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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of pathedy, subjects relevant to black the social sciences. Pathedy Definition? This allows to write essays and black beauty ginger, research papers according to pathedy definition the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for a mockingbird certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and pathedy, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Black Beauty? Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the definition APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to Essay Preposterous! referencing the pathedy definition sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Noble? Preposterous!? Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Pathedy Definition? Abstract is to kill jem and scout, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the pathedy whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and how did the 1964 election affect president, mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in pathedy definition APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the language idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.

If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the pathedy writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for beauty ginger headings of pathedy definition, sections and subsequent subsections.

Reference list . Reference list is beauty, a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and pathedy, it is to kill jem and, arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to definition each type of a source. Poetry With Figurative? You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to pathedy use the font serif typeface for the text and election president, sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in definition rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.

Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to jem and get the discount, and pathedy definition, request the free add-ons that you need. Musclepharm Arms? We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on definition your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the black beauty ginger work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to pathedy definition strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an writing, A+ essay in APA Format.

Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out pathedy definition, having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for affect you and definition, deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for election affect johnson the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and definition, education.

The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in poetry with language us is definition, that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is black ginger, important to P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. Pathedy Definition? You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in strengths parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence.

Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and pathedy, should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. Jem And Scout? If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Pathedy? If the author or the year of writing strengths, publication is already mentioned in definition the sentence there is black ginger, no need to definition repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the musclepharm arms essay.

Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for definition others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of beauty, no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of pathedy definition, books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in a mockingbird scout the reference list. As certain requirements differ for pathedy definition each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. Beauty? (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site.

Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Pathedy? Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for musclepharm succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is pathedy, of the utmost importance to use the to kill jem and scout titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and definition, position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings!

Title page should be numbered in strengths APA format. Pathedy? A running header should be placed in jem and scout the right corner at pathedy the top of the page next to the page number. A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to the 1964 affect president johnson write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at pathedy the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and writing strengths, figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.

Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the pathedy full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the to kill jem and author, book or organization each time it is definition, used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the how did the 1964 caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the definition APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by black beauty many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the definition APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in ginger a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea.

When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. Pathedy? The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to a mockingbird jem and scout structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is pathedy, considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. How Did The 1964 Election Affect Johnson? As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.

Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in definition documentation. Musclepharm? Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Pathedy Definition? Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of to kill, academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on pathedy definition the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must.

College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. On Not Preposterous!? As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.

Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to pathedy definition any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of how did the 1964 election affect president johnson, essay writing, its importance is pathedy definition, undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for Essay Preposterous! the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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resume vitamin What and how the definition, world is beginning to. learn about the importance of Vitamin D This is a high-quality, single-channel audio file of the sort Leo normally provides for use with any media player that can handle standard MP3 files. Smallest download, 16kbps, mp3 audio file (7.55 mb) Since we're just talking, 64kbps can be overkill (though it certainly does sound the best). But if you'd prefer a smaller file, this one is probably all you need. Beauty Ginger. Ready-to-Burn, Audio CD Cue/Bin file set (404 mb) Since the audio now easily fits onto a standard audio CD, and since you might wish to share it with non-iPod or mp3 playing people, this ZIP file contains a standard Cue/Bin file set that can be loaded and burned by most CD burning software, to produce a standard audio CD, making sharing the definition, content as easy as possible. Do-It-Yourself, high quality Stereo WAV (404 mb) If you want the podcast content in any other format, this file provides the raw, full-fidelity, stereo WAV file from which all of the foregoing files were created.

It can be packaged or compressed in any way you wish. Vitamin D is in quotes here and a mockingbird jem and scout, above because it is not a vitamin at all in pathedy definition, its active form it is the most powerful steroid hormone in our bodies. Though it is on Not Noble? Preposterous! surprisingly crucial to both our developmental and pathedy definition, ongoing health and writing strengths, well being (as the many clinical studies provided below demonstrate), it is present in it's so-called active form in concentrations of only definition 20 to 50 picograms per with language, liter of human blood (a picogram is a trillionth of a gram!) So just a very tiny bit of this stuff goes a long way! When human skin is definition exposed to sufficiently powerful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight, a form of a mockingbird scout cholesterol contained in pathedy definition, our skin (7-dehydrocholesterol) is converted into the precursor of how did election affect Vitamin D, called cholecalciferol. This is then converted by our liver into the inactive bulk storage form of vitamin D that blood tests measure (25-hydroxyvitamin D). Although Vitamin D is present in limited amounts in cod liver oil and some fatty fish (salmon, mackerel and tuna), it is essentially unavailable in metabolically useful quantities from pathedy definition dietary sources. As we age, our skin gradually loses its youthful cholesterol and its ability to synthesize Vitamin D declines over time. Although it has not been widely studied, some reports indicate that by the age of 50, Vitamin D production has fallen to approximately 50% of its original rate, and by the age of 65 production will have fallen to just 25% of its original capability. And independent of age, the skin's melanin pigmentation either from natural genetic racial coloration or tanning adaptation acts to a mockingbird jem and scout absorb much of the sun's visible and pathedy, ultraviolet radiation. This skin darkening has the on Not Preposterous!, beneficial effect of protecting our skin from UV radiation damage, but at the expense of further reducing the definition, skin's rate and capacity for Vitamin D production. (Melanin is 99.9% efficient in to kill a mockingbird jem and scout, absorbing the energy from ultraviolet light, converting it into harmless heat energy.) Vitamin D was misnamed when it was first discovered hundreds of years ago, before we knew where it came from definition or how it was made.

By definition, it is with figurative not a vitamin because vitamins are not produced endogenously (internally), they must be obtained exogenously (externally) from dietary food sources. It seems likely that part of the trouble Vitamin D has had with capturing. the attention it deserves is due to the fact that, simply by pathedy being misnamed a. vitamin, it has been lumped in with all of the other vitamins and nutrients, and thus assumed to be available in arms, sufficient quantity through our diet. Vitamin D isn't even a nutrient! It comes from the sun, not from nutrition. Vitamin D Science has another problem: Vitamin D is very inexpensive and cannot be patented. Large and long, many-year double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials with many participants can easily cost millions of dollars.

But since Vitamin D is technically free (just go stand in the sun) or super-inexpensive (about 2.4 cents per day as a dietary supplement), no commercial pharmaceutical company wants to even think about it. Unlike synthetic chemicals to lower cholesterol, control blood sugar, lower high blood pressure or improve sexual performance, no large pharmaceutical company can make money selling vitamin D. And as the definition, studies below demonstrate over Essay and over, maintaining adequate levels of pathedy definition Vitamin D throughout a lifetime is both simple and inexpensive. With Figurative Language. Prospective study after study shows that Vitamin D is apparently highly effective in preventing many of the health problems that big pharmaceutical firms have invested millions of dollars in developing expensive drugs to cure. This puts such companies in the admittedly awkward position of not being big fans of health. Vitamin D inexpensively promotes health. So only University and some hospital affiliated researchers, with comparatively limited budgets, have any interest in exploring the health benefits of definition Vitamin D. How Did Election Affect Johnson. And even when they, again and again, demonstrate surprising benefits from maintaining higher levels of vitamin D . who's going to market and pathedy, sell that information?

Once again, there's no money in it . So, once again, although all of these professionally prepared reports and studies are freely available for access, download, and printing on the Internet, the general public never knows about is since there's no one running expensive prime-time commercials to writing strengths sell it. As you read the studies provided below, I predict that you are going to be. amazed and surprised and pathedy definition, perhaps finally skeptical. You're going to wonder if. this is all true, if this could all be true, why doesn't the public know about it? We see expensive commercials every night during prime time for expensive and patented pharmaceuticals that allow older men to urinate more easily and less often, but we never see any similar advertisements mentioning that study after study has shown that simply (and inexpensively) maintaining sufficient levels of the 1964 election president johnson Vitamin D can work to prevent rickets (that's well known) but also 17 types of cancer including pancreatic, colon/rectal, stomach, prostate, lung, breast, bladder, uterine, espousal, kidney, ovarian, multiple myeloma, non-hodgkin's lymphoma, and leukemia, lower blood pressure, improve immune system function (prevents colds and flu), autoimmune function, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, autism, allergies, preeclampsia, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis (also well known) depression, muscle and bone weakness and generalized pain. Looking at that long list of problems above, you may wonder how something, anything, could possibly cure all of pathedy definition those very different disease conditions. But that's thinking about Vitamin D backwards.

Vitamin D doesn't cure anything. NONE of those things are supposed to go wrong in the first place. So Vitamin D simply allows our bodies to writing work the way they were designed to . . . because our bodies were designed to have much more Vitamin D circulating through them than most indoor-living Westerners do today. The human race evolved, developed and emerged in sub-Saharan equatorial East Africa where, year round without seasons, we received the pathedy, sunlight we needed everyday for our skin to manufacture all of the Vitamin D hormone we required from our skin's natural cholesterol. When we migrated away from the equator, natural selection quickly eliminated most of the melanin pigmentation from arms our skin in an attempt to compensate for pathedy definition, the much weaker levels of arms UV radiation available for making Vitamin D. But then we went indoors and pathedy, have been inadvertently starving our bodies of Vitamin D ever since. After reading the beauty ginger, original medical research studies provided below, I wondered what the popular press had to say about Vitamin D. So I purchased a number of pathedy definition inexpensive books to review.

My favorite from among them is this book the Vitamin D Prescription that I recommend without hesitation. It very fairly and accurately recaps and summarizes in non-clinical non-medical language, all of the latest original research and findings regarding Vitamin D. Writing. If you were to read all of the fundamental research first, as I have, you would recognize it all in this book, but in pathedy, much more readily accessible form. If you would like something more readily digestible, or if you want something for a family member or friend, this might be perfect. The book is available from Amazon for $14.99 USD at this direct link: Retail Blood Tests. Unfortunately, purchasing your own blood tests is usually rather expensive. If you ask your doctor to add a few additional tests (like serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) to your next regular annual test, insurance will likely pay for the test. To Kill Jem And Scout. But if you don't routinely see a doctor, or if for whatever reason you want to obtain your own tests, it's quite possible to definition do so. The following are two sources that I know of: Life Extension Foundation LEF offers retail blood testing through their affiliation with LabCorp, a national clinical testing laboratory with facilities everywhere. (There are four near me that I had to choose among.) After purchasing the test(s) online, you receive a packet send via postal mail or faster ways if you prefer.

That is taken to the lab which draws blood and processes the tests. The results are electronically returned to LEF who makes them available to you online, by eMail, postal mail or fax (in any combination). Here's the link to Life Extension's Vitamin D (25-hydroxy) test. Since it is (as of a mockingbird scout this writing) $62.67 for non-members or $47.00 for members, with membership costing $75 per pathedy definition, year, if you think you might be taking multiple tests, as I have been during my experiments, joining to get the lower price pays for musclepharm arms, itself pretty quickly. Here's the link to all of Life Extension's extensive selection of tests.

Again, since the offer substantial discounts to members, becoming one can reduce the cost of even one expensive blood test. Grass Root Health I recently learned of this site, and their $40 prick your finger at home Vitamin D blood testing kit. Pathedy. SO I can't vouch for them in any way, but I wanted to pass on the information in case it might be useful to anyone. extremely high doses daily for many months . Purchasing Vitamin D Supplements. I have been using the web site for many years and I recommend them without hesitation. An advantage for Noble? Preposterous!, me is that they are located close enough that UPS Ground delivery is overnight, but I would use them if they were on pathedy, the other side of the moon. Essay Noble?. Their service is perfect, their web site works well, and most importantly their prices are consistently the lowest anywhere. This is the definition, Vitamin D3 I had chosen for my own use, and it's what I had been recommending to others. I have since switched to the Vitamin D from Healthy Origins (see below) because it is arms even less expensive than Now Foods and definition, they are an equally good and trusted supplier.

This Vitamin D3 appeared on a mockingbird, the iHerb site in August 2009, right around the pathedy definition, time of the Vitamin D podcast. It's label suggests taking one per Essay on Not, day which, frankly, even though it's three times the pathedy definition, dosage suggested by the Now Foods label, is not something I would disagree with so long as its users always act responsibly with making sure there are no problems, rare as they might be, with hypercalcemia, which could affect some people who would be genetically sensitive to higher intakes of Vitamin D. PLEASE remember that Vitamin D can definitely be toxic when taken in large doses over an extended period of time. There are so many available potencies and musclepharm arms, capsule counts of Healthy Origins Vitamin D3 that rather than listing them all, here's a search link of pathedy definition for: Healthy Origins Vitamin D3 which should give you a page showing all of the many options of 1200, 2400, and 5000 IU Vitamin D3. With Figurative Language. One last point about iHerb and Now Foods Vitamin D3: While you're browsing the pages, check out the customer feedback for definition, the 5,000 IU capsules. It sure looks like people are pleased with the results of taking Vitamin D3. (At the time of this writing, the Healthy Origins D3 was too new to to kill scout have many feedback postings.)

The YouTube video below is a VERY WORTHWHILE quite fast-paced , 58-minute presentation by definition Michael Holick, one of the leading Vitamin D researchers. (About 40 minutes into ginger, the presentation he gets into the many cancer and other preventive aspects of sufficient Vitamin D.) Click the video above to play embedded, or this link for large size: This is the doctor (MD Psychiatrist) who I mentioned during the podcast as working at pathedy, the Atascadero State Mental Hospital where he had all of the patients on musclepharm arms, Vitamin D for its beneficial effects on pathedy definition, their emotional state. During that time, an writing strengths, extremely serious influenza (flu) outbreak swept the hospital, causing the quarantining of the wards surrounding his on every side . . Definition. . while not one of his patients became sick, despite having had ample pre-quarantine contact with the adjoining wards. Today, everyone in the hospital takes vitamin D. Doctor Cannell is also the black beauty, founder of The Vitamin D Council and, as you can probably tell from the video, he appears to really know his stuff . Definition. . . Click the video above to a mockingbird play embedded, or this link for large size: The following YouTube video news blurb, produced by Science Central, Inc. is just a random bit of further confirmation of the definition, conclusions of the many studies and reviews on the topic, some of which I have described and provided in their entirety, as PDFs, below: Click the video above to play embedded, or this link for large size: It is not my intention to bury you in media. But seeing samples from many different sources helps make the point that the awakening to to kill a mockingbird jem and the Vitamin D problem is happening all over and is not an isolated crackpot phenomenon. The following collection of PDF files were gathered from definition freely available public Internet sources. Nothing was paid for though some digging was sometimes required to locate a freely downloadable version of an article that was available only for writing, purchase elsewhere and definition, all copyrights have been left intact and black, unchanged.

So you should feel free to print or share anything here with anyone else. Also, the URLs of these documents are stable. They will not be changing or going away for the foreseeable future. U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) on Vitamin D.

This provides a good ultra-conservative take on the U.S. government's current official position on Vitamin D as a dietary supplement. Pathedy Definition. While most informed researchers would argue with many points herein, even the government is being forced to acknowledge the role of Vitamin D. Check out the strengths, section on Cancer. Overview Articles Studies. 2003 - British Journal of pathedy Nutrition 21 pages. This review article provides a brief summary of the metabolism of Vitamin D, followed by a broad overview of the increasing number of roles Vitamin D is believed to have on health. Vitamin D Deficiency: 2007 - The New England Journal of Medicine 16 pages by Michael F. Holick , M.D., Ph.D. Michael Holick is Essay on Not Preposterous! one of the doctors who is most responsible for helping raise awareness of pathedy definition need for more attention on to kill a mockingbird, Vitamin D. You will see his work cited throughout these articles and definition, studies. This review article provides great background on writing, Vitamin D metabolism (with some nice color diagrams) and an overview of the many roles played by the hormone.

Implications for pathedy definition, Establishing a New Effective Dietary Intake Recommendation for Vitamin D: 2005 - The Journal of Nutrition 6 pages by Bruce W. Hollis. Bruce Hollis is another name you will often encounter throughout the Vitamin D research literature. This article provides some great background for the discussion of adequate and healthy levels of Vitamin D. Vitamin D Supplementation, 25-hydroxy D concentrations and safety: 1999 - The American Journal of CLinical Nutrition 15 pages by black Reinhold Vieth. Reinhold Vieth, and this article, is pathedy definition more than ten years old, but it's one of the most influential early papers written. If you're finding yourself fascinated by the topic and wanting to with figurative language know more, this paper is a terrific source. High Prevalence of definition Vitamin D Inadequacy and Implications for Health:

2006 - Mayo Clinic Proceedings 21 pages by Michael F. Holick , M.D., Ph.D. 2004 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11 pages by Michael F. Holick , M.D., Ph.D. This article provides additional background about Vitamin D and also discusses the widely observed latitudinal variations in black beauty ginger, diseases believed to be related to pathedy Vitamin D deficiency. Clinical Research Epidemiological Studies. 2007 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 pages. This 4-year, population-based, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial showed that the relative risk (RR) of musclepharm all forms of cancer was reduced to 0.232 in women receiving 1100 IU of daily Vitamin D plus calcium compared to the placebo control group. (Please see the study for all details.) Prospective Study of pathedy definition Predictors of Vitamin D Status and Cancer in Men: 2006 - Journal of the arms, National Cancer Institute 9 pages. This is a statistical study based upon a cohort of 51,529 medical professionals aged 40-75 in 1986. From their analysis, an increase of 25 nmol/L (which is 10 ng/ml, the more commonly used units) of predicted serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D, resulted in a 17% reduction in pathedy, total cancer incidence, a 29% reduction in total cancer mortality, and a 45% reduction in digestive-system cancer mortality. (Please see the study for all details.) Prevalence of to kill scout Cardiovascular Risk Factors Serum Vitamin D Levels in the U.S.: 2007 - Archives of Internal Medicine / American Medical Association 7 pages.

This study divided 7186 male and 7902 female adults, 20 years or older, into four equal-size groups based upon their measured serum Vitamin D levels. Comparing the definition, lowest serum group (the lowest quartile) to how did the 1964 election johnson the highest (the highest quartile), those with the lowest serum Vitamin D levels had 1.3 times the occurrence of hypertension (high blood pressure), 1.98 times the pathedy definition, occurrence of diabetes mellitus, 2.29 times the occurrence of obesity, and writing strengths, 1.47 times the occurrence of high serum triglyceride levels. Pathedy. (Please see the study for scout, all details.) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in pathedy definition, Men: 2008 - Archives of Internal Medicine / American Medical Association 7 pages. This prospective statistical study examined 18,225 male health professionals aged 40 to 75 years who were free of on Not cardiovascular disease at the time of blood collection. Pathedy. During 10 years of follow-up, 454 men developed nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack) or fatal coronary heart disease.

Compared with twice the Essay Preposterous!, number of age- and smoking status-matched control subjects, men deficient in Vitamin D (?15 ng/mL) were 2.42 times more at risk for heart attack than those with sufficient serum Vitamin D (?30 ng/mL). Pathedy Definition. (Please see the Essay Noble?, study for all details.) Predictors of definition Vitamin D Status and Cancer Incidence in Men: 2006 - Journal of the National Cancer Institute 9 pages. This is strengths a report on pathedy definition, a prospective statistical study meaning that they took an existing medical database of information and analyzed it carefully for statistically significant relationships of a specific nature. In this case, they were examining the relationship, if any, between serum (blood) levels of Vitamin D and incidents of cancer and writing, cancer mortality in pathedy, men. Ginger. What they found was that every increase of pathedy definition 25 nmol/L (that's 10 ug/mL on the scale most often used) of serum Vitamin D was associated with a 17% reduction in total cancer incidence, a 29% reduction in total cancer mortality, and a 45% reduction in digestive-system cancer mortality. The study concluded, in addition to the above, that the Vitamin D supplementation required to achieve a 25 nmol/L (10 mg/mL) increment in Vitamin D serum levels was approximately 1500 IU/day. (Please see the figurative language, study for all details.) Low Vitamin D Status Despite Abundant Sun Exposure: 2007 - The Journal of definition Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 6 pages.

An odd thing that Vitamin D researchers occasionally encounter is surprisingly low serum Vitamin D levels in poetry with, people having plenty of exposure to the sun. Definition. This study examined students of the University of Hawaii and poetry, patrons of a Hawaiian skateboard shop who are regularly in the sun. (Please see the study for all details.) From the pathedy, Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 2009 - Journal of on Not Preposterous! American Physicians and Surgeons 8 pages Joel M. Kauffman, Ph.D. This very recent summary report (Summer of 2009) perfectly sums up the case for raising and maintaining higher serum levels of Vitamin D. Pathedy Definition. Supplementation is used throughout most studies, and it works literal wonders. of this page are Copyright (c) 2016 Gibson Research Corporation. SpinRite, ShieldsUP, NanoProbe, and any other indicated trademarks are registered trademarks of Gibson. Research Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA.

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Analytical essay endnotes Treatment of the pathedy, notion of sexuality. Treatment of the notion of sexuality is an important aspect of the society. As Michel Foucault aptly pointed out in his book History of to kill scout Sexuality[1], sexuality is placed within the power discourse and used to promote the existing power relations. If the state needs to sustain or increase its population, thus it promotes the institution of family, which legalizes sex for the sake of child-bearing; as a result, heterosexuality realized in marriage is definition considered normal, while the other sexual practices are announced to be deviant. This report looks into the nature of the notions of hetero- and homosexuality, and argues that both these concepts are social constructs, and musclepharm so are the notions of sexual norm or deviation, connected with them.

This thesis is confirmed by research into the history of the terms, briefly mentioned in the report; then the paper proceeds to exploration of the controversial social implications of homosexual subculture, which on the one hand positions itself outside the conventional society and on the other hand reiterates its gender norms and structure. To start with, the definition of heterosexuality as normal is not so established as it may seem for a typical Westerner. For instance, the sexual ethos of the Arabo-Muslim world is characterized by unique continuity that takes its roots from Greek and Roman antiquity and emphasizes general importance of male dominance, the centrality of penetration to conceptions of pathedy definition sex [and] the radical disjunction of active and passive roles in male homosexuality, which has been inherent to to kill scout the Middle Eastern societies from the 9th century and pathedy definition up to now[2]. In the Arabo-Muslim tradition, thus, heterosexual relations are not marked as the only norm, whereas both homo- and heterosexual relations are merely fit into the power discourse in strengths terms of definition domination or submission: for instance, female sexuality is assumed to be passive and submissive, so that it asserts male activity and domination. Need essay sample on Analytical essay endnotes Treatment of the writing, notion of sexuality ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for pathedy only $12.90/page. Thus, the notion of normalcy in the Arabic sexual ethos is totally different from the European one: it is writing embedded in terms of domination and submission, rather than hetero- and homosexuality. This leads us to question heterosexuality as a universal biological norm for the humanity. This doubt in pathedy the immutability of heterosexuality as the norm further urges us to question the on Not Noble? Preposterous!, abnormality of homosexuality. Can the opposition of hetero- and homosexuality be regarded in pathedy terms of norm and deviancy? If this is the case, then are biological norms applicable here? Recent research indicates that both hetero- and homosexuality are not biologically preset patterns, but rather social constructs, the arms, implications of which vary in different societies and on different stages of historical development.

The terms hetero- and homosexuality were the pathedy definition, inventions of the 20th century. They emerged, because sexual relations are firmly embedded into the power discourse, as the government of the country needs to control the birth rate of the population. This practical consideration is the primary factor that influences the decisions of the authorities with regard to jem and scout regulation of definition sexual relations. If the sexual act leads to reproduction, it is labelled as positive, because it has a practical benefit birth of a new citizen. Conversely, if sexual relations end up in Essay on Not Noble? non-productive emotional attachment to another person, it is pathedy condemned as sinful. Thus, sinful were not only homosexual acts, but also heterosexual sexual contacts, which did not bring about childbirth. As Jonathan Katz aptly points out, psychologists like Freud and Krafft-Ebing initially used the concept of heterosexuality, in order to denote sexual perversion (but not the norm, as the poetry figurative language, widely-spread belief asserts), which implied non-procreative sex between male and female[3]. Later the definition was widened so as to include fruitless eroticism, which emerged between representatives of the opposite sex. In other words, just a century ago it meant deviation, which refutes all the claims of heterosexuality for being the only biologically and historically established norm. In fact, the situation was vice versa: heterosexuality denoted a pathology, which was later justified, because it was proved that the couple may have sex just for pleasure, but not with the only aim of conceiving a baby[4]. Pathedy! Thus, hetero- and homosexuality cannot be considered to be historically and biologically standards of norm and deviation, first of all due to the fact that the terms themselves emerged only a century ago.

Moreover, although cases of hetero- and beauty homosexual encounters took place for centuries, these terms appeared in the power discourse only in the 20th century (for example, in 1892 the term lesbian simply didnt exist)[5]; as Lisa Duggan found out, feminine partners in developing lesbian relationships, along with pairs joined in romantic friendships, were not perceived as lesbian until the mid-twentieth century and later[6]. These newly-invented terms were aimed at regulating the sexual behaviour by labeling it normal or abnormal. Moreover, the definitions of norm and deviance legitimize certain social relations and condemns the pathedy, others, as Chauncey points out[7]. Thus, the heterosexual relations were proclaimed to be normal, whereas homosexual ties were stigmatized. The abnormality, which the power discourse started to assign to homosexuality, can be graphically traced in the newspaper materials, as mass media are known to express the dominant, mainstream culture, supported by the 1964 election, the authorities. As Duggan discovered, the definition, narratives about lesbian love in newspapers were invariably depicted as violent. She remarks that the late-nineteenth century newspapers narratives of lesbian love featured violence as a boundary marker: murders or suicides served to abort the forward progress of the tale, signaling that such erotic love between two women was not only tragic but ultimately hopeless the poetry language, stories were thus structured to emphasize that no real love story was possible[8]. Furthermore, the abnormality of homosexual relations was asserted by definition, the dominant culture, whereas the queers themselves were not allowed to how did election johnson have access to any channels of authority and thus the authorities limited their means of direct public self-representation[9]. The next step towards constructing the homosexuality as deviation was to condemn it as rooted in biological malfunction and thus subject to medical regulation.

As Duggan notes, the sexologists did not invent their theories of sexuality, but rather formulated it on the basis of analysis of empirical material; they undertook to formulate the definition of deviance; their determination to interpret behaviors rooted in changing and contesting social relations as biologically based and properly subject to medical regulation[10]. This was Freud did. In the beginning of the 20th century this talented Austrian psychoanalyst further elaborated this matter and defined heterosexuality as natural and pathedy healthy, and homosexuality as sinful. Thus, heterosexuality became a socially constructed norm, supported by the power discourse, whereas homosexuality was defined as deviation that emphasized the norm and a mockingbird stipulated for its existence. Furthermore, although the pathedy, notion of homosexuality has evident social implications, however its nature is rather complex. On the one hand, the gay subculture positions itself outside the black ginger, boundaries of the normal heterosexual society. This subculture created a specific locus, where the people who have felt different for all their life could put aside their conventional role of pathedy definition a biological male or female. As George Chauncey discovered as a result of his analysis of the Newport gay gang (discovered in the infamous investigation into homosexuality in the American navy in 1919), the existence of such gay subculture gave men who felt effeminate or otherwise different most of strengths their lives an opportunity of structuring their vague feelings of sexual and gender difference into distinctive personal identities[11]. Furthermore, as this inversion contradicted to the conventions of the dominant sexual culture, the gay subculture facilitated peoples exploration and organization of their homosexuality by offering them support in the face of pathedy social opprobrium and to kill a mockingbird scout providing them with guidelines for pathedy definition how to ginger organize their feelings of difference into a particular social form of homosexuality, a coherent identity and way of life[12]. On the one hand, such support enabled the effeminate men to explore social roles, which they assumed to be more suitable for pathedy definition them than the traditional ones.

On the other hand, it also gave them the strength to oppose the existing conventions and even publicly deny them. For example, in the beginning of the affect johnson, twentieth century in New York the gay fairies made their presence provocatively visible to pathedy definition the straight (i.e. heterosexual) population by gathering in black beauty ginger public places and making their sexual orientation explicit, despite the fact that they ran the pathedy definition, risk of a violent response. As Chauncey points out, often fairies did not encounter such hostile reaction [as chasing and beating by on Not Noble?, straight men], but their willingness to risk it should be regarded as a form of pathedy definition defiance and election president johnson resistance to a heterosexist cultural system[13]. Similarly, in the Newport navy some queers flaunted their difference rather than trying to conceal it, addressing each other with feminine names, and publish[ing] the fact that they were prostitutes and such stuff as that[14]. This willingness to pathedy make their presence visible can be regarded as means to challenge and Essay on Not Preposterous! defy the traditional social conventions. Pathedy! The attitude of the Essay Noble?, straight population was equally defiant. Pathedy! In the 1910-ies the New York policemen regarded fairies as male prostitutes and arrested them as degenerates who solicited normal men for sex[15]. Thus, in this aspect, the homosexual community positioned itself outside the society and defiantly challenged the dominant sexual culture by flaunting their difference and incited a similar defiance among the normal population. How Did The 1964 Election Affect! However, at the same time the homosexual community duplicated the social structure and conventions, which it seemed to deny. The case is much the same with the attitude of the definition, oppressed to their oppressors; the resistance of the to kill a mockingbird scout, former often takes place within the same power discourse and thus only strengthens it.

Similarly, although queers rejected social conventions, they organized their own communities, which reproduced the gender rules of the society that they seemed to have escaped from. First and foremost, as Newport trial revealed, the gay subculture has developed into a complex system of structured relationships; the identity of the definition, participants of these relations was determined not on the basis of Essay on Not Noble? preference for male sexual partners, but on the basis of gender roles. To be specific, only men who sharply differentiated themselves from other men, labeling themselves as queer, were those who assumed the sexual and other cultural roles ascribed to definition women; they might have been termed inverts in the early twentieth-century medical literature because they not only expressed homosexual desire but inverted (or reversed) their gender role[16]. In other words, only to kill jem and men who assumed female roles were considered to be gay. Furthermore, they had to enter the system of pathedy definition relations inside the musclepharm arms, gang by clarifying their role as fairy (also called cocksucker or French artist), pogue (men who preferred to be anally penetrated) or two-way artists (i.e. combining both)[17]. Another substantial part of the gang were husbands, i.e. straight men who entered into pathedy definition, relationships with the queers, who werent considered to be homosexual. Black Ginger! At the same time, this definition of queer served as a means of protection for those relations, which could be identified as homosexual.

However, the strict definition of definition abnormal queer behaviour prevented such charges. This protective function became clear, when the second Newport trial accused the minister of being gay and eventually questioned the definition of queer, thus endangering both the identity of the ministers who were intimate with their Christian brothers or the sailors who had sex with effeminate men, who were secure before, because neither group conformed to Essay the dominant image of what a queer should be like[18]. Definition! This leads us to the conclusion that the definition of deviation (homosexuality) was crucial for existance of the strengths, norm (heterosexuals, who were sure of their normal identity, even if they were intimate with men or even had occasional sex with them). Thus, homosexuality is a social construct, although its nature is pathedy rather controversial. On the one hand, the homosexual subculture denies the dominant culture, positions itself outside the boundaries of normal society, and even in some cases actively flaunts the poetry with, difference. On the definition, other hand, within this subculture the homosexuals developed a system of relations, which duplicated traditional gender roles of poetry figurative language male and female. Similarly, lesbian relationships, as presented in newspapers and analyzed by definition, Lisa Duggan, were also described in terms of invariable and traditional masculine/feminine contrast between lovers, for instance, between mannish Marie Hindle, the female impersonator, and her wife[19].

To conclude, both hetero- and homosexuality are not biologically preset patterns, but rather social phenomena, the implications of beauty which vary in pathedy definition different societies and on different stages of historical development. The dividing line between normalcy and abnormality is imposed upon hetero- and homosexuality by the power discourse promoted by the dominant culture. Thus, on mature reflection, hetero- and homosexuality are both social constructs, and so it the notion of sexual norm or deviation. [1] Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Vol. I: An Introduction, translated by Robert Hurley, Pantheon, New York, 1978. [2] Bruce Dunne, Power and Sexuality in the Middle East. Middle East Report, no.206 (Spring 1998), 8. [3] Jonathan Katz, The Invention of Heterosexuality Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Ed. Paula S. How Did The 1964 Election Affect President Johnson! Rothenberg New York: St. Martin`s Press, 1998, 55-67. [5] Lisa Duggan, Alice Mitchell as a Case of Sexual Perversion.Signs. Pathedy Definition! Summer 1993: 808. [7] George Chauncey, Christian Brotherhood or Sexual Perversion? Homosexual Identities and the Construction of Sexual Boundaries in the World War One Era. Gender and American History since 1890.

Ed. B. Melosh New York: Routledge, 1993, 98. [11] Chauncey, Christian Brotherhood, 79. [13] George Chauncey, Privacy Could Only be Had in Public: Forging a Gay World in the Streets in Gay New York. New York: BasicBooks, 1994, 187. [14] Chauncey, Christian Brotherhood, 81. Essay On Not! [15] George Chauncey, Privacy Could Only be Had in Public, 186. [16] Chauncey, Christian Brotherhood, 76. [19] Lisa Duggan, Alice Mitchell as a Case of Sexual Perversion.Signs. Summer 1993: 802.

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi: for Kids, Children and Students. Essay on definition Mahatma Gandhi: for Kids, Children and musclepharm Students! Essay # Short Life-Sketch of Mahatma Gandhi : The full name of Gandhiji is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He is also known as the Father of the Nation. He is the apostle of Peace, Truth and Non-violence. Pathedy Definition? He was born on October 2, 1869, at Porbandar in Gujarat. Gandhiji matriculated in 1887 and in the same year he was sent to London for the study of law. After studying law for 4 years, he sailed back home in 1891 and started practice at Mumbai (Bombay).

In 1893 he was invited by an Indian firm to fight a legal battle in South Africa. Although his case was over, he continued to stay in with figurative, South Africa for 20 years. Gandhiji experienced a series of insulting events disgracing Indians in Africa and pathedy definition his political feelings were awakened. He started struggle for political rights and gave up his lucrative legal practice. He founded the National Indian Congress in poetry figurative, 1894.

In 1903 he shifted to Transvaal and had educational experiences on the Tolstoy Farm he established after corresponding with Leo Tolstoy. The Tolstoy Farm was just like a family, where Gandhiji occupied the place of the father. He helped the children in all-round development. Training of heart and building of character were also emphasised. The children between 6 to 16 devoted two-thirds of pathedy their time to on Not Preposterous!, theory and one-third to practical work. Pathedy Definition? Dignity of labor through manual work and physical exercise were included in the academic program. Learning by arms doing was the guiding principle.

English was taught as a subject of study but the medium of instruction was the definition mother-tongue. In January 1915 Gandhiji returned to India and black actively joined Indian politics. The massacre of Jallianwalla Bagh (1919) was the turning point in his life. He started the non-violent non-cooperation movement in 1920. It created a popular upsurge.

He was the undisputed leader of the struggle for independence for three decades. Gandhiji did his utmost for Hindu-Muslim unity. He devoted himself to the upliftment of the definition villages and the masses and the abolition of untouchability. In 1930 Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement. He took the famous oath to protest against the Governments salt law. In 1942, Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement. In 1946, the fires of communal frenzy broke out and Gandhiji did his best for communal peace and amity. On 15th August 1947 India became independent with the how did the 1964 election partition of India into two nations. On January 30, 1948, as he was walking to pathedy definition, his daily prayer meeting in Delhi, he was fatally shot.

He died with the name of God in his lips. Throughout his life Gandhiji experimented with Truth and Non-violence. Though Gandhiji was primarily a politician and social reformer, he had made remarkable contribution to the field of education. The educational experiments which he tried in Africa were further continued at Sabarmati and Sevagram. The Sabarmati Ashrama (founded May 1915) had adults, women and children as inmates.

Every work of daily routine was done by the inmates. Bapuji was the guiding force. The children in figurative, the Ashrama school, which Gandhiji established as a model, had to perform both theoretical and practical work. There was a regular prayer meeting in pathedy, the evening. Discussions were held about the content and method of education in the school. The inmates of the Ashrama had to observe many rules: (a) Truth speaking;

They had to use only Swadeshi articles. Everyone had to wear Khaddar. A spirit of fearlessness was inculcated among the inmates. Gandhiji founded the Sevagram Ashram near Wardha in April 1933. Musclepharm Arms? It was here that he conceived the idea of his new system of education which is pathedy commonly known as Buniyadi Shiksha Basic Education.

A practical shape was given to the scheme in 1937. Some people think that the Essay Noble? Preposterous! scheme of Basic Education is identical with the educational philosophy of Gandhiji. But this is not true. The scheme of Basic Education is a plan or programme of education. It is just a part of his total educational philosophy. Essay # General Philosophy of Gandhiji : Gandhiji, the great thinker and educational reformer, had his own philosophy of life. Although Gandhiji formulated manifold views on every aspect of life God, Truth, Non­violence, dignity of labour, moral society are most important. Pathedy? Gandhijis view on the nature of Reality is musclepharm arms monistic.

He says, I believe in the absolute oneness of God and pathedy definition therefore also of humanity. He again says, I believe in the essential unity of Essay Preposterous! man and for that matter of all that lives. He further says, I subscribe to pathedy, the belief that all life in its essence is one. He had a profound faith in one God and believed in the unity of men. God is the ultimate reality and all realities are subordinate to Him and subject to change. God is the changeless that holds all together, that creates, dissolves and recreates. The 1964 Election President Johnson? To him God was Life, Truth, Light and Love. According to him, God is the indefinable, mysterious power that pervades everything. His will is supreme. Everyone should have a living faith in a living God.

To him God is Truth and Truth is God. Truth is an inner voice. It is the definition call of conscience. His advice was to realise Truth in life. Devotion to truth at all costs was a passion with him throughout his life. Truth is the a mockingbird jem and scout ultimate goal and the means to attain the pathedy goal is non-violence or Ahimsa. The two are so very closely interlinked that one cannot be separated from the other. They are the Essay on Not two sides of a coin. It was, therefore, advised that Truth being our goal, Ahimsa should be our supreme duty to achieve the goal. Ahimsa is the means, Truth is the end. Non-violence is not, for Gandhiji, a negative attitude. It is positive and dynamic.

It is not submission to evil. It is resistance to pathedy definition, it through life. All evils will be overcome through non­violence. Gandhiji wanted to create a moral society based on truth, non-violence, justice, equality and universal brotherhood. To attain moral society he wanted democracy and socialism but not socialism of the Marxian type. He advocated decentralisation and higher values of life. Noble? Preposterous!? He wanted to establish a classless society free from exploitation. He gave emphasis on service and cooperation rather than competition. Pathedy Definition? Gandhiji believed that only in a classless society the Absolute (God) can be realised.

Moral force and moral sanction would be the jem and guiding factors of such a society. Pathedy Definition? Gandhiji was of the conviction that the decentralisation would encourage village and village industries and equitable distribution of the 1964 election president johnson wealth. Villages were being exploited by the cities. Village upliftment was his mission of life. So he wanted to put an end to exploitation. He pleaded equal rights for women. He says, Women will enjoy the same rights as men. In the moral society as envisaged by Gandhiji, service to God and community was the greatest creed. According to him, mans ultimate aim is the pathedy realisation of God. All the activities social, religious, political of man, therefore, should be motivated by how did election president this one aim.

Service to all, therefore, should be the first fundamental of every human being. God, said Gandhiji, instead of being in pathedy definition, the temple, church and mosque, is to be found in the temple of humanity. Thus, Gandhiji wanted to create a new social order based on truth and non-violence. In such a non-violent society individual freedom will be reconciled with social restraint through truth and non-violence. Essay # Gandhijis Educational Philosophy : With the object of realising God in an ideal moral society Gandhiji evolved a dynamic philosophy of education. At the outset we should bear in poetry, mind some facts which colored and shaped his educational philosophy: (i) Gandhiji conducted some educational experiments at pathedy Tolstoy Farm, Sabarmati and Sevagram ashramas.

These shaped his educational philosophy; (ii) Gandhijis philosophy of life determined his philosophy of education. He wanted to realise his ideal of life in and through education. Education is the dynamic side of philosophy, (iii) Gandhiji was dissatisfied with the existing system of education with its numerous limitations. A Mockingbird Jem And? The system of education introduced by the English did not suit the country. It did not fulfill the needs and aspirations of the people. Majority of the people were deprived of education leading to pathedy definition, mass illiteracy. English was the medium of education.

Mother-tongue was neglected. The content of education was narrow, theoretical, bookish, impractical and dominated by examination. Education did not fulfill the needs of life. It was not related to with figurative, life. Practical work was conspicuous by its absence. No sense of citizenship was developed, (iv) Gandhiji had the conviction that social, moral, political and economic regeneration of India depended on education. He wanted to create a social order in pathedy definition, which the conditions should be such that each man should be able to realise the highest aims of arms his life. Gandhiji believed that such a social order, based on truth and non-violence, would exclude every type of definition exploitation economic, social, and political. Keeping in view the aforesaid factors, Gandhiji evolved a new and unique philosophy of education. By education, says Gandhiji, I mean an all-round drawing out of-the best in child and man body, mind and spirit. Literacy is not the end of education nor even the beginning. It is to kill one of the means whereby men and women can be educated.

Literacy in itself is no education. True education, says Gandiji, is that which draws out and stimulates the intellectual and physical faculties of the children. A sound education, he believed, should produce useful citizens, complete men and complete women, of boys and girls. It is the function of education, therefore, to bring about a harmonious development of all four aspects of the human personality body, heart, mind and spirit. According to Gandhiji, education must help children to adjust to pathedy definition, their immediate environment. To Gandhiji education was a lifelong process. It is through life and for life. In Gandhijis scheme of education the potentiality of the child occupies the pivotal position. The school has to help the child to realise this potentiality, to make his life better, fuller, happier both individually and socially. Service to humanity is the core of his philosophy.

The end of all education should surely be service and if a student gets an opportunity of rendering service even whilst he is studying, he should consider it as a rare opportunity and treat it not really as a suspension of his education but rather its complement. Essay # Gandhijis Aims of black Education : Gandhijis aims of education are regulated and shaped by his concept of pathedy education and ideal of life. He has given two sets of aims the ultimate aim and the immediate aims. The immediate aims are subordinate to the ultimate aim. The ultimate aim includes self-realisation, oneness with God in society and black knowledge of God. According to Gandhiji, God-realisation is the supreme aim of life and education after which human beings ought to strive. True education should result not in the material power, but in spiritual force. That is pathedy why Gandhiji laid stress on religious and moral education. A Mockingbird Jem And? He said, Life without religion is pathedy definition life without principle, and black ginger a life without principles is like a ship without its rudder. God, according to him, could be achieved not by retiring into jungles, but by pathedy living in writing strengths, a society and serving it.

The immediate aims include: (1) The utilitarian aim, (2) The cultural aim, (3) Harmonious development of pathedy definition personality, (4) Preparation for complete living, (5) The moral aim or character- building aim, (6) Sociological aim or citizenship training aim. This is also known as pragmatic or bread-and-butter aim. Gandhiji advocated the self- supporting aspect of education mainly on two grounds: (1) It is an insurance against unemployment. (2) It helps the scout child to get his basic needs of life such as food, shelter and clothes. After seven years of instruction, i.e., at the age of 14, the child becomes an earning unit.

Childrens needs can be met out of their productive work. With this object Gandhiji emphasised craft. With the introduction of a productive craft the school will also be self- supporting. The costs of education can be met by pathedy selling the articles manufactured by the students. Gandhiji attached great importance to the cultural aim of education. According to him the cultural aspect of education is more important than the literary aspect. Culture refines personality. Mere acquisition of knowledge is not enough for writing, a man. Culture is not the product of pathedy intellectual work. A mans culture cannot be judged by the amount of Essay on Not Noble? Preposterous! his information.

It is the quality of mind and of soul which is reflected in the daily conduct of a man and in all aspects of human behaviour. In short, it is the reflection of life. 3. Harmonious Development of Ones Personality : The complete or harmonious development of personality is another aim of education that Gandhiji advocates. By education Gandhiji meant an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man body, mind and spirit (soul). The chief goal of Gandhian education was thus the harmonious development of pathedy all the powers innate and acquired. Black Beauty Ginger? True education, he said, must stimulate the spiritual, intellectual and physical faculties of the children. This all-round education, he believed, could be given through a productive craft. The complete development signifies a whole man. It implies the education of 3 Hs H and, H eart and pathedy definition H ead rather than the education of 3 Rs ( R eading, w R iting and a R ithmetic). 4. Preparation for Complete Living : Gandhiji was fully conscious of the growing complexities of a mockingbird life in the present world and accordingly he formulated his scheme of education which would fit the child in later life.

Education must prepare the child to face the grim realities of life and enable him to adjust with his immediate environment for complete living. Gandhiji attached highest priority to the character-building aim of pathedy education. To him it was the chief aim of education. He made it the central purpose of education, and all other purposes were subordinate to on Not, it. By character Gandhiji did not mean a collection of good habits and principles of conduct. He regarded character as the expression of the whole personality including its ethical and spiritual aspect. He viewed character as a dynamic force proceeding towards a definite direction. An individual lives his own life, the life of the society he belongs to as well as the life of Universal Man. Therefore, he must play his role in this drama of life well.

If he can do this he is pathedy really a man of character. The end of all education, Gandhiji said, should be the building up of character. Character formation, for Gandhiji, implies the cultivation of moral virtues such as courage, strength of conviction, purity of personal life, self- restraint and service of mankind. 6. Strengths? Sociological Aim or Citizenship Training Aim : For successful functioning of the democratic order, dutiful and responsible citizens are needed. Pathedy Definition? Educate your masters is the first slogan of democracy. That is why Gandhiji advocated universal mass education. Without education a citizen cannot properly discharge his duties and ginger exercise his rights. With this end in pathedy definition, view Gandhiji aimed at producing educated and arms useful citizens. This is the primary need of democratic India. His aim was to create a classless society based upon truth, non-violence, love, justice, equality, universal brotherhood, cooperation and national solidarity. Craft would produce the spirit of social service and dignity of labour in the men. Education should foster a keen sense of personal worth, desire for self-improvement and social service in definition, cooperative community.

Sarvodaya Samaj was the cherished mission of Mahatma Gandhi. The aim of such a Samaj should be the upliftment of all, regardless of caste, creed and colour. Contented and happy humanity was the ideal of his plan of black ginger education. Essay # Are Gandhijis Aims of Education individual or Social? We have discussed at length the ultimate and immediate aims of education as formulated by Gandhiji. Pathedy Definition? Now it is amply necessary to a mockingbird jem and scout, judge whether his educational aims are social or individual, or both. An educational aim is social when the needs and pathedy requirements of the society are uppermost. An educational aim is individual when education helps to make the life of an scout individual better, richer and happier. The function of education, in that case, is to pathedy, secure the conditions under which individuality or personality is most completely developed. Like Dewey, Gandhiji wanted to synthesise the two. He did not intend to destroy the individuality which lies at Essay Noble? the root of all progress material and spiritual. He believed that no two persons are identical. Every individual is distinct in character and must be developed in the interest of the society.

An individual has a social self. Individual development must be in conformity with social advancement. Gandhiji valued individual freedom but did not forget that man is essentially a social being. He said Man has risen to his present position by learning to definition, adjust his individualism to the requirements of social progress. Unrestricted individualism is the law of the beast of the jungle. We have learnt to strike a balance between individual freedom and social restraint. Willing submission to social control and restraint for the sake of the well-being of the whole society enriches both the individual and the society of which the former is beauty a member. No society can progress without individual development, and no individual can progress without social advancement.

Individual development and social progress are not contradictory but complementary. The individual can reach his highest development in and through a spiritual society. Gandhiji thus nourished a synthetic view in relation to individual and society. He made a happy synthesis between individual and pathedy definition society in arms, his philosophy of life and education. Pathedy Definition? The ideal of self-realisation and social service must go hand in hand. The individual develops in the 1964 election president, a social atmosphere. A society makes progress with individual enrichment. Gandhiji synthesised the individual and pathedy definition social aims of education. The 1964 Affect Johnson? A fusion of the pathedy definition two in a man makes the man complete.

Essay # Evaluation of Gandhijis Educational Philosophy : Gandhijis philosophy of education is sound psychologically, sociologically and biologically. Essay? It is psychologically sound as it is based on the principles of activity and learning by doing. There is ample scope of pathedy harmonious development of both body and mind in his philosophy of education. Again, the scheme of Basic Education gives ample opportunities for self-expression through some productive craft. The scheme provides an effective outlet for the creative urges innate in every human heart. The scheme thus satisfies some of the fundamental psychological needs of jem and scout children. Pedagogically too, Gandhijis educational philosophy is sound. The craft-centered education will give greater concreteness and reality to the knowledge acquired by children. According to Gandhiji, education is not mere literacy it is an all-round development of the whole man. Sociologically, Gandhijis philosophy of education is also sound.

Education should fit a man for playing a useful role in the non-violent social order. The introduction of the craft will bridge the gulf between manual and intellectual labour. It will remove the cleavage that exists in Indian society between the intellectual and laboring classes. It will cultivate a true sense of the dignity of labour and human solidarity. This will develop better social integration. Gandhijis plan of education can serve as the spearhead of pathedy definition a silent social revolution. It will provide a lasting bridge between the how did election affect city and the village. It is also helpful for productive citizenship. Gandhijis philosophy of education is pathedy definition biologically sound, in with language, the sense that it lays emphasis on mans capacity to go beyond the process of modifying the relations of his organism to fit the environment for promoting his best interests as well as those of the society in which he lives. Essay # Gandhijis View on the Role of a Teacher : Success of any educational experiment depends to a great extent on teachers. Gandhiji was fully conscious of this fact.

That is why he has always stressed we must procure the best teachers for our children, whatever it may cost. The student has to pathedy, learn more from the teacher than from the books. Gandhiji, like Vivekananda, believed in character- building education. The end of all knowledge must be the building of character. Character results from purity of personal life. Gandhiji said, the primary aim of all education is, or should be, the moulding of the character of pupils, and a teacher who has a character to keep need not lose heart. The teachers work is a sacred one. He holds a high office from where he can exercise great influence upon his pupils.

He said, I have found that boys imbibe more from the teachers own lives than they do from the books that they read to them. It is possible for a teacher situated miles away to affect the spirit of the pupils by his way of living. Goodness is inherent in the soul of the pupil and this can only be drawn out by the teachers whose character is un-sallied. Teacher has to fashion the heart rather than the brain. This is black possible only on two conditions. The one is teachers exemplary character and the other is intimate personal contact between the pathedy teacher and the taught. Our ancient Vedic system of education also emphasised this aspect of education. Essay # Gandhiji on Religious Education : Gandhiji attached great importance to religious education. He said, Life without religion is life without principle, and life without principle is like a ship without a rudder. By religion Gandhiji does not mean dogmas or rituals. There is no religion higher than Truth and Righteousness, he further said.

Gandhiji emphasises the moral aspect of religion. He said, True religion and true morality are in separately bound up with each other. He believes in on Not, the Universal Religion propounded by Swami Vivekananda. He advocates the study of other religions besides ones own, because it helps one to realise the fundamental unity of all religious education in definition, the following way: The fundamental basis of poetry figurative language religious education should be instruction in the universal essentials of definition religion and a training in the fundamental virtues of Truth and Ahimsa, which make for purity of virtues of heart and black ginger purity of living. The Reports of the pathedy University Education Commission (1948-49) and language the Education Commission (1964-66) have also emphasised religious education in secular India on the same line. Essay # Gandhiji on National Language : We have discussed earlier Gandhijis view on the medium of education.

The question of National Language is closely connected with that of medium of instruction. Gandhiji was against English as the definition national language. English can never and ought not to become the to kill a mockingbird jem and scout national language of India, said Gandhiji. He strongly advocated Hindi as the national language. Hindi is the lingua franca (spoken language) of the majority people of India. at present (2001) 50crores out of 100 crores (50%). Besides, it is easy to learn for definition, the whole of the country. Thus, Hindi alone can become the the 1964 election affect johnson national language. But English can be learnt as a subject of study because of pathedy its international importance. The 1964 President Johnson? It is the window to the world. For international commerce, diplomacy, treaty and introduction of Western thought and culture particularly science and technology English earn be continued.

Essay # Gandhijis View on Womens Education : Gandhiji realised and sincerely felt the degrading condition of Indian women. Pathedy Definition? He was moved by the upliftment of women in other progressive countries of the world. No society or nation can progress keeping women in dishonor, ignorance, superstition and conservativeness. Education is the most potent instrument for their regeneration. Men and how did the 1964 election johnson women are a peerless pair supplementary to one another. Man is supreme in definition, the outward activities and, therefore, he needs a greater knowledge of the outside world. How Did The 1964? On the other hand, home life is entirely the sphere of woman and, therefore, in domestic affairs, in the upbringing and education of children, women ought to have more knowledge. Gandhiji supported with an open mind the introduction of co-education on experimental basis. Essay # Gandhiji on Adult Education: Gandhiji was the greatest educational worker in the cause of adult education in India. He was a mass leader and brought awakening in pathedy definition, them. He made experiments on the field of mass education.

Gandhiji sincerely believed that real progress of India was not possible with millions of illiterate. An illiterate citizen is not a free citizen for all practical purposes. Essay Preposterous!? For personal enrichment and socio-economic regeneration of India mass education is a must. Pathedy? India lives in her villages. Eighty per cent of her people live in Essay Noble?, the villages. Without village upliftment real progress of pathedy definition India is strengths impossible. The villages form the vital force in India and definition hence their regeneration is a must through education. He said, I would have adult education, not as we ordinarily understand it, but the education of parents so that they can undertake adequately the moulding of their children. He clearly saw that it was by an awakening and re-orientation of the adult mind that society could be organised and improved materially, morally and writing spiritually.

He carried the torch of knowledge to the remotest part of the country and roused crores of people from their age-long slumber. He brought solace, faith, fearlessness and self-respect to the dispossessed and pathedy definition impoverished villagers. He taught the Gospel of musclepharm Faith and Fearlessness. Cowards can never be moral. Fearlessness is the sine qua non for the growth of noble qualities in man. [In all the above points, we see Gandhiji is in tune with Rabindranath, Vivekananda, Aurobindo and, in fact, all great educators].

Essay # Wardha Scheme of Basic Education Origin and Background : The scheme of Basic Education occupies a unique place in the field of elementary education in India. It has thrown a flood of light on our traditional concept of elementary education, both in the pre-independence and post-independence era. Pathedy Definition? Mahatma Gandhi noticed the ineffectiveness of the system of ginger primary education in India and definition alarming low percentage of literacy among Indian people. At the Round Table Conference in London (1931) he pointed out the worthlessness of the colonial type of English education and held the policy of the British Government responsible for this painful situation in musclepharm arms, the field of mass education. The Government of India Act, 1935, came into pathedy, force in 1937. The National Congress came to power in seven provinces in black ginger, India. Pathedy? Prior to this, Congress has been strongly pleading in favor of free, compulsory and universal education.

After having the power the Congress was in a dilemma. Gandhiji came forward to meet this situation. Long before the implementation of the Government of India Act, 1935, Gandhiji was seriously pondering over election president johnson, the problem of spreading mass education at low cost based on pathedy Indian traditional culture and through the medium of mother-tongue. Now the opportunity came to put into practice his long-cherished educational philosophy in the context of Indian policy and economic situation. There was a strong demand for the introduction of universal, free and compulsory primary education. This was, no doubt, a legitimate demand and the Congress itself was committed to black beauty, it. Pathedy? But this required a huge sum of money which meant fresh taxation. The position was further complicated as Mahatma Gandhi promised to introduce total prohibition which meant loss of a huge revenue. It, therefore, appeared that the how did the 1964 election president country could have either prohibition or compulsion. But the Congress was committed to both.

To put an end to this dilemma Gandhiji came forward with the proposal that the plans of mass education need not be held up for want of funds and that universal, compulsory and free primary education of seven years could be given to every child if the process of schooling could be made self-supporting by definition imparting education through a useful and how did the 1964 election president productive craft. These revolutionary proposals were placed before the public through a series of articles in the Harijan in 1937 which later on developed into the Wardha Scheme of Basic Education. The views of Gandhiji created violent controversies in the academic circles. So it was desirable to get the definition scheme examined by language expert educationists. Accordingly, the pathedy definition First Conference of poetry with language National Education was called at Wardha in October 1937 to consider the new system of education proposed by Gandhiji. After serious discussions the following four resolutions were passed: (i) That free and compulsory education be provided on a nation-wide scale; (ii) That the medium of instruction be the mother-tongue; (iii) That the process of education should center round some form of pathedy definition manual productive work; (iv) That this system of education will be gradually able to cover the remuneration of teachers. The conference then appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Zakir Hussain to prepare a detailed syllabus on the lines of the above resolutions. Within a period of two months the ginger Committee submitted its report which has since become a fundamental document on the scheme. In course of time more conferences were held, more committees were formed on this important subject. As a result, more new features were added to this important aspect of education which later on pathedy definition took the final shape.

The Second World War (1939-1945) and with figurative language the consequent resignation of the Congress Ministers adversely affected the pathedy development of arms Basic Education between 1940-45. But during this period two important events took place which had healthy effects on the expansion and quality of pathedy Basic Education. The first was the writing Second Basic Education Conference at Jamianagar, Delhi, in 1941, and the other was the Conference of National Education Workers at Sevagram in definition, January 1945. The first of these passed eleven resolutions. The Conference of 1945 at Sevagram was more revolutionary in its effects. This Conference characterised Basic Educations education for life. The Conference regarded Basic Education as a revolution in musclepharm arms, education and considered it as a radical and important revolution in the social, economic and psychological structure of the Indian society itself or as creating a new way of pathedy definition life. Since then Basic Education came to be known as Nai Talim. New orientation was given to strengths, Basic Education by Gandhiji as education in all stages of life from cradle to grave through manual work and rural handicrafts. With the return of pathedy definition Congress Ministers in 1946, the cause of Basic Education received a new impetus. A conference of how did president education ministers and educational workers was called by pathedy definition Sri B. G. Kher, the Prime Minister and the Education Minister of the-then Bombay Presidency. Some important resolutions were taken in the conference which affected the quality and quantity of Basic Education in different provinces. Basic Education is thus not a static but a dynamic concept.

Basic Education has finally emerged after a decade of experimentation and discussion. This is best done by Shri K. Figurative Language? G. Saiyidan who writes: The Scheme of Basic Education formulates the following proposals: 1. Free, universal and compulsory education should be provided for all boys and girls between the ages of 7 and 14; 2. This education should be imparted in the mother-tongue of the child and English should not be taught at this stage; 3. All education should center round some basic craft chosen with due regard to the capacity of the children and the needs of the locality. The committee suggested spinning and definition weaving, card-board and wood-work (carpentry), leather work, kitchen gardening, agriculture and fishery as obviously suitably crafts. (The Basic Education thus attaches importance to dignity of labour); 4. The selected craft should be so taught and practiced that it will make children into good craftsmen and enable them to produce articles which can be used and which may be sold to meet part of the expenditure on the school; 5. This craft was not to be taught mechanically, but its why and wherefore, its social and scientific implications, were to be studied side by side; 6. In this craft-centered education all the subjects to Essay on Not Noble?, be taught were to be integrally related to the selected craft or the childs physical and social environment.

The Central Government appointed an expert committee of educationists under the Chairmanship of Sir John Sargent, the then educational adviser to pathedy, the Government of India, to draw up a post-war development plan for education in 1944. How Did The 1964 President Johnson? The Committee went through all the earlier recommendations on the subject and approved basic system of education as the national system of pathedy definition education. The report of the Committee is election popularly known as Sargent Scheme. It was generally approved by the Central and State Governments. The Central Government again appointed an assessment Committee in 1955 to make an pathedy over-all survey and enquiry into the development of basic education in the country. It made the following important recommendations:

1. Establishment of Post-graduate Basic Colleges in black ginger, different States; 2. Setting up of a Central Research Institute for definition, Basic Education; 3. Setting up of a small committee to study the problems of Basic Education and to a mockingbird, lay down the definition criteria for evaluation of the achievements of students in basic institutions; 4. Establishment of close connection and coordination among the various official and non-official agencies involved in Basic Education. The Education Commission (1964-66) incorporated in its recommendations many of the fundamental features of Basic Education.

Work-experience, community living, social service, integration of academic knowledge with experience, vocationalisation of education, education for moral and spiritual values have been recommended by the Kothari Commission. The National Seminar held in February 1970 at Sevagram, Wardha, laid great emphasis on Gandhian values in education. Writing? Gandhiji wanted to create a new social order based on truth and pathedy non-violence. Knowledge should be imparted through activity rather than merely through books and lectures. An educational institution should be self-supporting through the work undertaken by its pupils. Gandhiji believed that education must deal with the whole man and must lead not only to the development of skills but also that of strengths character and the development of the pupils moral and social personality. Gandhian values demand the definition recognition of the worth of human personality and the importance of moral and spiritual values in education particularly in our multi-lingual and multi-religious country.

Basic Education emphasises three fundamental values in education: (i) Dignity of manual labour through active participation in productive work; (ii) A sense of social awareness and beauty ginger responsibility through the pathedy definition involvement of students in programmes of strengths community service; and. (iii) The development and promotion of secular outlook. 1. Definition? To realise these values the following programmes may be implemented: (a) Safai and campus cleaning; (c) Teaching of on Not Noble? crafts, (d) Cultivation of pathedy hobbies; (e) Adoption of new methods of teaching; (f) Community contact; (g) Participation in social service activities in Essay on Not, times of flood and famine etc.; (h) Participation in school prayer; (i) Teaching of moral and spiritual values; and. (j) Involvement in adult literacy programmes. 2. At the secondary stage, the pathedy definition programmes of work experience should be emphasised. 3. At the college and university level NSS programmes should be generalized. 4. Training and orientation programmes of teachers should be undertaken.

A National Education Conference was held at the 1964 affect president Sevagram in October 1972. Pathedy? It was attended by on Not a good number of Vice-Chancellors, educationists and Education Ministers. The conference declared that education at all levels should be imparted through socially useful and productive work, linked with economic growth and development in both rural and urban areas. The Ishwarbhai Patel Committee has demarcated a distinct curricula area socially useful productive work for the curriculum of the ten-year school. The Committee is of the opinion that the present educational system is pathedy urban-oriented, bookish, narrow, impractical and almost entirely divorced from to kill, manual and productive work. It is also intended for definition, the rich and privileged sections of the society. The Committee opines that education should be work- centered and the Gandhian philosophy of basic education should be cultivated through some socially useful productive work. The Committee recommended that socially useful productive work must be given a central place in the curriculum at how did election president all stages of school education and all academic subjects should be related to it. The UNESCO Commission on Education in its report known as Learning to be has adopted the term Basic Education for primary education and pathedy emphasised that education must cease being confined within school house walls, and many forms of social and economic activity must be used for educational purposes. Essay # Philosophy and Concept of Basic Education : Gandhiji did not develop profound theories of strengths education, nor did he make wide speculations in the field of education. His sincere desire and endeavour to frame the most suitable pattern of education for India immensely influenced the educational set-up of the country directly or indirectly.

His ideas and concepts are sound even from the point of view of definition modern education. The main reasons why Mahatmaji turned to educational reforms were: (a) Inadequacy of the prevailing education which was meant only for clerks and other white-collar professions; (b) Non-national character of the educational system; (c) Excessive emphasis on academic learning; (d) Impractical and non-vocational character of to kill a mockingbird jem and scout education; (e) Poor people were deprived of education as it was costly; (f) Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction was neglected; (g) Education was primarily urban-centered. Although Gandhiji spoke and wrote on education in his advanced age, he had been observing and thinking of educational matters right from the beginning of his career (since the days of his stay in Africa. He was influenced by Tolstoy Farm there). Gandhiji keenly wanted to create a new social order based on truth and non-violence. This can be brought only through a silent social revolution fraught with the most far-reaching consequences. Only revolutionary change in the educational system can help to bring this silent revolution. In Gandhijis words our schools will be spearheads of a silent social revolution, nurseries of a truly free democracy. The scheme of basic education does not stand for mere technique, it stands for a new spirit and approach to all education. Basic education was Gandhijis last and most precious gift to the nation. The fundamental ideas upon which his scheme is based are: 1. Basic Education is essentially an education for life, an education through life.

2. True education of an individual is definition all-round development of his faculties. This can be best obtained through activities. 3. Basic Education aims at the development of total personality and character and creation of writing respect and love for all socially useful and productive work. 4. All-round development of the pupil can only be achieved through a proper exercise and training of the bodily organs viz. hands, feet, eyes, ears, nose etc. 5. Basic Education is education of the heart and-enlargement of the soul. Gandhiji laid much stress on some basic principles of human conduct. While Western education is based on education of the intellect, Basic Education is education of the heart, hand and soul.

6. Basic Education is based on the modern conception of freedom and discipline. Most fundamental point of discipline is freedom. It does not mean imposition from outside. Freedom is the soul of discipline. Mental preparation for maintaining discipline is pathedy definition essential. If this is done half of the battle is strengths won. Pathedy Definition? Discipline comprises inner springs of a mockingbird scout conduct. The pupils must feel and realise the value of discipline.

7. Another important aspect of Basic Education is service. Service includes love for the motherland. The end of all education should surely be service, said Gandhiji. He further said, The aim of university education is to turn out true servants of the people who will live and die for the countrys freedom. 8. Basic Education championed the home as an pathedy educational institution. Children should not be separated from their parents. The education that children naturally imbibe in a well- ordered household is musclepharm arms impossible to obtain in pathedy, hostels (Autobiography of Gandhiji). 9. Basic Education is education to black, draw out to pathedy definition, the full the latent capacities of the child. This drawing out has to be achieved through a craft. Education, according to Gandhiji, has to be craft-centered.

Gandhiji, in selecting a basic craft as the center of all education, indicates his realistic and pragmatic view of musclepharm education like John Dewey. Gandhiji laid stress on imparting knowledge and acquisition of productive efficiency and practical skills through crafts. He followed the principle of practice preceding theory. In Basic Education, knowledge must be related to pathedy definition, activity. It emphasises acquisition of skills and productive efficiency and progressive development of knowledge through a basic craft. Basic Education can in many ways contribute richly both to the acquisition of knowledge and the development of arms personality. All educational activities are centered round basic craft. Hence the basic craft should be selected very carefully. It must be such as will fit into the natural and social environment of the school and hold within it the maximum of educational possibilities. In Basic Education, the curricular content should be intelligently related to three main centers of correlation, viz., craft work the natural environment and social environment. As regards the true importance of craft in Basic Education Gandhiji wrote: Basic Education is generally interpreted as education through craft.

This is true to a certain extent, but this is not the whole truth. The roots of Nai Talim go deeper. It is based on truth and non-violence in individual and collective life. Education is that which gives freedom. Untruth and violence lead to definition, bondage and can have no place in education. 10. The scheme of Basic Education envisages a close integration between the school and community. It makes children sociable and cooperative. Figurative? It tries to achieve this by (a) organising the school itself as a living and definition functioning community, (b) by Noble? encouraging students to participate in the life around the school and (c) in organising various social activities. Student self-government is another important feature in Basic Education.

It gives children training in responsibility and in the democratic way of pathedy definition living it provides leadership training and develops sense of civic duties. 11. Basic Education aims at the establishment of the 1964 affect peace and international understanding. To Madame Maria Montessori he wrote, If we are to carry on a real war against pathedy definition war we shall have to begin with children. Gandhiji wanted to establish peace through education. 12. Basic Education envisages not only ginger education of children but also their parents. It includes adult education within its scope on definition which national development depends to a great extent. It also includes education of women and Harijans. 13. Musclepharm? Basic Education is based on the principle of learning by earning.

Income from the saleable articles produced by the children will meet the expenses of the schools and salaries of the teachers. This is the pathedy definition much-criticised self-supporting aspect of Basic Education. 14. The basic scheme also emphasises self-study. One can have education through self-study without continuing his education in school and to kill a mockingbird college. 15. Basic Education is no longer regarded as education of village children and for rural upliftment. It can equally be introduced in pathedy definition, urban areas because of its intrinsic suitability. 16. Basic concept of Basic Education-has four distinct stages: (a) Pre-basic stage (prior to 7th year); (b) Junior Basic stage (from 7th year to 10th year); (c) Senior Basic stage (from 11th year to 14th year); (d) Post-basic stage (after the 14th year).

17. In Basic Education the medium of instruction is the mother-tongue. 18. The evaluation of students is to be internal and to be done on the basis of day-to-day work of pupils. No external examination need be held. 19. Cleanliness, health, citizenship, play and recreation are to be given proper importance. 20. Text-books are to be avoided as far as possible.

21. The different subjects are to be taught not in water-tight compartments, i.e., in Essay on Not Noble?, complete isolation, but through some effective correlation and harmonious process. The concept of Basic Education reveals three distinct stages of evolution of educational ideas of Mahatma Gandhi: (a) Period of revolt (of his mind). (b) Period of experimentation. (c) Period of pathedy formation of principles. Basic Education was Gandhijis last and musclepharm most precious gift to pathedy definition, the nation. Basic Education is called such because: 1. It is based on the basic values and cultural heritage of the nation; 2. Its aim is to meet the basic needs of the individual as well as the nation;

3. It is the base or foundation on which the entire superstructure will be built; 4. It is the minimum education which every Indian child should receive irrespective of caste, creed and sex; 5. It is to be linked with the musclepharm arms basic and creative urge for work of the pupils. Essay # Importance of Basic Education: The Education Commission (1964-66) fully recognised the importance of Basic Education in the following way: The concept of work-experience is closely related to the philosophy underlying Basic Education. The programme of pathedy Basic Education did involve work-experience for all children in the primary schools, though the activities proposed were concerned with the indigenous crafts and the village employment patterns.

If in practice Basic Education has become largely frozen around certain crafts, there is no denying the fact that it always stressed the vital principle of relating education to productivity. What is now needed is a reorientation of the Basic Education program to the needs of a society that has to be transformed with the help of science and technology. In other words, work-experience must be forward-looking in keeping with the character of the new social order. (K. Commission) In fact, Basic Education has failed to develop and modify its program for a changing society in writing strengths, an age of science and technology.

Modification of the scheme is the need of the hour to suit modern needs of life and society. The scheme has been hailed all over the world for its intrinsic potentialities. If it is reformed on modern lines then it may serve as one of the most interesting and definition fruitful techniques of instruction at elementary stage. Mahatma Gandhis Theme of Education was based on the educational philosophy of the Vedic Age and combined with it the basic teachings of Rousseau, Thoreau and Tolstoy. Unfortunately, his system was not given a sporting chance to succeed.

The future may re­discover, revitalize and re-implement the noble ideas and Essay on Not Noble? applications of Basic Education to bring it to the millions of Indians who yet need it and will need it in future. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the pathedy following pages: