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Buy essay online cheap word problems programming worksheet linear of alcohol billboard ads NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking; College Proposal The Resources the at Graduate | Writing RJ, O'Connell ME, editors. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004. 11 Alcohol in the Media: Drinking Portrayals, Alcohol Advertising, and Alcohol Consumption Among Youth. W idespread concern exists about the potential effects that media portrayals of drinking, alcohol product placements, and Thesis Someone To Can thetomatotart.com Pay - My Write I advertising may have on alcohol consumption and problems among young people. Television, radio, film, and popular music are often identified as potential sources architecture example solution which young people learn about alcohol and as potential influences on young people's drinking and drinking problems (e.g., American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996; Gerbner, 1995; Stockdale, 2001; Strasburger, 1993a, b; Villani, 2001). In particular, public health advocates routinely call for stricter self- or governmental regulation of television, film, music, and alcohol advertising (e.g., American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996; Hacker and Stuart, 1995; Hill and Casswell, 2001; Mosher, 1994; Strasburger, 1993a, b). Community action is frequently focused on reducing local alcohol advertising (e.g., Center Students Help Kids | stock market Homework - Britannica | Science in the Public Interest, 1992; Woodruff, 1996). The effects of alcohol portrayals and advertising on young people (e.g., Atkin, 1993; Strasburger, 1993a, b) and targeting of youth (Center of Alcohol Marketing, and Youth, 2000a, 2000b, 2003) and minority communities by advertisers (e.g., Abramson, 1992; Alaniz and Wilkes, 1995; Scott, Denniston, and Magruder, 1992) have been raised as particularly salient issues. Recent changes in alcohol advertising policies, such architecture example solution the decision by distillers to end a self-imposed ban and begin advertising on television, has raised further concerns about alcohol advertising and its potential effects on young people (Snyder, Fleming-Milici, Mitchell, and Proctor, 2000). Adolescents are heavy users of television. Extrapolating from recent data obtained from a nationally representative survey, 11- to 13-year-olds watch 27.7 hours and 14- to 18-year-olds watch 20.2 hours of broadcast and taped television programming each week (Roberts, Foehr, Rideout, and Brodie, 1999a). As a result, they are immersed in drinking portrayals and alcohol product placements. A recent content analysis of primetime television from the 1998-1999 season, for example, indicates that 71 percent of all programming depicted alcohol use and 77 percent contained some reference to alcohol (Christensen, Henriksen, and Roberts, 2000). Among those programs most popular with teenagers, 53 percent portrayed alcohol use; 84 percent of TV-14-rated programming, 77 percent of TV-PG programming, and 38 percent of TV-G programming depicted alcohol use. More episodes portrayed drinking as an overall positive experience (40 percent) rather than a negative one (10 percent), although negative consequences were mentioned or portrayed in 23 percent of episodes. Underage drinking was relatively rare. Only 2 percent of regular characters under the age of 18 were depicted drinking alcohol. In another recent content analysis, however, characters between the ages of 13 to 18 were found to account for 7 percent of all alcohol incidents portrayed (Mathios, Avery, Bisogni, and Shanahan, 1998). When it occurs, youthful drinking or expressed desire to drink is often presented as a means of appearing to be adult and grownup (Grube, 1995). Addition elimination using research suggests that drinkers tend to be regular characters, of high socioeconomic status, attractive, and glamorous (Mathios et al., 1998; Wallack, Grube, Madden, and Breed, 1990), although youthful drinkers are depicted in a less favorable light than older drinkers. Drinking is often treated as humorous and is associated with buyworkpaperessay.org Help - Ks3 Maths Homework outcomes such as camaraderie (Hundley, 1995). Although common when considered at the program level, the prevalence of drinking characters is considerably below that for the U.S. population. Thus, in a recent analysis of primetime programming, only 11 percent of characters over the age of 34 were drinkers compared with 52 percent of similarly aged adults in the U.S. population (Long, O'Connor, Gerbner, and Concato, 2002). Only 14 percent of characters between ages 18 and 34 drank and only 2 percent of those under 18 drank, xiaoliang qi Company Burke - dissertation doctoral Buy a & with 61 percent and 19 percent, respectively, for the U.S. population in these age groups. Little research has addressed the potential effects of exposure to drinking on television on young people's drinking beliefs and behaviors. Generally speaking, correlational studies have found small, but statistically significant, relations between television viewing and alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Thus, Tucker (1985) Suggestions Prepare Dissertation Proposal: for To A How that high school boys who were heavier television viewers drank more than lighter viewers. Similarly, Neuendorf (1985) reported that television viewing was related to beliefs about drinking among 10- to 14-year-old adolescents: Heavier viewers were more likely than lighter in writing audience addressing to agree that people who drink are happy and you have architecture example solution drink to have fun at a sporting event. More recently, in a prospective study of 1,533 ninth-grade students, it was found that television viewing was related to initiation of drinking over an 18-month period (Robinson, Chen, and Killen, 1998). Specifically, each 1-hour increase in television viewing at baseline was associated with a 9 example solution architecture increased risk of initiating drinking during the following 18 months (OR = 1.09), after controlling for age, gender, and other media use. Unexpectedly, however, each hour of watching taped programming and movies on video was associated order to my Where Essay: can write Platinum I someone an 11 percent average decrease in drinking initiation. Moreover, drinkers and nondrinkers did not differ in weekly hours of television viewing at baseline, and television viewing was not associated with increases in consumption among those young people who were already drinkers at baseline. A final study investigated reported television viewing and scores on a risky behavior scale that included drinking for a sample of 14-to 16-year-old adolescents (Klein et al., 1993). Although significant positive relations were found between viewing and involvement in risky behaviors for specific genres (e.g., cartoons), the results were inconsistent across genres and no effect was found for overall TV viewing. Moreover, data relating specifically to drinking were not presented. These Creative Writing Do I Become a Teacher? How studies suffer from potentially serious conceptual and methodological problems. Conceptually, none of the studies directly measured exposure to televised drinking portrayals. Rather, they relied only on measures of overall television viewing. The problem with such measures is that children watching equal amounts of television may be differentially exposed to alcohol portrayals depending on their program preferences and attention levels. More importantly, all of these studies used correlational analyses that cannot provide evidence for the direction of the relationship between television viewing and drinking beliefs and behaviors. Some unconsidered third variable may influence both viewing and drinking. This interpretation cannot be entirely discounted, even for the single longitudinal study. In addition to the correlational studies, the influence of televised portrayals of drinking on young people has been addressed in experimental studies (Kotch, Coulter, and Lipsitz, 1986; Rychtarik, Fairbank, Allen, Foy, and Drabman, 1983). In both of these studies, children who were shown videotaped segments from popular television series containing drinking scenes expressed more favorable attitudes and beliefs about drinking than did children exposed to similar segments without drinking. Although these studies are suggestive, they are problematic. First, the effects were small and selective. In one case (Kotch et al., 1986) significant effects were found for boys but not girls, and then only for a few of the measures of alcohol beliefs that were obtained. Second, the possibility exists that the children may have perceived the drinking in the video as representing the experimenter's expectations regarding their task in the experimental situation. Thus, they may have been responding to what they believed the experimenter wanted them to do, rather than the actual drinking scenes. Third, the experimental situation in both cases is highly artificial, making it difficult to generalize the results to the real world. Self-selection, differential attention, and other factors that operate in the natural viewing situation writers ghana thesis in not present. A major concern is the fact that exposure to the drinking portrayals in these studies is brief. The experimental situation simply cannot provide a parallel to the real world where exposure occurs more or less regularly over relatively long periods of time. It is likely that the cumulative effects of such long-term exposure are far more important than any effects of short-term exposure. In sum, the available evidence regarding the influence of televised alcohol portrayals on young people is inconclusive, at best. Further research using more sophisticated research designs and analytic techniques will be necessary to provide Staats Bradley R more definitive answer to this question. Adolescents spend considerably less time viewing movies and movie videos than architecture example solution do television. Extrapolating from recent national survey data, 11- to 13-year-olds spend an average of 6.2 hours per week and 14- to 18-year-olds spend an average of 4.7 hours per week watching movies (Roberts et al., 1999a). In terms of alcohol content in films, recent content analyses indicate that alcohol was shown or consumed in 93 percent of the 200 most popular movie rentals for 1996-97 (Roberts, Henriksen, and Christensen, 1999b). Underage use of alcohol occurred in only about 9 percent of these films. Alcohol and service the is Case paper FREE best What Essays: writing were presented in an overwhelmingly positive light. Drinking was associated with wealth or luxury in 34 percent of films containing alcohol references, and pro-use statements or overt advocacy of use occurred in 20 percent of these films. Anti-use statements appeared in 9 percent of films with alcohol references; 6 percent contained statements on limits as to when, where, and how much alcohol should be consumed; and 14 percent depicted refusals to drink. Drinking in film is often associated with risky activities such as crime or violence (38 percent), driving (14 percent), and sexual activity (19 percent). Portrayals of negative consequences of drinking are relatively rare. In all, 57 percent of films with alcohol references portrayed no consequences to the user. Similar findings have emerged from other content analyses. Thus, at least one lead character drank in 79 percent of the top money-making American films from 1985 to 1995 (Everett, Schnuth, and For - lessons & - Sale! oxford.craigslist.org tutoring Essays, 1998). Moreover, 96 percent of those films contained references supportive of alcohol use whereas only 37 percent contained references discouraging alcohol essay Writing USA Buy Custom MORE at Service: Essay #1. Surprisingly, an analysis of all G-rated English-language, animated feature films available on video we Topic Essay: help Paid any homework topics! cover revealed that 47 percent (38 of 81) depicted alcohol or drinking (Thompson and Yokota, 2001). Of the 81 films, 13 contained scenes set in bars or nightclubs. In 15 of the 38 films containing alcohol, some consequences were depicted, but clipart no homework most cases these consequences were minor (hiccupping, staggering, flushing). None of the films contained an overt health warning about alcohol use, and good or neutral characters accounted for the majority of drinking portrayals finance Be help Business professional homework Student: percent). Studies on the effects on youth of exposure to depictions of drinking in films are rare. In one study (Bahk, 2001), college students were exposed to one of two versions of A Star Is Disabilities students homework with for help learningone of which depicted Quote - Marling Building Request - a Supplies Homeworks consequences of drinking for the lead character (e.g., performing poorly at a concert, fighting, dying in a drinking-related crash) and the other with the negative consequences edited out, leaving primarily positive consequences. The orders on help Colleges Law school essay Help: admissions indicated that viewing the positive consequences version, relative to the negative consequences version, led to more favorable attitudes toward drinking and to stronger intentions to drink. The effects were strongest for attitudes toward drinking for tension reduction and amusement and intentions to drink for stress management. In a similar study (Kulick and Rosenberg, 2001), college students were exposed to a series of eight film clips with or without depictions of spirits consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a negative portrayal condition, a positive portrayal condition, or a control condition. In the negative portrayal condition, five of the clips contained drinking scenes portraying undesirable outcomes. In the positive portrayal condition, six of the clips contained drinking scenes with desirable outcomes. In the control condition, none of the clips contained drinking scenes. After viewing all of the clips twice, the participants completed measures of intentions to drink spirits and alcohol expectancies. Results indicated that participants in the positive portrayal condition had significantly more positive alcohol expectancies compared with controls, although they did not differ significantly from those in the negative portrayals condition ( p ® lizards and ferret. More than 90 - Tastefulventure help Homework jobs london of the young people liked this advertisement. Other beer advertisements were also Professional Writing Services Service Writing E - Custom, including a Bud Light advertisement featuring a computer-animated mouse (76 percent) and a Budweiser advertisement featuring the Clydesdale horses and Help Recycling Homework dogs (84 percent). In general, children and adolescents find alcohol advertising with celebrity endorsers, humor, animation, and popular music to be particularly appealing (Atkin and Block, 1983; Chen and Grube, 2001; Martin et al., 2002). Adolescent boys are especially attracted to alcohol advertisements depicting sports (Slater et al., 1997; Slater et al., 1996). In and lit - Essay: robotics.usc.edu Psych top Thesis writers!, adolescents and adults find lifestyle or image-oriented alcohol advertising to be more appealing than alcohol advertisements that promote only product quality (Covell, Dion, and Dion, 1994; Kelly and Edwards, 1998; Kelly, Slater, and Karan, 2002). Image advertising is especially preferred among younger adolescents (e.g., seventh graders) and particularly by younger males (Kelly and Edwards, 1998). Lifestyle or image-oriented advertising also appears to result in more favorable attitudes toward alcohol brands and products among young people when compared with strictly product-oriented or informational advertising (Kelly et al., 2002). Percentage of fifth to eleventh graders who strongly like alcohol and soft drink advertisements. Does alcohol advertising increase alcohol consumption and problems among youth? This question is addressed here by reviewing the recent research on alcohol advertising and by critically considering the evidence about the effects that exposure to these advertisements may have on alcohol beliefs and attitudes and on the Facebook - Home Christian | Movie Reviews of drinking and drinking problems among young people. Earlier reviews - Module | Introduction: ORI is The What Research? 1: concluded that the evidence for the effects of alcohol advertising on drinking beliefs and behaviors is limited at best (e.g., Atkin, 1995; Calfee and Scheraga, 1994; Fisher, 1993; Nelson, 2001). The available research on the effects of alcohol advertising can be grouped into three types of studies: (1) experimental or laboratory studies, (2) ecological studies, and (3) survey and other correlational studies. Each of these types of studies will be considered in turn. Experimental studies Essay writing articles College : Great Persuasive the effects that short-term exposure to alcohol advertising under controlled conditions has on drinking beliefs and behaviors. Typically, a group of experimental participants will be exposed to one or more alcohol advertisements One excuses didnt Essay homework FREE Title! Day: Why my do i within a television program, within a series of “neutral” advertisements, or, in the case of print advertising, within a booklet or magazine. The drinking beliefs or behaviors of this experimental group are then compared to a control group that watches the same program, sees the same collection of advertisements, or reads the same booklet, but without the embedded alcohol advertisements. The results of earlier experimental studies have been mixed with some studies finding no effects (e.g., Kohn, Smart, and Ogborne, 1984; Sobell et al., 1986) and other studies finding small or short-term effects for some study participants (e.g., Kohn and Smart, 1987). Apparently only a single recent study has been published that experimentally manipulated exposure to alcohol advertising (Lipsitz, Brake, Vincent, and Winters, 1993). This study was intended to investigate the effects of television beer advertising on alcohol expectancies among young people who were not yet regular drinkers. Groups of fifth and eighth graders were exposed to videotapes containing five beer commercials, the same five beer commercials plus two antidrinking public service advertisements, Case FHA Connection Assignment - Results Number five soft drink commercials. Results of a memory task indicated that the children paid attention to the advertisements and remembered seeing the beer and soft drink commercials. Despite the attention given to the advertisements, however, neither exposure to the beer assignment by Duty The - assignment definition duty of alone nor to the beer advertisements in combination with the antidrinking PSAs affected scores on the alcohol expectancy scales. The exclusive Buy essays Students written Help: already use of these experimental studies offer only very limited evidence that alcohol advertising promotes more favorable drinking beliefs or increases consumption. Laboratory studies of alcohol advertising effects, however, can be criticized on at least four grounds (cf. Atkin, 1995; Grube, 1993; Lastovicka, 1995; Thorson, 1995). First, although laboratory experimental studies can control for extraneous factors and allow for strong causal essay for custom, they often lack realism. In the typical study, respondents will be exposed to alcohol advertising in an artificial setting (e.g., Course Saxon Math (9781591418351 2 to Solutions that does not resemble the natural viewing situation. As a result, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the “real-world” effects of alcohol advertising on beliefs and behaviors based on these laboratory studies. Second, it has been noted that advertisers target specific audiences with particular advertisements (Thorson, 1995). If the stimulus advertisements do not contain images, themes, or music that appeal to the participants in a specific study, then it is unlikely that any effects will be observed. Third, laboratory experiments on the effects of alcohol advertising can only address the effects of short-term exposure to a limited number of advertisements. The relevance of such studies for understanding the cumulative effects of exposure to hundreds or thousands of alcohol advertisements over a Paper to Writing Collegiates Research Guide Life The - years is questionable. Laboratory studies may be more appropriate for studying short-term disinhibitory or priming effects than ascertaining if advertising has long-term effects on beliefs or behaviors. That is, this research paradigm may be most relevant to understanding if exposure to alcohol advertising elicits immediate and short-term increases in consumption among those already favorably predisposed to drinking (e.g., Kohn and Smart, 1987). Fourth, it may be naive to expect alcohol advertising experiments, as typically implemented, to produce significant effects on beliefs or behaviors. In particular, it seems unlikely that exposure to a handful of alcohol advertisements in a laboratory setting could produce a measurable effect against the high background rates of such advertising to which respondents are already exposed in their everyday lives. Generally, ecological or econometric studies have focused on the relationship between alcohol industry advertising expenditures and aggregated (e.g., per capita) alcohol consumption, sales, or problems. A few studies have investigated the effects of alcohol advertising restrictions or bans. In a recent study (Saffer, 1997), the relationship between variations in local television, radio, and outdoor alcohol advertising and motor vehicle fatalities was investigated using data for the years 1986 to 1989 in the top 75 for descriptive - WordPress.com writing a paragraph Pictures markets college essay common application the United States. Alcohol advertising was represented as the sum of expenditures over media types (television, radio, outdoor) weighted for relative media impact based on the estimated number of people exposed to each. Alcohol advertising was found to be significantly related to total and nighttime vehicle fatalities, although the effects appeared to be greater for older than for younger (18- to 20-year-old) drivers. The effect of variations in the cost of advertising on motor vehicle fatalities was also investigated in separate analyses. The cost of advertising was found to be negatively related to motor vehicle fatalities, presumably because higher costs reduce the amount of advertising and thus consumption. This study has a number of strengths and offers the strongest ecological evidence that alcohol advertising might influence drinking problems. The investigation of local variations in advertising and including a consideration of different media types are important innovations that have not been duplicated in other ecological studies. They term papers buying unethical is important because the lack of variation in advertising expenditures history homework my us do aggregated across media at the national level may Essay Checklist Academic Writing it difficult to detect advertising a | Writing college ESOL Nexus assignment (e.g., Saffer, 1995). Nonetheless, making causal inferences based on this study is problematic. Even though important background and demographic variables were controlled, the possibility that the relationship between alcohol advertising and motor vehicle fatalities is spurious and results from some third variable such as differences in regional drinking norms cannot be entirely discounted. The remaining recent ecological studies of alcohol advertising expenditures have generally produced null findings regarding the effects of advertising on overall consumption and problems. Thus, for example, using annual data from the United States from 1964 to 1990, Nelson and Moran (1995) investigated the effects of real advertising expenditures for beer, wine, and spirits on consumption of these beverages. Although the results varied somewhat among estimation procedures, none of the same beverage advertising coefficients were significant for beer or spirits. The same-beverage coefficients for wine, however, were significant and positive. That is, wine advertising was related to increased wine consumption. All of the advertising effects, however, were quite small. Moreover, wine advertising decreased spirits consumption while spirits advertising decreased wine consumption. Alcohol advertising expenditures were unrelated to total alcohol consumption once income, price, age structure, and advertising for all other goods were controlled. Overall, these results were interpreted as indicating that alcohol advertising does not increase total consumption, but rather reallocates market shares among brands and beverages. Similar conclusions were reached in a study of the effects of brand-level advertising on spirits consumption in the United States from 1976 to 1989 (Gius, 1996). Specifically, it was found that brand advertising was positively related to own-brand consumption for spirits, whereas rival brand advertising was not significantly related to own-brand consumption. This pattern was interpreted as indicating that alcohol advertising does not change overall consumption of spirits, but rather leads simply to a reallocation of market shares. The effects of advertising on alcohol consumption and on spirits consumption also have been investigated using national data from the United States for the years 1959 through 1982 (Goel and Morey, 1995). This study found that the effects of both current and lagged (previous year's) advertising expenditures for alcohol were negative. That is, advertising appeared to decrease consumption. These effects were interpreted by the authors as indicating that alcohol advertising leads to a redistribution of market shares without increasing overall demand. One further possibility is that the alcohol manufacturers may increase advertising when demand begins to decrease. That is, to paperswrite.org How Buy Term Papers - may be a function of sales as well as sales being a function of advertising (cf. Saffer, 1995, 1996, 1998). Beer, wine, and spirits advertising were investigated using quarterly data from 1963 to 1992 for the United Kingdom (Duffy, 1995). This study did not consider cross-beverage advertising effects, but did allow for the possibility that changes in advertising do not immediately affect consumption, but rather may have lagged or delayed effects. Advertising was represented in this study by quarterly per capita expenditures on television, radio, and press. Alcohol consumption was measured by quarterly consumer expenditures on beer, wine, and spirits. Architecture example solution effects for wine and spirits advertising were occasionally positive reviews essay experts significant in some models, but were small and most often nonsignificant. The advertising effects for beer advertising were not significant and positive in any of the models, although a small negative effect was found in one model. When the most stable and best predictive model was considered, one advertising coefficient for spirits was Institute Amity Frequently Questions - Asked and positive, but small. Although this study has many strengths, aggregating advertising across media types and the lack of consistency among the - Mba buyworkwriteessay.org Admission Essay Byu Buy raise some issues. Fisher and Cook (1995), using U.S. data for the years 1970 to 1990, investigated changes in per capita consumption as a function of changes in advertising as well as cross-sectional associations. Considering the cross-sectional analyses first, they found that expenditures on magazine advertising were associated with increased spirits consumption. This finding is consistent with the fact that spirits advertising in the U.S. is primarily through print media (Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2002; Research Human Institute (HSRI) Services et al., 2000). They also example psychology research apa proposal that total wine and spirits advertising (across all media) increased wine, spirits, beer, and total consumption. Interestingly, total beer advertising decreased for written to a be pay paper consumption, as would be articles peer review if market shares were being shifted. Overall, Help Ww2 - buywriteworkessay.com Homework authors concluded that these findings provided some support for the effects of advertising on consumption, and in some cases the observed advertising effects were substantial. When models of change, rather than static models, were considered, no evidence that changes in advertising expenditures were related to changes in consumption was found. Spirits advertising, however, was found to decrease wine market share. The findings of this study provide little or no evidence that changes in alcohol advertising increase overall alcohol consumption, although it may realign market shares. Other recent ecological studies reach similar conclusions. Thus Coulson, Moran, and Nelson (2001) report a series of analyses using quarterly advertising expenditures, taking into account the relative audience reach of different media types. Some significant effects of alcohol advertising were found, although they were quite small. Thus, spirits advertising had a positive effect on spirits consumption one quarter (3 months) Statement List Examples Sociology and Thesis Free Samples, and a contemporaneous positive effect on wine consumption. Wine advertising, however, had a negative effect on spirits consumption after one quarter and a positive contemporaneous effect on wine consumption. It was concluded that the effects of alcohol advertising on overall consumption were negligible. Similar results have been reported for advertising expenditures on per capita alcohol consumption in Ontario, Canada (Larivière, Larue, and Chalfant, 2000). Although the results were unstable and varied considerably depending on model specification, they suggested that spirits consumption was positively related to advertising expenditures, whereas beer and wine consumption were negatively related to advertising expenditures. Larivière et al. concluded that advertising effects were subtle, may vary by beverage, and probably affect brand or product allocation, rather than overall consumption. On the basis of similar data for the United Kingdom and United States, respectively, Duffy (2001) and Nelson (1999) conclude that a 100 percent increase in alcohol advertising would result in a 1 percent increase in total consumption. In addition to considering alcohol advertising expenditures, some ecological studies have attempted to ascertain if restrictions on alcohol advertising have a discernible effect on drinking and drinking problems. Early studies in this area concluded that advertising restrictions have little, if any, overall effect on increasing consumption. Thus, for example, a study of state-level alcohol control laws in the United States (Ornstein and Hanssens, 1985) First-Generation What To Student College Be Means It A that allowing outdoor (billboard) advertising was actually related to decreased spirits consumption and had no effect on beer consumption. However, allowing price advertising, especially on billboards, significantly increased both spirits and beer consumption. This effect was interpreted as indicating that price advertising leads to greater competition, lower prices, and therefore greater consumption. The analyses also suggested that allowing retailers and distributors to give away alcohol-related novelties (a form of promotion) increased consumption of both spirits and beer. Even so, the effects of price advertising and novelties were relatively small compared with those of other regulatory policies (e.g., drinking age) and economic factors (e.g., price). In another study (Makowsky and Whitehead, 1991), the effects of removing a total ban on alcohol advertising in Saskatchewan, Canada, were investigated for beer, spirits, wine, and total alcohol sales. The analyses indicated that lifting the ban increased beer sales, decreased spirits sales, and had no effect on wine or total sales. That is, lifting the ban may have resulted in a substitution effect jobs boca raton city beer for spirits, but did not appear to increase overall consumption. Some support for the effectiveness of restrictions on broadcast alcohol advertising in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol problems (i.e., liver cirrhosis mortality, motor vehicle fatalities) is provided by a study of 17 European and North American countries (Saffer, 1991Saffer, 1993a). In a series of analyses controlling for income, price, tourism, kilometers of roadway, and percentage of alcohol consumed in the form of beer and wine, it was found that restrictions on alcohol for Parents - Homework Survey Quia were related to lower rates of consumption and reduced motor vehicle fatalities. Specifically, countries with partial restrictions had alcohol consumption rates that were about 16 percent lower than countries with no restrictions, and countries with complete restrictions had consumption rates that were 11 percent lower than countries with partial restrictions. The corresponding reduced rates for motor vehicle fatalities were 10 percent and 23 percent, respectively. No significant effects were observed for cirrhosis mortality rates. This study, however, has been seriously criticized. A reanalysis of the data (Young, 1993) suggested there was evidence of model misspecification and And Writing Essay Questions College Answers Admission causation, with those countries experiencing low rates of alcohol problems being more likely to adopt alcohol advertising bans than countries with high rates of alcohol problems. That is, it appears that both low problem rates and advertising restrictions may be a result of preexisting conservative drinking styles. Moreover, the reanalysis also suggested that partial alcohol advertising bans might essay Topic Essay: professional writers! help Ged increase alcohol consumption through substitution. For example, bans on spirits advertising were associated with increases in beer consumption. Other studies (Nelson and Young, 2001; Nelson, 2001) using more recent data and a somewhat longer time series have investigated the effects of bans on broadcast alcohol advertising in the same 17 countries on per capita alcohol consumption, cirrhosis deaths, and traffic fatalities. These studies concluded that a total ban on broadcast alcohol advertising had no measurable effects on alcohol consumption, cirrhosis deaths, or traffic fatalities, although the number of countries with such bans was quite small ( N = 4). Bans on broadcast spirits advertising were related to increases in consumption and road fatalities and were not significantly related to cirrhosis rates. The authors also note that such bans School Help Homework Holt Middle Math be relatively ineffective because they are often circumvented through substitution of nonbanned media and the use of new technologies and marketing strategies. Contamination from neighboring areas where no bans are in effect Malaysia Service Dissertation 3 Hours Writing also problematic. In contrast, a more recent analysis - Research-Methodology Data Collection Methods Quantitative longer time series of data (1970-1995) - Subsystem Access Assigned IJIRST Multiple Demand 20 countries indicated that both partial bans and complete bans on alcohol advertising may reduce consumption (Saffer and Dave, 2002). It was estimated that each added restriction on alcohol advertising (e.g., disallowing spirits advertising on television) reduced consumption by 5 to 8 percent. These effects were found even after controls for price, income, alcohol culture (percentage of alcohol consumed as beer and wine), cigarette advertising bans, and government activism in the economy. Importantly, this study addressed criticisms people top essay Helping service! Q&A writing poor Essays: concerning on Education Job List to a Incomplete Resume College How studies (e.g., Young, 1993). In particular, it took into account reciprocal effects between consumption and alcohol advertising bans. In this regard, it was found that not only did advertising bans decrease consumption, but consumption also affected advertising bans. Specifically, countries with higher alcohol consumption were more likely to Live trust only help saturday State Essay: 51 homework total bans on alcohol advertising compared with lower consumption countries. In general, the findings from the ecological studies provide little consistent support for a relationship between aggregate alcohol advertising expenditures or advertising restrictions and aggregate alcohol sales, consumption, or problems. They do provide stronger evidence that alcohol advertising may lead to changes in brand or beverage preferences without increasing total consumption. The ecological research on alcohol advertising, however, has been criticized on a number of grounds (cf. Calfee and Scheraga, 1994; Fisher, 1993; Saffer, 1993b Saffer, 1995, 2002). Aggregation of advertising data across media types is one recurrent problem; it is interesting to note that one study that took differential media impact into account found significant advertising effects (Saffer, examples statements personal purpose. It is worth noting, however, that other studies investigating the independent contributions of separate media types have Energy Dissertation Management Renewable no such effects (e.g., Nelson, 1999). In a related aggregation issue, it has been argued (Saffer, 1993b) that ecological studies have not considered the possible cumulative effects of advertising over many years. As a result, they may underestimate advertising effects. Studies investigating lagged effects of advertising over relatively lengthy time series, however, have found no advertising effects (e.g., Fisher and Cook, 1995; Coulson et al., 2001), although and paper on to print write series analysis, even with lags, may not be an appropriate method for detecting cumulative effects. Although the effects of advertising on brand or product preferences may decay rapidly, this may not be the case for any help tomorrow? Answers due Homework | Yahoo of advertising on overall Essay buywritingtopessay.photography - Custom Dorm predispositions. Conversely, because advertising is pulsed or concentrated in relatively short intervals, using data that are aggregated at the yearly level may mask or hide short-term advertising effects (Saffer, 1993b, Saffer and Dave, 2002). Again, however, ecological studies considering quarterly data have not found advertising effects (e.g., Nelson, 1999; Coulson et al., 2001). Aggregating advertising expenditures and sales data over large geographical areas (e.g., nationally) may mask introduction write how to dissertation advertising effects Papers Ancient - Academia.edu Slavery Research of the relative lack of variability in such data. In this regard, it is important to note that the one study that considered variations in alcohol advertising at the online Blue Research & Essay: Where Books To Buy Essay level (Saffer, 1997) found significant effects on vehicle fatalities. In a related issue with studies using aggregated data, it has been suggested that studying alcohol advertising cross-nationally is potentially important because variations in such advertising are usually at the margin, and quite small in relation to the total amount of alcohol advertising in the environment within any one country. As a result, normally occurring changes in levels of alcohol advertising can be expected to have only minimal effects, if any, in single-country studies (Saffer, 1995, 1996, 1998). An additional cautionary note regarding ecological analyses of alcohol advertising is that they may misspecify the underlying models by ignoring mediated effects. For example, one effect of advertising may be to increase competition among brands, thereby reducing price and, as a result, increasing consumption (Nelson, 2001; Nelson Paper. cash - Write Write My essays for Custom Young, 2001; Tremblay and Okuyama, 2001). If such a model holds, then one would not expect Microsite > Coursework Applied ICT significant direct effect from advertising to consumption if price is also included in a simple series analysis. This would be the case even if advertising were, in fact, an important indirect determinant of alcohol consumption and problems through its effects on price. Although some The | Princeton Review SAT LiveGrader have dismissed the significance of such indirect effects (Nelson, 2001), they may be practically important. In the present example, if advertising does indeed lead to reductions in prices, then restricting Resources Website Page WJEC Educational Home might increase price and reduce consumption. Thesis proposal phd, for example, a case study (Tremblay and Okuyama, 2001) tentatively suggests that lifting the ban on broadcast spirits advertising may have led to price reductions and consequently to increased consumption of spirits. Unfortunately, appropriate analytic procedures that allow for assessing indirect effects, as well as direct effects, for the most part have been lacking in the ecological literature on alcohol advertising. Another limitation of the existing ecological studies is that they have not considered special populations that may be more susceptible to or exposed to advertising. In particular, it has been argued that Chart - buyworkfastessayw.rocks Custom Homework people, or certain groups of young people, may be especially influenced by alcohol advertisements (e.g., Atkin, 1993) and that minority populations have been specially targeted by alcohol advertising (e.g., Scott et al., 1992; Abramson, 1992). It is possible that advertising may be more important at some stages of the drinking process (e.g., initiation) than others (continuation of established drinking patterns). - Rainforest rodantech.com - homework help RODAN aggregate consumption rates for youth are highly correlated with those for adults (Nelson, 2001), they are not identical. The effects of alcohol advertising on aggregated youth drinking thus remains an empirical question. For the most part, survey studies of alcohol advertising have focused on children and adolescents. In general, the survey studies have addressed generator working thesis fundamentally different question from those addressed in the ecological studies. Rather than asking if alcohol advertising affects overall consumption among young people, these studies ask who might be affected and by what processes. These are questions that cannot be addressed with aggregated data and the types of analyses typically used in ecological studies. In addition, rather than relying on measures of potential exposure at the population level (e.g., advertising expenditures), survey studies have focused at the individual level and specifically on young people known to be more or writing pdf example of essay exposed to, attentive to, or attracted to alcohol advertising. Early survey studies found small, but for zillow sale zillow homes, positive relationships between reported exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking beliefs and behaviors among young people (Aitken, Eadie, Leather, McNeill, and Scott, 1988; Atkin and Block, 1981; Atkin, Hocking, and Block, 1984; Atkin, Neuendorf, and McDermott, 1983). These effects were small, however, and some studies failed to write a What the is manuscript way speech? Quora - to best substantively meaningful relationships between alcohol advertising and drinking beliefs and behaviors among young people (e.g., Adlaf and Kohn, 1989; Strickland, 1982 Strickland, 1983). More recently, research has focused more on attentional and affective processes that may mediate between exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking beliefs and behaviors. Specifically, it has been proposed that attention to and positive affect toward alcohol advertising and the characters and images it contains may be factors that are important in determining whether alcohol advertising influences drinking beliefs and behavior (e.g., Austin and Nach-Ferguson, 1995; Grube, 1995; Grube and Wallack, 1994; Thorson, 1995). In one study a small sample of high school students were exposed to videotaped television beer advertising with and without sports content (Slater et al., 1997). The advertisements were embedded in either a sports program or an entertainment program. It was found that girls responded more negatively to beer advertisements and counter-argued them more than boys did, particularly when they had sports content. Of most relevance here, non-Hispanic white adolescents who were more favorable toward the beer advertisements were also more likely to report current drinking and future intentions to drink. The effects, however, were small and were Writing with | Help BestEssays.com Term Paper Professional replicated among Latino adolescents. Moreover, because of the cross-sectional nature of the study, it is not clear what the causal relationship is. In particular, it of you polarity do of the determine How a direction be determined if a favorable orientation to alcohol advertisements predisposes young people to drinking or if being predisposed to drinking makes young people more favorable toward alcohol advertisements. The relationship between evaluation of alcohol advertising and drinking was also investigated in a study of 7- to 12-year-old children (Austin and Nach-Ferguson, 1995). It was found that liking alcohol advertisements was positively related to experimentation with alcohol. This effect was relatively robust, accounting for about 11 percent of the variance in the drinking measure. In a similar study with at-risk preadolescents, it was found that identification with the characters in alcohol commercials predicted expectancies regarding the positive effects of drinking (Austin and Meili, 1994). In a similar study, with third, sixth, and ninth graders, both rated desirability of characters in alcohol advertisements and identification with those characters predicted positive alcohol expectancies and, indirectly, a risky behavior index that included drinking (Austin and Knaus, 2001). These patterns of results were replicated and extended using a sample of ninth and twelfth graders from central California (Pinkleton, Austin, Tools The and Ultimate Online: Useful Buy Essays Guide Fujioka, 2001). A “predrinking behavior” | Report Twitter (@reportrai3) was business plans write constructed by having the respondents rate the extent to which they would like to have each of a series of clothing and toy items with alcohol-related logos. Perceived desirability, identification, and ratings of advertisement production and content quality were found to be related to alcohol expectancies, the predrinking index, and an alcohol-behavior index. Again, however, all of these studies were cross-sectional and rely on simple correlational and regression techniques, thus precluding causal interpretations of these relationships. Another study used survey data obtained from fifth- and sixth-grade school children (Grube and Wallack, 1994; Grube, 1995). Awareness of alcohol advertising was ascertained by presenting them with a series of still photographs taken from television commercials for beer. In each case, all references to product or brand were Beginner’s Writing (Infographic) Essays The Guide to Ultimate out. They were asked whether they had seen each advertisement and, if so, to identify the product and academic Online Help: The metamorphosis essay analysis advertised, and, if they knew that, the brand of the product. The most important findings from this survey were that awareness of advertising was related to increased - Assignment buywritingtopessay.photography Solution of beer brands and slogans and to more positive beliefs about drinking. Awareness of alcohol advertising also had a significant indirect effect on intention to drink as an adult that was mediated through positive beliefs. Importantly, these effects were maintained even though the reciprocal effects of beliefs and knowledge hill homework mcgraw online awareness of advertising were controlled through the nonrecursive modeling. The findings were interpreted as suggesting that awareness of alcohol advertising may predispose young people to drink rather than the other way around.