNIFICANCE: First of john summary all a Question arises, What kind of language. Education , Essay , Language 585 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 2 Violence Is A Never Ending Struggle Many stories takes place in thick coldblood different areas, seasons, years, even . time zones, but there’s always a specific reason why stories takes place during this time.
The story “Barn Burning” dealt with a lot of different scenarios during this time period, the story was set around the Civil War Era. There were many forms of the swimmer summary racism and american red cross facts prejudice that existed such as: prejudice toward ethnicity, genders class and social class during this time. As. Abuse , Arson , Bullying 1406 Words | 5 Pages. year wise maintenance thereof, in proper form . EDUCATION Jun 2007 - Jun 2008 2nd Economics, Master (MSc/MA), GPA Division . Karachi/Sindh , Pakistan Sep 1994 - Jun 1995 2nd Accounting, Bachelor(BSc/BA), GPA Division Karachi/Sindh , Pakistan OTHER CERTIFICATES 2009 ACMA (Stage III) Institute of Cost Management Accountant of john summary Pakistan, Pakistan IT SKILLS Windows Office tools MS Word, Excel Advanced LANGUAGES English Urdu Working knowledge Fluent COMMENTS . Audit , Auditing , Auditor's report 328 Words | 4 Pages. Angus Bills English 101-004 18/3/2013 Tameka Johnson “I honor Parkland’s core values by affirming that I have followed all . academic integrity guidelines for this work.” Career Planning My ultimate dream job is to be a Fireman. There are many qualities a Fireman must embrace, and some of the crucial assets include: Critical thinking, active listening and summary of ode on a complex problem solving. This field embraces respect from all members of the community, whilst they risk their lives everyday. Active fire protection , Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting , Fire 1759 Words | 5 Pages. discrimination was fully utilised in Celebrity Big Brother 2007’’. This is the swimmer summary, exactly why my argumentative essay agrees with the statement written . Essay The Phoenicians. above.
Reality shows indeed provide poor models for cheever summary, the younger generation. My topic is Essay The Phoenicians, about what kind of reality shows are screened on TV and how that influences the john cheever, younger generation in in cold blood a negative way. (Reality shows - facts and effects, 2014) (How to write an argument essay ) Reality shows encourage negative aspects such as promoting sexualisation, overindulgence. Adolescence , Big Brother , MTV 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Form 2 [CHRISTMAS REVISION SHEETS] Christmas Revision Sheets Name: _______________________ 1. What is the area of . Form : ____________ ABC. Answer: _______________ cm2 2 . The Swimmer. Work out correct to Essay, three significant figures (Use your calculator) 3. A ticket for a film show costs ˆ 5.20 25 people pay to watch the film. Cheever Summary. How much money is Essay Maggie: Dead on the, paid in the swimmer full? (Without using calculator) J.Camenzuli | www.smcmaths.webs.com 1 Form 2 [CHRISTMAS REVISION SHEETS] 4. Essay On Maggie: On The. Look at summary these five numbers: . Area , Calculation , Elementary arithmetic 278 Words | 4 Pages. Thomas Korte 3/15/2013 English 102 Greek Benefits Greek life is Essay, a very big part of many colleges. Whether it’s a small community . college or a big Division 1 school, fraternities and sororities can usually be found on the campus. The Swimmer John Summary. But with Greek life also comes the negative stereotypes about it. People think Greek life is all about binge drinking and having sex with random people. They never truly get to know and experience the grecian, real side of the john summary, Greek community.
They don’t know that Greek. Alpha Phi , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 2614 Words | 6 Pages. ? Essay 2 1400-1600 Define and explain the aims of the Enlightenment. The Age of facts Enlightenment is also known as the . Age of the swimmer john summary Reason. It was the main intellectual and cultural movement in the eighteenth century. It refers to the period between 1650 – 1800. During this period intellectuals and philosophers emphasised reason. The enlightenment was a historical change that had affected both politically and summary of ode on a socially. John. Most people believed that the Essay on Breast Cancer and Skin, main ideas of the Enlightenment are : using. Age of Enlightenment , Denis Diderot , Encyclopedie 1876 Words | 5 Pages. ?Ferney Forero Professor Cynthia Robinson English 101: Writing and Research March 2013 Gender Expectations Society often expects . certain type of behavior from everyone.
But in the big picture, this behavior is only based on what type of sex you are and what your responsibility according to cheever summary, your sex. In today’s society, we have discrimination; high expectations and in cold a set of norms that in a lot of cases only apply or are strictly apply in one gender only. The Swimmer John Cheever. So all of of ode grecian urn this leads us to the question. Feeling , Female , Gender 1510 Words | 6 Pages. information? A slide show, word and report have to the swimmer john, be used to facts, get my message and research out. Cheever. As well as saving my work to a USB flash and my work done . Essay Maggie:. through power point. QUESTIONS 1. What kind of e-communication technology is used mostly?
2 . What type of instant messaging do people mostly use? 3. How many people thinks social network is safe to use? 4. John Summary. How many people thinks social network is not safe to use? 5. American. No. of people who say that people get bullied via social network? 6. No. Facebook , Instant messaging , Internet 1279 Words | 6 Pages.
SULIT Bahasa Inggeris Kertas 2 SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN March 2005 . DATUK PETER MOJUNTIN, PENAMPANG 11/ 2 jam PEPERIKSAAN 1 SEMESTER 1 2005 BAHASA INGGERIS TINGKATAN SATU KERTAS 2 Satu jam tiga puluh minit JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU 1. Kertas 2 mengandungi 3 soalan. John Cheever. 2 . Cancer. Jawab semua soalan pada kertas kajang. Association football , Fiction , Sekolah Berasrama Penuh 519 Words | 4 Pages. Brooke Hannon English 12 AP March 18th, 2013 Gender Roles in Hamlet Hamlet, written by the well-known Shakespeare, is a story which . involves men who are implored to be “manly” by directing the lives of the women in the swimmer john cheever summary order to make their own lives comfortable and summary of ode refraining from copying feminine behavior. Hamlet and Ophelia, two characters who are supposedly in love with each other, are examples of the swimmer john how the in cold themes, men and women in this story are expected to live up to the stereotypical standards set by. Characters in Hamlet , Gender , Gender role 1361 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Forms and styles This section describes the john summary, different forms and styles of . essay writing.
These forms and styles are used by a range of red cross facts authors, including university students and professional essayists. Cause and effect The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1402 Words | 5 Pages. Molyneaux Professor Howarth English 150 2 October 2013 Writing in the University The formula of a well-constructed . English academic paper includes a clear, straightforward goal, the appropriate features using MLA format, and is relatable to john summary, outside of the academic setting. From analyzing a few academic papers and interviewing an English professor, Dr. McGee, I learned that an English academic paper usually follows this formula strictly. When writing an English paper, the goal and purpose go. Bibliography , Creative writing , Essay 909 Words | 3 Pages. [pic] Queenwood Department of Essay on Breast Cancer and Skin Cancer English Year 11 Assessment: Area of Study Task 2 : Creative Response Due Date: . Tuesday 13th March (Day 2 , Week 7) 2012 Word Limit: 800-1000 words Outcomes: P3, P4, P6-8, P11-13 Weighting: 10% ‘Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.’ Anna Karenina, Leo Tolstoy Using the the swimmer, stimulus provided, compose a narrative which demonstrates your understanding of relationships.
You will be. Anna Karenina , Assessment , Demonstration 306 Words | 3 Pages. when I describe my life in Sudan. In additions, I use form /rhyme, language and imagery to red cross facts, express my sentiments. Analyzing my poem- . Stanzas- This poem has 4 stanzas. I chose to john cheever, use stanzas to break the poem into sections about each of my 4 memorable moments while living in thick coldblood Africa. Cheever. All stanzas have the same amount of in cold line because it made the poem easier to read and it gave it a sense of completeness about the swimmer cheever all of my memories form Africa. Aside from summary on a, giving attentions to the poem’s stanzas. Africa , African Union , Poetic form 1214 Words | 5 Pages. THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING ENGLISH English can be said to be the most important and the most useful language in theworld today. . There are many reasons why you should study the language properly.The first reason is cheever summary, English will help you a lot when you further your studies.Almost all the blood themes, books at the universities are written in English . John Cheever. So, if your English is poor,you are going to The Phoenicians, have a big problem studying there.The second reason you have to john summary, study English well is that it will help you to summary, get ajob. Dialect , England , English language 938 Words | 3 Pages.
How to the swimmer summary, write an English Essay Before you start to learn sentences, or new words, the first and also the most important step is blood, . the summary, pronunciation. To pronounce perfectly you should buy a tape to assist you to learn and practise. This is the fundamental step to learn English , ignore or pay no attention to this step; you will not learn proper English and you will find the later steps more and more difficult. Essay The Phoenicians. If you are solid and accurate in the swimmer john cheever pronunciation, you will find the later steps much easier. Dyslexia , English language , French language 1517 Words | 4 Pages.
M. A. Vassalli Junior Lyceum Half-Yearly Examination 2006/2007 Form 2 English Language Time: 2 . hours Name: __________________________________ Class: __________ Mark: A. Fill in of ode on a grecian the blanks with the john cheever summary, correct form of the Present Simple or the Present Continuous: Example: Steve always rides (to ride) his bike in the afternoon. 1. Andy sometimes ______________ (to read) a comic. 2 . I ________________ (to phone) my friend at the moment. 3. Of Ode On A Grecian Urn. Listen! Sandy _________________ (to sing) in cheever the bathroom. Fairy tale , Shanghai Metro 1923 Words | 6 Pages.
? Juan Manuel De los Rios June 6, 2013 English 11 Decisions gone badly. Summary Of Ode. Ambition is a word that I believe can relate to anyone at some . point of his or her life. The dictionary defines it, as “a strong desire to do or achieve something” (Dictionary.com) which I think doesn’t show any negative connotation or actions. However, it is ambition what has lead many people in history and the swimmer john cheever throughout time to commit acts that are considered immoral or unethical with the only objective to thick coldblood, achieve what the. Accept , Guilt , Lady Macbeth 1532 Words | 4 Pages. English A Language And Literature SL Paper 2. N13/1/AYENG/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX 88132016 ENGLISH A: LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE – STANDARD LEVEL – PAPER 2 ANGLAIS A : LANGUE ET . John. LITTERATURE – NIVEAU MOYEN – EPREUVE 2 INGLES A: LENGUA Y LITERATURA – NIVEL MEDIO – PRUEBA 2 Tuesday 5 November 2013 (afternoon) Mardi 5 novembre 2013 (apres-midi) Martes 5 de noviembre de 2013 (tarde) 1 hour 30 minutes / 1 heure 30 minutes / 1 hora 30 minutos INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES ? Do not turn over The Phoenicians, this examination paper until instructed to do so. John Cheever Summary. ? Answer one essay question only. You.
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Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen. The play ‘A Doll’s house’ is a three act play written by Henrik Ibsen. The Swimmer? The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at the time, as it concludes with the protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and children because she wants to discover herself. Ibsen was inspired by the belief that “a woman cannot be herself in modern society,” since it is “an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from a masculine standpoint. Henrik Ibsen, considered by The Phoenicians, many to be the father of modern prose drama, was born in Skien, Norway, on March 20, 1828. He was the second of the swimmer summary six children. Ibsen’s father was a prominent merchant, but he went bankrupt when Ibsen was eight years old, so Ibsen spent much of his early life living in poverty. From 1851 to 1864, he worked in theaters in on a grecian Bergen and in john cheever summary what is now Oslo (then called Christiania). At age twenty-one, Ibsen wrote his first play, a five-act tragedy called Catiline.
Like much of Cancer his early work, Catiline was written in verse. In 1858, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoreson, and eventually had one son with her. Ibsen felt that, rather than merely live together, husband and the swimmer cheever, wife should live as equals, free to become their own human beings. This belief can be seen clearly in A Doll’s House. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen paints a bleak picture of the sacrificial role held by women of all economic classes in his society. In general, the play’s female characters exemplify Nora’s assertion (spoken to on Breast Cancer, Torvald in the swimmer Act Three) that even though men refuse to sacrifice their integrity, ‘hundreds of thousands of Essay on Breast Cancer and Skin Cancer women have.’ At the beginning of A Doll’s House, Nora seems completely happy. She responds affectionately to Torvald’s teasing, speaks with excitement about the extra money his new job will provide, and takes pleasure in the company of her children and friends. The Swimmer Cheever Summary? She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence, in which she is coddled, pampered, and patronized.
Protagonist, Nora, seems like a bit of a ditz. When her husband, Torvald, calls her things like his “little squirrel,” his “little lark,” and, worst of all, a “featherhead,” she doesn’t seem to mind (1.5-1.16). In fact she seems to enjoy and even play into themes it. When Torvald first calls her a spendthrift, we’re inclined to the swimmer john, agree. So far, we’ve seen her give the porter an overly generous tip, come in with tons of Christmas presents, and shrug at american the idea of incurring debt. Soon, though, we see that Nora has a lot more going on than we first imagined . Summary? On the other hand the other female in Dead the play, Christine is a tough, world-wise woman. Cheever? This lady has been through a lot. She tells Krogstad, “I have learned to act prudently Life, and hard, bitter necessity have taught me that”.
In this paper I want to show that at time women used to sacrifice everthing for their husbands. American Red Cross Facts? Still then they were not considered to know the aspect of the world. As like nora , she did everything she can for her husband that she can. SACRIFICE BY NORA. As the john play progresses, Nora reveals that she is not just a ‘silly girl,’ as Torvald calls her. That she understands the business details related to Dead on the Streets, the debt she incurred taking out a loan to preserve Torvald’s health indicates that she is the swimmer john cheever intelligent and possesses capacities beyond mere wifehood. Her description of her years of The Phoenicians secret labor undertaken to pay off her debt shows her fierce determination and ambition. John Summary? Additionally, the fact that she was willing to break the law in order to ensure Torvald’s health shows her courage. Krogstad’s blackmail and the trauma that follows do not change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to on Breast Cancer, her unfulfilled and underappreciated potential. Cheever? ‘I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald,’ she says during her climactic confrontation with him. Nora comes to Essay and Skin, realize that in john summary addition to her literal dancing and american red cross, singing tricks, she has been putting on a show throughout her marriage. She has pretended to be someone she is not in the swimmer john order to fulfill the on a grecian role that Torvald, her father, and society at large have expected of her.
Though Nora is economically advantaged in comparison to the play’s other female characters, she nevertheless leads a difficult life because society dictates that Torvald be the marriage’s dominant partner. Torvald issues decrees and condescends to Nora, and Nora must hide her loan from him because she knows Torvald could never accept the cheever summary idea that his wife (or any other woman) had helped save his life. Furthermore, she must work in secret to american facts, pay off her loan because it is illegal for a woman to obtain a loan without her husband’s permission. By motivating Nora’s deception, the john cheever summary attitudes of Torvald’and society’leave Nora vulnerable to Krogstad’s blackmail. De Beauvoir argues that throughout history, woman has been viewed as a ‘hindrance or a prison’.
Nora’s abandonment of her children can also be interpreted as an act of self- sacrifice. Despite Nora’s great love for her children’manifested by her interaction with them and of ode urn, her great fear of corrupting them’she chooses to leave them. Nora truly believes that the nanny will be a better mother and that leaving her children is in their best interest. Nora’s understanding of the meaning of freedom evolves over the course of the play. The Swimmer John? In the first act, she believes that she will be totally ‘free’ as soon as she has repaid her debt, because she will have the Essay Maggie: Dead opportunity to devote herself fully to her domestic responsibilities. After Krogstad blackmails her, however, she reconsiders her conception of freedom and questions whether she is happy in summary Torvald’s house, subjected to in cold blood themes, his orders and john cheever summary, edicts. By the end of the play, Nora seeks a new kind of freedom. Essay On Breast Cancer And Skin? She wishes to be relieved of her familial obligations in order to pursue her own ambitions, beliefs, and identity. Mrs. John Cheever Summary? Christine linde , In her younger days, she had to sacrifice love for Essay Maggie: Dead on the Streets the sake of her family.
Rather than marrying the dashing young Nils Krogstad, she married a businessman, Mr. Cheever Summary? Linde, so that she could support her sick mother and her two younger brothers. In order to sever herself from Essay Maggie: on the Streets, her beloved Nils, she wrote him a nasty note saying that she didn’t love him anymore. (A little harsh, Christine.) Now her brothers are all grown up and her mother is dead. Her husband has passed away, too. Mr.
Linde’s business went kaput after he died and she’s had to work a lot of crumby jobs. The Swimmer Summary? Still, Christine is finally free. It’s true that Christine is free from the responsibilities of family, but she absolutely hates it. She’s not happy again until she reunites with Nils, telling him “I want to be a mother to someone, and your children need a mother. Summary On A? We two need each other”.
It might be seen as tragic: women are so programmed by the swimmer summary, society, that the only thing they know how to do is be a homemaker. On the other hand, it’s not like Christine is making this decision from a place of ignorance. Unlike Nora, Christine is well aware of what life is like without men. The major difference between Christine’s new relationship and that of the Helmers seems to Cancer, be that Christine and Krogstad are entering into it as equals. Perhaps, the union of Nils and Christine is Ibsen’s example of “the most wonderful thing of all,” which Nora defines as “a real wedlock” A Doll’s House ends with the slamming of the swimmer a door. Nora turns her back on her husband and in cold, kids, and takes off into the snow to make her own way in the swimmer the world. It’s a pretty bold decision, to say the least. Some might even call it foolish. She doesn’t have a job. Not a whole lot of marketable skills.
No home. No prospects of Essay Maggie: on the Streets any kind. By making this choice, she’s ostracizing herself from the the swimmer john cheever society she’s always been a part of. Most “respectable” people just aren’t going to hang out thick coldblood with her. John? The comfortable life she’s leading will be totally destroyed. So, why does she do such a thing?
Nora makes he reason for her decision pretty clear in her last argument with Torvald. Before she makes her grand exit, he scathingly criticizes her, saying that by deserting her husband and children she is forsaking her “most sacred duties” . Nora doesn’t see it this way. Blood? She tells him that the duties that are most sacred to her now are the “duties to [herself]” Furthermore, it can be debated that the male-female relationship in cheever A Doll’s House is The Phoenicians based on a Master-Slave ideology which Friedrich Hegel, the great Enlightenment theorist, started. The relationship between Torvald and Helmer evolves according to the swimmer cheever summary, a Master-Slave relationship. Hegel argues that the consciousness of one’s self as a self cannot be achieved except through confrontation with another. Both Nora and summary of ode on a grecian urn, her husband Torvald recognized their dependency on john cheever summary each other and that self-consciousness led to Nora’s awakening in the end.
Thus, Nora’s character self was made through the dialectical special interrelationship between her and her husband on one side and american, between her and john summary, the patriarchal society on the other. Hegel says that the summary of ode grecian urn self ‘through supersession, receives back its own self, because, by superseding its otherness, it again becomes equal to itself; but secondly, it equally gives the other self-consciousness back again to itself, for it saw itself in the other, but superseded this being of itself in the other and thus lets the other again go free.’ First Nora acknowledges Torvald as her master and she dutifully assumes her role as the slave who is dependent on her master. After the confrontation, Nora realizes the master’s dependency on her which leads her to supersede him and be free of him. After reading ‘A Doll’s House’ by Hendrik Ibsen. I can conclude that there is both a parallel and a contrast structure in the characters of Mrs. Linde and Nora. A contrasting difference in the characters, are shown not in the characters themselves, but the role that they play in their marriages.
These women have different relationships with their husbands. Torvald and the swimmer john, Nora have a relationship where there is no equality. To Torvald Nora is an object. Hence, she plays the submissive role in summary urn a society where the lady plays the passive role. Her most important obligation is to please Torvald, making her role similar to john cheever summary, a slave.
He too considers himself superior to her. As for Kristine and Krogstad their relationship is much more open to us. It is apparent that if Kristine and Krogstad were to engage in an argument, it is more likely that that they would come to a compromise. A strong sign that Mrs. Linde brings us a better understanding of in cold blood themes Nora is their parallel in characters. Both are willing to sacrifice themselves for values dear to cheever, their lives. This act of themes aiding significant loved ones gives us a better understanding of Nora.
It gives us an image of who the cheever summary character Nora really is. Mrs. Linde shows her loyalty to her family when she did not think that she ‘had the right’ to refuse her husband’s marriage proposal. After taking into consideration her sick mother, her brothers, and Krogstad having money. Red Cross Facts? She married for summary the welfare of her family. Which means that in this society family is blood themes top priority. To the women is this era, loyalty to their loved ones is highly expected. Then, we have Nora, who on the same token saves her husband (Torvald’s) life, which portrays again, the trend of the swimmer john cheever summary women sacrificing for their families. In Cold? They both (Mrs. Linde and Nora) express their feelings of pride and fulfillment in helping their significant others by the swimmer cheever, sacrificing themselves.
Nora’s character is made more obvious to us by Mrs. Linde’s actions. American Red Cross Facts? Not only did Nora open her mouth about saving her husband’s life, but she did it with the utmost pride. Claiming to have raised all the money herself she soaks in her self-importance. In Act 1, Nora seems to the swimmer john cheever, thrive on the pride she gets from borrowing the money. I suppose that she is feeling useful for blood themes a change. It seems also, that Mrs.
Linde comes off as superior to Nora because she feels that Nora has never done hard work in her life. Mrs. Linde is referring to the sacrifice she has made. She makes a remark about Nora still being a child. As if to say that she was inexperienced. She is half-right. At the end of the play Nora agrees that is it ‘true’, She does not know much about the world and that if she is to learn, then she will have to experience that for herself. The Swimmer Cheever? This remark tells us that Nora is capable of choosing herself over her husband. And that she has to be herself before she can be a wife or mom for that matter. Norma Helmer is the best illustration of the illusioned woman who lives in a society where the male oppresses the female and reduces to a mere doll or plaything.
Nora Helmer is that doll living in her fake doll house, which reinforces the fragile idea of a stable family living under a patriarchal and facts, traditional roof. One can argue that Nora Helmer and the other female figures portrayed in the swimmer cheever A Doll’s House are the best models of the Essay The Phoenicians ‘second sex’ or. the ‘other’ that the French revolutionary writer Simone de Beauvoir discussed in her essay, The Second Sex. It seems like Nora has gone through a kind of personal awakening. She’s come to the conclusion that she’s not a fully realized person. She has to the swimmer cheever summary, spend some time figuring out blood themes who she is john cheever summary as an individual or she’ll never be anything more than someone’s doll. This would be impossible under the smothering presence of thick coldblood Torvald. Yet, the doll house is shattered as well as Nora’s illusion. The doll finally recognizes that her role has been nothing but the ‘Other’. The Swimmer Cheever? She is aware that it is she who agreed to the definition of the ‘One’ and in cold, the’ Other’. It’s a moment of profound awakening when Nora realizes that her husband values his reputation and job more than he values his love for her.
Torvalds’s resentment and accusations after knowing about the swimmer summary, what she had done comes as a blessing in disguise. We hear Torvald telling her, ‘For all these years, for eight years now, you’ve been my pride and joy, and now I find you’re a hypocrite and a liar, and worse, worse than that’a criminal! The whole thing is an abyss of ugliness! You ought to be ashamed.’ Simone de Beauvoir says that if the woman seems to be the inessential which never becomes the Essay on Breast Cancer essential, it is the swimmer john cheever summary because she herself fails to bring about the change. But here we tell De Beauvoir that Nora is summary of ode on a grecian willing to bring about the change. The harsh reality smacks her in the face; a wave of disillusionment wakes her up. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to cheever summary, help you.
Each of us is Essay on Breast qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in order to summary, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/english-literature/essay-a-dolls-house-by-henrik-ibsen/ [06-10-17].
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