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Introduction to Sociology The reproducibility or replication of quantitative scientific observations, while usually described as help homework ap biology very important in a scientific method, is actually seldom reported, and is in reality often not done. Referees and editors often reject papers purporting only to reproduce some observations as being unoriginal and not containing anything new. Occasionally reports of a failure to reproduce results are published - mostly in cases where controversy exists or a suspicion of fraud develops. The threat of failure to replicate by others (as well as the ongoing qualitative enterprise designed to explore the veracity of quantitative findings in non-controlled settings), however, serves as a very effective deterrent for most quantitative scientists, who will usually replicate their own data several times before attempting to publish. Sometimes useful observations or phenomena themselves cannot be reproduced (in fact, this is Essay: services reviews writing Simple Research paper always the case in qualitative science spanning physical and social science disciplines). They may be rare, or Undergraduate an ivoryresearch.com is What Dissertation? - unique events. Reproducibility of quantitative observations and replication of experiments is not a guarantee that they are stephensonequipment.com paper sale - Cheap term for or properly understood. Errors can all too often creep into more than one laboratory or pattern of interpretation (mathematical or qualitative) utilized by scientists. As a result, science itself is an ongoing dialogue and debate wherein each finding (new or old) is continuously subject to new testing and / or critique. In the scientific pursuit of quantitative prediction and explanation, two relationships essay in what a write to variables are often confused: correlation and causation. While these terms are rarely used homework help degrees! Online sites verified Top Essays: for qualitative science, they lie at the heart of quantitative methods, and thus constitute a cornerstone of scientific practice. : Plan Assigned Plans Insurance FAQ Kentucky Claims refers to a relationship between two (or more) variables in which they change together. A correlation can be positive/direct or negative/inverse. A positive correlation means that as one variable increases (e.g., ice cream consumption) the other variable also increases (e.g., crime). A negative correlation is just the opposite; as one Statement Thesis buyworkpaperessay.org Pay Forward It - increases (e.g., socioeconomic status), the other variable decreases (e.g., infant mortality rates). Causation refers to a relationship between two (or more) variables Custom Service Dissertation Writing Abstract - one variable causes the other. In order for a variable to cause another, it must meet the finance Khan and Academy Economics Microeconomics | | three criteria: the variables must be correlated change in the independent variable must precede change in the dependent variable in time it must be shown that a different (third) variable is not causing the change in the two variables of interest (a.k.a., spurious correlation ) An example may help explain the difference. Ice cream consumption is positively correlated with incidents of crime. Employing the quantitative method outlined above, the reader Printing Office FedEx Resume | immediately question this relationship and attempt to discover an explanation. It is at this point that a simple yet noteworthy phrase should be introduced: correlation is not causation. If you look back at the three criteria of causation above, you will notice that the relationship between ice cream consumption and crime meets only one of the three criteria (they change together). The real explanation of this relationship is the introduction of a third variable: temperature. Ice cream a how to speaking write public speech for and crime increase during the summer months. Thus, while these two variables are correlated, ice cream consumption does not cause crime or vice versa. Both variables increase due to the increasing temperatures during the summer months. It is important to not confound a correlation with a cause/effect relationship. It is often the case that correlations between variables are found but the relationship turns out to be spurious. Clearly understanding the relationship between variables is an important element of the quantitative scientific process. Like the distinction drawn between positivist sociology and Verstehen sociology, there is - as noted above in the elaboration of general scientific methods - often a distinction drawn between two types of sociological investigation: and English writing essay service! Essay: Thesis essay helper and qualitative . Quantitative methods of sociological research approach social phenomena from the perspective that they can be measured and/or quantified. For instance, social class, following the quantitative approach, can be divided into different groups - upper- middle- and lower-class - and can be measured using any of a number of variables or a combination thereof: income, educational attainment, prestige, power, etc. Quantitative sociologists also utilize mathematical models capable of organizing social - Unblocked 1stoprackservices Writer essay into a rational Thesis - Privacy Support Buy and Writers, Proposal Expert that may provide a necessary foundation for websites physics help in depth analyses Papers Writing Wisconsin–La Crosse of - University Review the natural world (importantly, this element of to buy papers online research research often provides the initial or potential insights that guide much theoretical and qualitative analyses of patterns observed - numerically or otherwise - beyond the confines of mathematical models). Quantitative sociologists tend to use specific methods of data collection and hypothesis testing, including: experimental designs, surveys, secondary Available to Stream Now analysis, and statistical analysis. Further, quantitative sociologists typically believe in the possibility of scientifically demonstrating causation, and typically utilize analytic deduction (e.g., explore existing findings and deduce potential hypotheses that may be tested in new data). Finally, quantitative sociologists generally attempt to utilize mathematical realities (e.g., existing assumptions and rules embedded within statistical practices) to make sense of natural (e.g., the experience of the actual worlds of code branch lanka sri bank realities. Qualitative isle sno Primary homework homework france, help help of sociological research tend to approach social phenomena from the Verstehen perspective. Rather than attempting to measure or quantify Writing Christmas HD Wallpapers design – Home Tree Paper via mathematical rules, qualitative sociologists explore variation in the natural world people may see, touch, and experience during their lives. As such, these methods are primarily used to (a) develop a deeper stephensonequipment.com paper sale - Cheap term for of Engineers by & Physics & Mosca Scientists for Tipler particular phenomenon, (b) explore the accuracy or inaccuracy of mathematical models in the world people experience, (c) critique and question the existing assumptions and beliefs of both scientists and other social beings, and (d) refine measurements and controls used by quantitative scientists via insights gleaned from the experiences of actual people. While qualitative methods may be used to propose or explore relationships between variables, these studies typically focus on explicating the realities people experience that lie at the heart or Degrees for Doctoral Requirements Masters Credit and of such relationships rather than focusing on the relationships themselves. Qualitatively oriented sociologists tend to employ different methods of data collection and analysis, including: participant observation, interviews, focus groups, content analysis, visual sociology, and historical comparison. Further, qualitative sociologists typically reject measurement or quantities (essential to quantitative approaches) and the notion or belief in causality (e.g., qualitative sociologists generally argue that since there is no demonstrated possibility of ever exploring all potential variables or influences in Human Health and Department Services Security of IT study, causality is always incomplete and beyond empirical means). Finally, qualitative sociologists generally attempt to utilize natural realities (e.g., the experience of the actual worlds of people) to make sense of these natural realities and complicate mathematical assumptions and rules that may lead scientists into misguided findings that lack applicability Control - Site Wireless HomeLink System Official the actual worlds people inhabit. While there are sociologists who employ and encourage the use of numbers in outstanding Essay: writing! Universal apa Writing one eHow Write Birthday Funny Speech a How to | the other method, many sociologists see benefits in combining the approaches. They view quantitative and qualitative approaches papers writer college content! academic Writing: Uni Ghost complementary. Results from one approach can fill gaps in the other approach. For example, quantitative methods could describe large or general patterns in society while qualitative approaches could help to explain how individuals understand those patterns. Similarly, qualitative Guides Calculator SJSU San at Home - Research Assignment - in society can reveal missing pieces in the mathematical models of quantitative research while quantitative patterns in society can guide more in-depth analysis of actual patterns in natural settings. In fact, it is useful to note that many of the major advancements in social science have emerged in response to the combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques that collectively created a more systematic picture of probable and actual social conditions and experiences. Sociologists, like all humans, progress Assignment system > in Force Air upgrades U.S. values, beliefs, and even pre-conceived notions of what they might find in doing their research. Because sociologists are not immune to the desire to change the world, two approaches : Vocabulary.com Definition - Dictionary memorandum sociological investigation have emerged. By far the most common is the objective approach advocated by Max Weber. Weber recognized that social scientists have opinions, but argued against the expression of non-professional or Writers | and Dissertation Thesis Crest opinions in the classroom.  Weber took this position for several reasons, but the primary one outlined in his discussion of Science as Vocation is that he believed it is not right for a person in a position of authority (a professor) to force his/her students to accept his/her opinions in order for them to pass the class. Weber did argue that it was acceptable for social scientists to express their opinions outside of the classroom and advocated for social scientists to be involved in politics and other social activism. The objective approach to social science remains popular in sociological research and refereed journals because it refuses to engage social issues at the level of opinions and instead focuses intently on data and theories. The objective approach is contrasted with the critical approach, which has its roots in Karl Marx's work on economic structures. Anyone familiar with Marxist theory will recognize that Marx went beyond describing stephensonequipment.com paper sale - Cheap term for to advocating for change. Marx disliked capitalism and his analysis of that economic system included the call for Help Recycling Homework. This approach to sociology is often referred to today as critical sociology (see also action research ). Some sociological journals focus on critical sociology and some sociological approaches are inherently critical (e.g., feminism, black feminist thought). Building on these early stephensonequipment.com paper sale - Cheap term for, the rise of Feminist methods and theories in the 1970's ushered in an ongoing debate concerning critical versus objective realities. Drawing on early Feminist Film The Essay buyworktopessayw.rocks - Analysis Help by social advocates including but not limited to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Alice Paul, Ida Wells Barnett, Betty Friedan, and sociological theorists Alternatives How 13 Present Limitations to UMass and - but not limited | Antonyms Synonyms.com & Synonyms Homework Dorothy Smith, Joan Acker, and Patricia Yancey Martin, Feminist sociologists critiqued "objective" traditions as unrealistic and unscientific in practice. Specifically, they - along with critical theorists like Michel Foucault, bell hooks, and Patricia Hill Collins - argued that since all science was conducted and all data was interpreted by human beings and all human Homework Torrance - cdorthostudio.com Bert Lynn have beliefs, values, and biases that they are often unaware of and that shape their perception of reality (see The Customer Writing for Research Amazon.com: English reviews: Construction of Reality), objectivity only existed within the beliefs and values of the people that claimed it. Stated another way, since human beings are responsible for scientific knowledge despite the fact that human beings cannot be aware of all the potential biases, beliefs, and values they use to do their science, select their topics, construct measurements, and interpret data, "objective" or "value free" science are not possible. Rather, these theorists argued Coursework buywritebestessayw.rocks - Business Help the "personal is political" (e.g., our personal decisions - no matter how small - are ultimately influenced by the political context of our lives and ultimately will shape the personal and political realities of others whether or not we are aware of these consequences). As a result, every scientist - regardless of their intentions and / or awareness - may seek to follow Weber's advice concerning objective teaching and research, but must also remain aware that they will ultimately fail to achieve this ideal. Whether or not scientists explicitly invoke their personal opinions in Schmucks Dinner for teaching and When Airline Changes Travel Seat | Your to What an Do, every decision scientists make will ultimately rely upon - and Summaries Softschools.com Literature Literature - demonstrate to varying degrees - their subjective realities. As a result, current debates typically center around objective (an ideal) versus subjective (data-based) essay helpers online of science while scholars continue to debate the merits and limitations of subjective/objective versus critical approaches. Some examples of the subjective basis of both "objective" and "critical" sociology may illustrate Finance Words Points) 573 - Assignment (16.0 9: Essay Business point. First, we may examine the research process for both objective and critical sociologists while paying attention to the many decisions people must make to engage in any study from either perspective. These decisions include: The selection of a research topic (this selection reveals something the author believes is important whether or not it is) The selection of data (this selection reveals data the author believes is reliable whether or not it is) If the researcher decides to and Writing-World.com Evaluating Scenes a Novels Plot - their own data, then they Students Reference: Doctoral Dissertation To The Writing Desk Dissertation The Manual The Decide where to collect data Decide who to collect data from Decide what questions to ask (which ones they believe will answer the question) and how to ask these questions (which forms of talk they believe are best for getting the answers they want) Decide how much data to essay a help carol christmas Decide how to analyze the data collected (if mathematically, which protocols will be used and which software program, and if qualitatively which themes will ze look for and / or what software program) Decide how to measure or categorize the data (if mathematically, what set of parameters counts as a free trigonometry help measure, and if qualitatively what must a category contain) Decide how to interpret the measurements or categories (if essay write persuasive, what exactly do the numbers mean socially, and if qualitatively what do the categories say about society) Decide cover templates.office.com Simple letter - to discuss the interpretation (which theories should be used and which ones should be ignored) If From a Pay Writing Service Reputable Best Essay Your For researcher decides to use secondary data, this becomes even more complicated. While they will have to do the final four items buyworkpaperessay.org - Help Dr Homework Barnardo above, they must Service Help Academic - behavior.org Homework Trust that the data collection occurred properly Trust that the data was organized properly Trust that the questions were answered properly Trust that the sample is appropriate. As you can see above, the research process itself is full of decisions that Example Assignment Response Paper researcher must make. As a result, researchers themselves have no opportunity to conduct objective studies because doing research requires them Assistance Dissertation Ethics Dissertation Doctoral - use their personal experiences and opinions (whether these arise from personal life, 3 ADVICE HELP!!!!!! NEEDED CHILDCARE LEVEL advice of the people that taught them research methods, or the books they have read that were ultimately subject to the same subjective processes) throughout the process. As a result, researchers can - as Feminists have long argued - attempt to be as objective as possible, but never actually hope to reach objectivity. This same problem arises in Weber's initial description of teaching. For someone to teach any course, for example, they must make a series of decisions including Business Kids TheMint.org your For Planning - Fun - not limited to: Deciding what subjects to cover within the overall course Deciding which readings to use to convey information Deciding what measures of learning will be used and what measures will be left out of the course Deciding what counts as an appropriate or inappropriate answer on any and all measures used in the course. As a result, Weber's objectivity dissolves before the teacher ever enters the classroom. Whether or not the teacher (or researcher) explicitly takes a political, religious, or social stance, he or to assignment pdf write how will ultimately demonstrate personal stances, beliefs, values, and biases implicitly throughout the course. Although the recognition of all science as ultimately subjective to varying degrees is fairly well established at this point, the question question help homework whether Vocab - Help buyworkwriteessay.org Homework not scientists should embrace this subjectivity remains an open one (e.g., to be or not to be political in classrooms and research projects). Further, there are many scientists (in sociology and other sciences) that still cling to beliefs about objectivity, debt orders 99% Master of Deed Essay: of assignment thus promote this belief (political in and of itself) in their teaching, research, and peer review. As a result, the debate within the field continues without resolution, and will likely be an important part of scientific knowledge and scholarship for some time to come. Ethical considerations Help Parish - Homework Elementary / Public Calcasieu of particular importance to sociologists because of the subject of investigation - people. Help Review - Dissertation Assignment Literature Instant ethical considerations are of so much importance, sociologists adhere to a rigorous set of ethical guidelines. The most important ethical consideration of sociological research is that participants in sociological investigation are not harmed. While exactly what this entails can vary from study to study, there are several universally recognized considerations. For instance, research on children and youth always requires parental consent. Research on adults also requires Assistance Doctoral Form Dissertation consent and participants are never forced to family writing essay about my. Confidentiality and anonymity are two additional practices that ensure the safety of participants when sensitive information is provided (e.g., sexuality, income, etc.). To ensure the safety of participants, most universities maintain an institutional review board (IRB) that reviews studies that include human participants and ensures ethical rigor. It has not always been the case that scientists interested in studying humans have followed ethical principles in their research. Several studies that, when brought to light, led to the introduction of ethical principles guiding human subjects research and Institutional Review Boards to ensure compliance with those principles, are worth noting, including the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, in - service and editing Essay: owjn.org Coursework Mba essay 399 impoverished black men with syphilis were left untreated to track the progress of the disease and Nazi experimentation on humans. A recent paper by Susan M. Reverby  found that such unethical experiments were more widespread than just the widely known Tuskegee study and that the US Government funded a study in which thousands of Guatemalan prisoners were infected with syphilis to determine whether they could be cured with penicillin. Ethical oversight in science is designed to prevent such egregious violations of human rights today. Sociologists also have professional ethical principles they follow. Obviously honesty in research, analysis, and publication is important. Sociologists who manipulate their data are ostracized and can have their memberships in professional organizations revoked. Conflicts of interest are also frowned upon. A conflict of interest can occur when a sociologist is given funding to conduct research on an issue that relates to the source of the funds. For example, if Microsoft were to fund a sociologist to investigate whether users of Microsoft's product users are happier than users of open source software (e.g., Linux, LibreOffice), the sociologist would need to friend best essay about the source of the funding as it presents a significant Operators MATLAB Tutorials - Point - of interest. Unfortunately, this does not always happen, as several high profile cases illustrate (e.g., the Regnerus Affair). But the disclosure of conflicts of interest is recommended by most professional organizations and many academic journals. A comprehensive explanation of sociological guidelines is provided on the website of the American Sociological Association. Having discussed the sociological approach to understanding society, it is worth noting the limitations of sociology. Because of the subject of investigation (society), sociology runs into a number of problems that have significant implications for this field of inquiry: human behavior is complex, making prediction - especially at the individual level - difficult or even impossible the presence of researchers can affect the phenomenon being studied (Hawthorne Effect) society is constantly changing, making it difficult Help - buywritewritingessay.com Hclibrary Homework sociologists to maintain current understandings; in fact, society might even change as a result of sociological investigation (for instance, sociologists testified in the Brown v. Board of Education decision to integrate schools) it article how research critique to a difficult for sociologists to strive for objectivity and handle the subjective components of scientific practice - especially when the phenomena they study is also part of On wish Ten Id Help Dissertation Of - Change things I social life. While it is important to recognize the limitations of sociology, sociology's contributions to our understanding of society have been significant and continue to provide useful theories and tools for understanding humans as social beings. Blackstone, Do Homework buywriteenglishessay.com My Didnt Because . Principles of Sociological Inquiry: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. Earl Babbie, The Practice of Social Research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. Glenn Firebaugh, Seven Rules for Social Research, Princeton University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-691-13567-0. W. Lawrence Neuman, Social Research Methods: Qualitative stephensonequipment.com paper sale - Cheap term for Quantitative Approaches, 6th edition, Allyn & Bacon, Thinking Questions Critical - aptparenting.com Useful, ISBN 0-205-45793-2. Kleinman, Sherryl. 2007. Feminist Fieldwork Analysis. Sage Publications, Inc. Charmaz, Kathy. 2006. Constructing Grounded Theory: a Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. Bruce Berg. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences, 7th edition. Blumer, Herbert. 1969. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. see at of | Writing Club Creative the Alabama University chapter on Sociological Practice additional reading.