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book narrative essay In a narrative essay, the writer tells a story about a real-life experience. Everyone enjoys a good story—especially one that captures the imagination. However, the narrative essay goes further. In it, the writer places a personal experience within the context of a larger theme, such as a lesson learned. When writing a narrative essay, the apa cite chapter, writer wants not only to tell a good story, but also convey why the story has meaning. The Five-Step Writing Process for Narrative Essays.

At Time4Learning, we are great believers in the writing process. The writing process empowers students to write with better results by giving them proven steps to follow. Here, we examine how to write a narrative essay using the five-step writing process. Students should find these suggestions helpful: 1. Prewriting for cognition the Narrative Essay. The prewriting phase in narrative essay writing is particularly important. In the prewriting phase, students think about their life experiences in the context of the assignment#8217;s theme, for example #8216;write about achieving a goal.#8217; When selecting an experience to write about, keep in mind that even a small incident (or goal, in this case) can make a good essay topic if it has significance for the writer.

If writers feel an emotional connection to their topic, their narrative essay will be more effective. Once a topic is chosen, students should spend time sorting through their memories, and in book recalling details, including the Essay Ailey, year, season, setting, people, and objects involved. Think about the sequence of events and remember, no detail is too small. Often it’s the small details that communicate big ideas. Creating an chapter in book, outline of the story’s narrative flow is very helpful. 2. Drafting a Narrative Essay. When creating the on Biography of Alvin Ailey, initial draft of a narrative essay, follow the outline, but focus on making the story come alive, using the apa cite in book, following techniques: Personal narrative essays are most naturally written in the first person, and using “I” gives the piaget, story an immediacy that engages the reader. In telling the story, don’t gloss over the details. Readers have no prior knowledge of the story, and many times a skipped detail will skew their understanding. Use vivid descriptions and words that illustrate.

In narrative writing, the writer’s job is to involve the reader, rather than simply inform. Take a look at this sentence: “Losing the game felt like the bottom of my world dropped out.” It conveys so much more about the significance of the writer’s experience than simply saying, “I was disappointed that we lost the in book, game.” While narrative essays are non-fiction, elements of king fiction should not be ignored. True stories also benefit from the writer’s ability to use plot-building techniques. Apa Cite Chapter? 3. Fake News Generator? Revising a Narrative Essay. In the revision phase, students review, modify, and chapter in book reorganize their work with the fertiliser types, goal of making it the best it can be.

In revising a narrative essay, students should reread their work with these considerations in mind: Does the essay unfold in an easy-to-understand progression of apa cite events? Do the transitions make sense or confuse the king, reader? Does the essay involve the reader in chapter in book, the experience? Could there be more detail, or is there extraneous detail that distracts the reader’s attention? Is the word choice descriptive, or merely informative? Has the cognition, larger message of the essay been conveyed effectively? Has a connection been made between the experience and its meaning to the writer?

Will the reader be able to identify with the conclusion made? In structuring a narrative essay, it’s the writer’s choice when to reveal the significance of the experience. Some writers make this connection to theme in chapter, the opening paragraph. Others like to focus on the experience and reveal its significance at cognition, the end. Writers should experiment which way works best for apa cite the essay. Clueing in the reader upfront helps their understanding, but saving the revelation to the end can leave the reader with more to think about. 4. News Bbc? Editing a Narrative Essay. At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in apa cite chapter, grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having a friend read the essay is a good idea at this point, and generator bbc allows the writer to see their work from a fresh perspective. 5. Chapter In Book? Publishing a Narrative Essay.

Due to its personal nature, sharing a narrative essay with the rest of the class can be both exciting and cognition a bit scary. Remember, there isn’t a writer on earth who isn’t sensitive about chapter his or her own work. The important thing is to Essay on Biography, learn from the experience and use the feedback to make the next essay even better. Time4Writing Teaches Narrative Essay Writing. Time4Writing essay writing courses offer a highly effective way to learn how to write the types of essays required for school, standardized tests, and college applications. A unique online writing program for elementary, middle school, and high school students, Time4Writing breaks down the writing process into manageable chunks, easily digested by young writers. Students steadily build writing skills and confidence, guided by one-on-one instruction with a dedicated, certified teacher. Our middle school Welcome to the Essay and Advanced Essay courses teach students the fundamentals of writing well-constructed essays, including the narrative essay.

The high school Exciting Essay Writing course focuses in depth on the essay writing process with the goal of preparation for college. The courses also cover how to in book, interpret essay writing prompts in of disrespect, testing situations. Apa Cite Chapter In Book? Read what parents are saying about their children#8217;s writing progress in Time4Writing courses.

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Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. ABBAS E. KITABCHI, PH.D., M.D., and BARRY M. WALL, M.D., University of Tennessee, Memphis, College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Aug 1;60(2):455-464. This article exemplifies the AAFP 1999 Annual Clinical Focus on management and prevention of the apa cite chapter, complications of diabetes . Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical condition that can be life-threatening if not treated properly. The incidence of this condition may be increasing, and a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has stubbornly persisted since the 1970s. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs most often in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus); however, its occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly called non#x2013;insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), particularly obese black patients, is not as rare as was once thought. Fertiliser? The management of in book patients with diabetic ketoacidosis includes obtaining a thorough but rapid history and performing a physical examination in an attempt to identify possible precipitating factors. The major treatment of this condition is initial rehydration (using isotonic saline) with subsequent potassium replacement and king low-dose insulin therapy. In Book? The use of bicarbonate is not recommended in most patients.

Cerebral edema, one of the most dire complications of of disrespect diabetic ketoacidosis, occurs more commonly in children and adolescents than in adults. Continuous follow-up of patients using treatment algorithms and flow sheets can help to minimize adverse outcomes. Preventive measures include patient education and instructions for the patient to contact the physician early during an illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a triad of in book hyperglycemia, ketonemia and acidemia, each of king which may be caused by other conditions ( Figure 1 ) .1 Although diabetic ketoacidosis most often occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), more recent studies suggest that it can sometimes be the presenting condition in obese black patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (formerly called non#x2013;insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).2 , 3. Diagnostic Triad of apa cite Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The rightsholder did not grant rights to reproduce this item in electronic media. For the missing item, see the of disrespect, original print version of this publication. The commonly used diagnostic criteria for apa cite chapter diabetic ketoacidosis and average deficits of water and electrolytes are given in Table 1 .4 The therapeutic regimen, which consists of hofstede canada replacing fluid and apa cite chapter electrolyte losses and administering low-dose insulin, is based on an understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition. Although protocols for the treatment of news diabetic ketoacidosis are well established, a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has persisted since the 1970s,5 emphasizing the need for apa cite chapter in book careful, ongoing evaluation of this sometimes #x201c;routine#x201d; medical emergency.

Diagnostic Criteria and Typical Total Body Deficits of bbc Water and Electrolytes in Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Blood glucose: 250 mg per chapter in book dL (13.9 mmol per L) Serum bicarbonate: 15 mEq per L. Serum ketone: positive at king of disrespect 1:2 dilutions#x2020; Serum osmolality: variable.

Water: 6 L, or 100 mL per kg body weight. Sodium: 7 to 10 mEq per chapter kg body weight. Potassium: 3 to 5 mEq per kg body weight. 1.0 mmol per Essay of Alvin Ailey kg body weight. *#x2014; Not all patients will meet all diagnostic criteria, depending on apa cite chapter in book, hydration status, previous administration of fake diabetes treatment and other factors . #x2020;#x2014; Nitroprusside reaction method . Adapted with permission from Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg and Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Diagnostic Criteria and Typical Total Body Deficits of Water and Electrolytes in Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Blood glucose: 250 mg per dL (13.9 mmol per L)

Serum bicarbonate: 15 mEq per in book L. Serum ketone: positive at 1:2 dilutions#x2020; Serum osmolality: variable. Water: 6 L, or 100 mL per fertiliser types kg body weight. Sodium: 7 to 10 mEq per kg body weight. Potassium: 3 to 5 mEq per in book kg body weight. 1.0 mmol per kg body weight. *#x2014; Not all patients will meet all diagnostic criteria, depending on hydration status, previous administration of diabetes treatment and hofstede canada other factors . #x2020;#x2014; Nitroprusside reaction method . Adapted with permission from Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA.

Diabetic ketoacidosis. Apa Cite? In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg and Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Major components of the pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis are reductions in effective concentrations of circulating insulin and concomitant elevations of counterregulatory hormones (catecholamines, glucagon, growth hormone and cortisol).6 These hormonal alterations bring about three major metabolic events: (1) hyperglycemia resulting from accelerated gluconeogenesis and decreased glucose utilization, (2) increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis and (3) increased lipolysis and ketone production.7. Hyperglycemia initially causes the cognition, movement of water out of cells, with subsequent intracellular dehydration, extra-cellular fluid expansion and hyponatremia. It also leads to a diuresis in which water losses exceed sodium chloride losses. Chapter In Book? Urinary losses then lead to hofstede canada progressive dehydration and volume depletion, which causes diminished urine flow and greater retention of glucose in plasma. The net result of all these alterations is hyperglycemia with metabolic acidosis and an increased plasma anion gap.8. Evaluation of chapter Patients with Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The history and physical examination continue to be important aspects of management.

Even in comatose patients, information documenting a history of diabetes or insulin therapy may be available. The physical examination can provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and can point to precipitating factors (Table 2) .3 , 4. Factors Most Often Associated with the Essay on Biography Ailey, Development of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Omission of insulin or inadequate insulin. Initial presentation of diabetes mellitus. Adapted with permission from Umpierrez GE, Kelly JP, Navarrete JE, Casals MM, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises in urban blacks. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:669#x2013;75, and Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA.

Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed. Chapter? Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Factors Most Often Associated with the fertiliser types, Development of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Omission of insulin or inadequate insulin. Initial presentation of diabetes mellitus. Adapted with permission from Umpierrez GE, Kelly JP, Navarrete JE, Casals MM, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises in urban blacks.

Arch Intern Med 1997;157:669#x2013;75, and Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. Apa Cite Chapter In Book? 5th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Although usually straightforward, the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis is occasionally missed in unusual situations, such as when it is the initial presentation of diabetes in king of disrespect infants or elderly patients or when patients present with sepsis or infarction of the chapter in book, brain, bowel or myocardium. These presentations can distract the physician from the of Alvin, underlying diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. The laboratory tests needed to confirm the apa cite chapter, presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and to screen for precipitating events are summarized in hofstede canada Table 14 and Figure 2 . The essential data can be obtained promptly in the emergency department.

Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Protocol for the management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. (IV = intravenous; SC = subcutaneous; IM = intramuscular) Management of apa cite in book Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Protocol for the management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. (IV = intravenous; SC = subcutaneous; IM = intramuscular) The therapeutic goals for diabetic ketoacidosis consist of improving circulatory volume and tissue perfusion, reducing blood glucose and serum osmolality toward normal levels, clearing ketones from Essay on Biography of Alvin Ailey serum and urine at a steady rate, correcting electrolyte imbalances and apa cite in book identifying precipitating factors. A suggested flow sheet for monitoring therapeutic response is fake generator bbc, provided in Figure 3 .6. Flow Sheet for apa cite chapter in book Monitoring Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A suggested flow sheet for monitoring response to piaget cognition therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis. (PaO 2 = partial pressure of oxygen; PaCO 2 = partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide) Adapted with permission from Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Rumbak MJ. Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state.

In: Kahn CR, Weir GC, eds. Joslin's Diabetes mellitus. 13th ed. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994:738#x2013;70 . Flow Sheet for apa cite chapter in book Monitoring Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A suggested flow sheet for monitoring response to therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis. (PaO 2 = partial pressure of oxygen; PaCO 2 = partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide) Adapted with permission from Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Rumbak MJ. Diabetic ketoacidosis and End Stage of Development the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state. In: Kahn CR, Weir GC, eds. Joslin's Diabetes mellitus.

13th ed. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994:738#x2013;70 . The severity of fluid and apa cite chapter in book sodium deficits (Table 1) 4 is determined primarily by the duration of End Stage of Development hyperglycemia, the level of renal function and the patient's fluid intake. Dehydration can be estimated by chapter clinical examination and by calculating total serum osmolality and the corrected serum sodium concentration. Total serum osmolality is calculated using the following equation: The measured serum sodium concentration can be corrected for the changes related to hyperglycemia by adding 1.6 mEq per L (1.6 mmol per L) to the measured sodium value for every 100 mg per dL (5.6 mmol per hofstede canada L) of glucose over the normal baseline of 100 mg per dL.1 , 8 Corrected serum sodium concentrations of greater than 140 mEq per L (140 mmol per L) and calculated total osmolalities of greater than 330 mOsm per kg of water are associated with large fluid deficits.4 , 6 Calculated total osmolalities are correlated with mental status, in in book that stupor and hofstede canada coma typically occur with an osmolality of greater than 330 mOsm per apa cite chapter in book kg of water.1 , 6. The initial priority in the treatment of Essay on Biography of Alvin Ailey diabetic ketoacidosis is the apa cite chapter in book, restoration of extra-cellular fluid volume through the intravenous administration of a normal saline (0.9 percent sodium chloride) solution. This step will restore intravascular volume, decrease counterregulatory hormones and lower the blood glucose level.9 As a result, insulin sensitivity may be augmented. In patients with mild to king moderate volume depletion, infusion rates of 7 mL per kg per apa cite hour have been as efficacious as infusion rates of 14 mL per kg per hour.10 The subsequent administration of types a hypotonic saline (0.45 percent sodium chloride) solution, which is similar in composition to the fluid lost during osmotic diuresis, leads to gradual replacement of deficits in both intracellular and chapter extracellular compartments. When the blood glucose concentration is approximately 250 mg per dL (13.9 mmol per L), glucose should be added to the hydration fluid (i.e., 5 percent dextrose in hypotonic saline solution).

This allows continued insulin administration until ketonemia is news bbc, controlled and also helps to avoid iatrogenic hypoglycemia. Another important aspect of rehydration therapy in apa cite chapter patients with diabetic ketoacidosis is the replacement of ongoing urinary losses. Modern management of diabetic ketoacidosis has emphasized the use of lower doses of insulin. Hofstede Canada? This has been shown to be the apa cite in book, most efficacious treatment in both children and adults with diabetic ketoacidosis.11 #x2013; 14 The current recommendation is to give low-dose (short-acting regular) insulin after the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis has been confirmed by laboratory tests and hofstede canada fluid replacement has been initiated. It is prudent to withhold insulin therapy until the serum potassium concentration has been determined. Apa Cite In Book? In the rare patient who presents with hypokalemia, insulin therapy may worsen the hypokalemia and precipitate life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.1 , 2.

Standard low-dose insulin therapy consists of an hofstede canada, initial intravenous bolus of 0.15 unit of apa cite chapter regular insulin per Erikson’s of Development kg followed by the continuous intravenous infusion of apa cite chapter in book regular insulin prepared in normal saline or hypotonic saline solution at a rate of 0.1 unit per kg per of disrespect hour. In clinical situations in which continuous intravenous insulin cannot be administered, the recommended initial insulin dose is 0.3 unit per kg, with one half of the dose given as an intravenous bolus and the remainder given subcutaneously or intramuscularly ( Figure 2 ) . Subsequently, regular insulin should be given in apa cite a dosage of 0.1 unit per kg per hour until the blood glucose level is approximately 250 mg per dL. If the blood glucose concentration does not fall by 50 to 70 mg per dL (2.8 to king 3.9 mmol per L) in the first hour, the intravenous infusion rate should be doubled or additional intravenous 10-unit boluses of insulin should be given every hour ( Figure 2 ) . Either of these treatments should be continued until the blood glucose level falls by 50 to 70 mg per dL. Low-dose insulin therapy typically produces a linear fall in chapter the glucose concentration of 50 to 70 mg per dL per hour.12. More rapid correction of hyperglycemia should be avoided because it may increase the risk of cerebral edema. Bbc? This dreaded treatment complication occurs in approximately 1 percent of children with diabetic ketoacidosis.5 The typical presentation is onset of headache and decreased mental status occurring several hours after the start of treatment. Cerebral edema is associated with a mortality rate of up to in book 70 percent.15. When a blood glucose concentration of 250 mg per dL has been achieved, the on Biography Ailey, continuous or hourly insulin dosage can be reduced to 0.05 unit per kg per hour.

The insulin and fluid regimens are continued until ketoacidosis is controlled. This requires the achievement of at least two of these acid-base parameters: a serum bicarbonate concentration of greater than 18 mEq per L, a venous pH of 7.3 or greater and an anion gap of less than 14 mEq per L. Although the typical potassium deficit in chapter diabetic ketoacidosis is 500 to 700 mEq (500 to Essay on Biography 700 mmol), most patients are hyperkalemic at the time of diagnosis because of the effects of insulinopenia, hyperosmolality and acidemia.4 During rehydration and insulin therapies for diabetic ketoacidosis, the serum potassium concentration typically declines rapidly as potassium reenters the apa cite chapter, intracellular compartment. One protocol entails using insulin and intravenous fluids until the serum potassium concentration is less than 5.5 mEq per L (5.5 mmol per L). Fake? At this time, potassium chloride is added to intravenous fluids in the amount of 20 to 40 mEq per L. The exact amount of apa cite in book potassium that is administered depends on of disrespect, the serum potassium concentration.

When the apa cite in book, serum potassium level is less than 3.3 mEq per L (3.3 mmol per L), the administration of piaget cognition 40 mEq per L of chapter in book potassium is appropriate. If the serum potassium is greater than 3.3 mEq per L but less than 5.5 mEq per L, 20 to 30 mEq per L of hofstede canada potassium can be administered. The goal is to maintain the serum potassium concentration in the range of 4 to 5 mEq per L (4 to 5 mmol per L).1 , 2 , 6. In general, supplemental bicarbonate therapy is no longer recommended for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, because the plasma bicarbonate concentration increases with insulin therapy.1 , 4 , 8 , 16 , 17 Insulin administration inhibits ongoing lipolysis and ketone production and also promotes the regeneration of bicarbonate. Retrospective reviews and in book prospective randomized studies have failed to identify changes in morbidity or mortality with sodium bicarbonate therapy in patients who presented with a pH of 6.9 to 7.1. Bbc? Therefore, the use of bicarbonate in apa cite a patient with a pH greater than 7.0 is not recommended. Furthermore, bicarbonate therapy carries some risks, including hypokalemia with overly rapid administration, paradoxic cerebrospinal fluid acidosis and hypoxia.6 , 15 , 17. Some authorities, however, recommend bicarbonate administration when the of disrespect, pH is apa cite chapter, less than 7.0, for the purpose of treating the possible adverse hemodynamic effects of profound acidemia.

If bicarbonate is used, it should be given as a nearly isotonic solution, which can be approximated by the addition of one ampule of king of disrespect sodium bicarbonate in 300 mL of sterile water. The bicarbonate solution is administered over chapter in book, a one-hour period.1 , 2 , 8. A small percentage of patients who have diabetic ketoacidosis present with metabolic acidosis and a normal anion gap. Therefore, they have fewer ketones available for the regeneration of piaget bicarbonate during insulin administration.18 Bicarbonate therapy may be warranted in this subset of patients. Osmotic diuresis leads to increased urinary phosphate losses.

During insulin therapy, phosphate reenters the intracellular compartment, leading to mild to moderate reductions in the serum phosphate concentration. Adverse complications of hypophosphatemia are uncommon and occur primarily in patients with severe hypophosphatemia (a serum phosphate concentration of less than 1.0 mg per dL [0.32 mmol per L]). Prospective studies have indicated no clinical benefit for phosphate replacement in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, and excessive phosphate replacement may contribute to hypocalcemia and apa cite chapter in book soft tissue metastatic calcification.19 #x2013; 21 Although the replacement of phosphate per se is fake bbc, not routinely recommended, it may be useful to replace some potassium as potassium phosphate. One protocol is to administer two thirds of the potassium as potassium chloride and one third as potassium phosphate. The use of in book phosphate for this purpose reduces the chloride load that might contribute to hyperchloremic acidosis and king decreases the likelihood that the patient will develop severe hypophosphatemia during insulin therapy.

When diabetic ketoacidosis has been controlled, subcutaneous insulin therapy can be started. The half-life of regular insulin is less than 10 minutes. Therefore, to avoid relapse of diabetic ketoacidosis, the first subcutaneous dose of regular insulin should be given at least one hour before intravenous insulin is discontinued.1 , 22 A protocol for the administration of subcutaneous insulin is included in Figure 2 . In patients who are unable to eat, 5 percent dextrose in hypotonic saline solution is continued at a rate of 100 to apa cite chapter in book 200 mL per hour. Blood glucose levels are monitored every four hours, and regular insulin is given subcutaneously every four hours using a sliding scale ( Figure 2 ). When patients are able to eat, multidose subcutaneous therapy with both regular (short-acting) and intermediate-acting insulin may be given. In patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, an fertiliser types, initial total insulin dosage of apa cite chapter in book 0.6 to Essay of Alvin 0.7 unit per kg per day is chapter in book, usually adequate to achieve metabolic control. A typical regimen is two thirds of the total daily dosage before breakfast and one third of the total daily dosage before dinner, with the insulin doses consisting of two-thirds NPH (intermediate-acting) insulin and one-third regular (short-acting) insulin. Patients with known diabetes can typically be given the dosage they were receiving before the onset of news diabetic ketoacidosis. Symptomatic cerebral edema occurs primarily in pediatric patients, particularly those with newly diagnosed diabetes. No single factor predictive for cerebral edema has yet been identified.

As noted previously, however, overly rapid rehydration or overcorrection of hyperglycemia appears to increase the risk of in book cerebral edema. Onset of headache or mental status changes during therapy should lead to consideration of this complication. Intravenous mannitol in a dosage of 1 to 2 g per types kg given over 15 minutes is the mainstay of therapy. Prompt involvement of a critical care specialist is prudent. Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.23 Excessive crystalloid infusion favors the apa cite, development of fake news generator pulmonary edema, even in the presence of normal cardiac function.

Patients with an increased alveolar to arterial oxygen gradient (AaO2) and patients with pulmonary rales on physical examination may be at increased risk for ARDS. Monitoring of apa cite chapter oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry may assist in the management of fake news such patients. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap typically persists after the resolution of apa cite chapter in book ketonemia. This acidosis has no adverse clinical effects and is gradually corrected over the subsequent 24 to 48 hours by of disrespect enhanced renal acid excretion.8 , 18 The severity of in book hyperchloremia can be aggravated by excessive chloride administration in hydration fluids. Resource Utilization in Diabetic Ketoacidosis. No randomized prospective studies have evaluated the optimal site of care for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

The response to initial therapy in the emergency department can be used as a guideline for choosing the most appropriate hospital site (i.e., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general medical ward) for further care. Admission to a step-down or intensive care unit should be considered for patients with hypotension or oliguria refractory to initial rehydration and for patients with mental obtundation or coma with hyperosmolality (total osmolality of greater than 330 mOsm per kg of water). Most patients can be treated in cognition step-down units or on chapter in book, general medical wards in which staff members have been trained in on-site blood glucose monitoring and continuous intravenous insulin administration. Milder forms of diabetic ketoacidosis can be treated in cognition the emergency department using the same treatment guidelines described in this review. Successful outpatient therapy requires the absence of severe intercurrent illness, an alert patient who is apa cite chapter, able to resume oral intake and the presence of mild diabetic ketoacidosis (pH of greater than 7.2 and a plasma bicarbonate concentration of greater than 10 mEq per L).24. With the use of End Stage Essay standardized written treatment guidelines and flow sheets for monitoring therapeutic response, the mortality rate for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis is now less than 5 percent.25 Most deaths occur in elderly patients who have concomitant or intercurrent life-threatening illnesses.1 #x2013; 4 , 6 Similar outcomes for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis have been observed in both community and training hospitals. These outcomes have not been altered by apa cite the specialty of the primary treating physicians (e.g., family practice, internal medicine, endocrinology), as long as they adhere to an established guideline and protocol.26. An educational program should include sick-day management instructions (i.e., for any illness that alters routine care), including the use of short-acting insulin, blood glucose and piaget cognition urinary ketone monitoring, and the use of a liquid diet containing carbohydrates and salt. Patients should not discontinue insulin therapy when they are ill, and they should contact their physician early in the course of illness. Indications for hospitalization include greater than 5 percent loss of body weight, respiration rate of greater than 35 per minute, intractable elevation of blood glucose concentrations, change in mental status, uncontrolled fever and unresolved nausea and vomiting.

Read the in book, full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to news generator 6 CME credits per issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in. Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per year Access to chapter in book the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue.

Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in this issue. Access This Article. ABBAS E. KITABCHI, PH.D., M.D., is professor of medicine and biochemistry and chief of the endocrinology and piaget metabolism division of the Department of Medicine at the University of apa cite chapter Tennessee, Memphis, College of fertiliser types Medicine. Dr. Kitabchi received his doctoral degree in medical sciences from the in book, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, where he also earned a medical degree at the College of Medicine. He received fellowship training in endocrinology at the University of Washington, Seattle. Erikson’s Of Development Essay? . BARRY M. WALL, M.D., is associate chief of the in book, nephrology section at the Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Memphis. He is fertiliser types, also associate professor of medicine at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, College of Medicine, where he attended medical school and completed residency training. Apa Cite Chapter In Book? Dr. Wall received fellowship training at the University of Alabama, Birmington. Address correspondence to Abbas E. Hofstede Canada? Kitabchi, Ph.D., M.D., Division of Endocrinology/Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, College of Medicine, 951 Court Ave., Room 335M, Memphis, TN 38163.

Reprints are not available from the authors . Dr. Kitabchi is a member of the speakers' bureaus of the following companies, and has received honorariums from them: Merck Co., SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Parke-Davis, Eli Lilly and Company, Knoll Laboratories, and Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Inc . 1. Apa Cite Chapter In Book? Kitabchi AE, Wall BM. Diabetic ketoacidosis. Med Clin North Am . 1995;79:9#x2013;37. Types? . 2. Umpierrez GE, Khajavi M, Kitabchi AE. Chapter? Review: diabetic ketoacidosis and Ailey hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome. Am J Med Sci . 1996;311:225#x2013;33. 3. Apa Cite In Book? Umpierrez GE, Kelly JP, Navarrete JE, Casals MM, Kitabchi AE. Fake Generator Bbc? Hyperglycemic crises in urban blacks.

Arch Intern Med . 1997;157:669#x2013;75. 4. Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed.

Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44. 5. Rosenbloom AL, Hanas R. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): treatment guidelines. Clin Pediatr [Phila] . Apa Cite Chapter? 1996;35:261#x2013;6. 6. Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Rumbak MJ. Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state. In: Kahn CR, Weir GC, eds.

Joslin's Diabetes mellitus. 13th ed. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994:738#x2013;70. 7. Cognition? Zammit VA. Regulation of apa cite ketone body metabolism: a cellular perspective. Diabetes Rev . 1994;2:132#x2013;5.

8. DeFronzo RA, Matsuda M, Barret EJ. News Generator Bbc? Diabetic ketoacidosis. Apa Cite Chapter? A combined metabolic-nephrologic approach to therapy. Diabetes Rev . 1994;2:209#x2013;38. 9. Hofstede Canada? Waldhausl W, Kleinberger G, Korn A, Dudczak R, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P. Severe hyperglycemia: effects of rehydration on endocrine derangements and blood glucose concentration. Diabetes . 1979;28:577#x2013;84. 10. Adrogue HJ, Barrero J, Eknoyan G. Salutary effects of modest fluid replacement in the treatment of adults with diabetic ketoacidosis.

Use in patients without extreme volume deficit. JAMA . 1989;262:2108#x2013;13. 11. Alberti KG, Hockaday TD, Turner RC. Small doses of in book intramuscular insulin in the treatment of hofstede canada diabetic #x201c;coma. Lancet . 1973;2(7828):515#x2013;22. 12. Kitabchi AE, Young R, Sacks H, Morris L. Diabetic ketoacidosis: reappraisal of therapeutic approach. Annu Rev Med . Apa Cite Chapter In Book? 1979;30:339#x2013;57. 13. Kitabchi AE, Ayyagari V, Guerra SM.

The efficacy of low-dose versus conventional therapy of insulin for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Fertiliser? Ann Intern Med . In Book? 1976;84:633#x2013;8. 14. Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN. Insulin therapy of diabetic ketoacidosis: physiologic versus pharmacologic doses of insulin and their routes of administration. In: Brownlee M, ed.

Handbook of fertiliser types diabetes mellitus. New York: Garland STPM, 1981:95#x2013;149. 15. Lever E, Jaspan JB. Sodium bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Med . 1983;75:263#x2013;8. 16. Barnes HV, Cohen RD, Kitabchi AE, Murphy MB. When is bicarbonate appropriate in treating metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis? In: Gitnick G, ed. Debates in chapter medicine.

Chicago: Year Book Medical, 1988:200#x2013;33. 17. King? Morris LR, Murphy MB, Kitabchi AE. Bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Ann Intern Med . 1986;105:836#x2013;40. 18. Chapter? Oh MS, Carroll HJ, Uribarri J. Mechanism of normochloremic and hyperchloremic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis. Nephron . 1990;54:1#x2013;6. 19. Wilson HK, Keuer SP, Lea AS, Boyd AE 3d, Eknoyan G. Phosphate therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Arch Intern Med . 1982;142:517#x2013;20. 20. Piaget? Fisher JN, Kitabchi AE. A randomized study of phosphate therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Apa Cite In Book? J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1983;57:177#x2013;80. 21. Zipf WB, Bacon GE, Spencer ML, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, Hawker CD.

Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care . 1979;2:265#x2013;8. 22. Kitabchi AE, Rumbak M. King Of Disrespect? The management of diabetic emergencies. Hosp Pract [Off Ed] . 1989;24:129#x2013;33. 23.

Carrol P, Matz R. Adult respiratory distress syndrome complicating severely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: report of nine cases and a review of the literature. Diabetes Care . 1982;5:574#x2013;80. 24. Bonadio WA. In Book? Pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis: pathophysiology and potential for Erikson’s of Development Essay outpatient management of selected children. Pediatr Emerg Care . 1992;8:287#x2013;90. 25.

Fishbein HA. In Book? Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, lactic acidosis and hyperglycemia. In: National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes in America. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Dept of types Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 1985; NIH publication no. 85-1468.

26. Hamburger S, Barjenbruch P, Soffer A. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis by internists and family physicians: a comparative study. J Fam Pract . 1982;14:719#x2013;22. This article is one in a series developed in cooperation with the American Diabetes Association. Guest editors of the series are Bruce Zimmerman, M.D., and Richard Kahn, Ph.D., American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, Va . Copyright © 1999 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact [email protected] for copyright questions and/or permission requests. This page will be removed from your Favorites Links.

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am i prejudice essay Most people who tend towards prejudiced judgments make their decisions based on incomplete knowledge, or they generalize a great deal. A person who is prejudiced against Asians because a young Asian man insulted him two years ago is apa cite chapter generalizing that one person's actions to of Development Essay an entire group of people, thinking that all Asians are the same as the one who insulted him. Apa Cite Chapter In Book? The African-American who despises white people because his or her father was treated poorly by whites are judging all people with white skin to be the same as the people who hurt his or her parents. The Christian who slanders Moslems because they don't believe the same things that he or she does is Essay on Biography Ailey judging those people based on his or her own belief system, and is not looking at them as human beings who have grown up with their own systems of belief. There is no doubt about it: prejudice is easy. Developing a prejudiced perspective of the world makes virtually everything black and white, with no room at all for shades of grey. People are good or bad, and prejudiced people don't have to think further or learn more about anyone--their minds are already made up, and that's all there is to apa cite in book it. Ailey? Prejudice in some ways is a form of mental and emotional laziness, and in other ways it's a huge barrier that people use to hide behind, trying to eliminate threats to their feelings of safety and well being. At its most basic, prejudice is our willingness to believe bad about others without finding out the truth. And my prejudice against apa cite chapter greenskins means that I'm going to close myself off from learning from them, I'm going to deprive myself of what they have to share with me, and I'm going to live in hofstede canada fear of the greenskins becoming stronger than me and doing something horrible to apa cite me to pay me back for the way I feel about them.

That's no way to of Alvin live a life, and by allowing my prejudices to control how I treat others, I'm dooming myself to continued ignorance and future fears. The way to apa cite battle prejudice--in ourselves and in others--is simple. We must educate ourselves as to the true nature of all people. Individuals do not accurately represent any racial, religious, or cultural group, and piaget, we're taking the easy and lazy way out apa cite chapter in book, if we allow ourselves to define others by the actions of very few. with a devil, and one of the worst kinds of fertiliser types, devils, for it. Chapter? shuts out the truth, and often leads to ruinous error. Prejudice is the hofstede canada conjuror of imaginary wrongs, strangling truth, over-powering reason, making strong people weak, and weak. people weaker.

God gave us the apa cite large-hearted charity which. beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things, which thinketh no evil! Sign up for your free daily spiritual or general quotation. Too many of our prejudices are like pyramids upside down. They rest on tiny, trivial incidents, but they spread upward. and outward until they fill our minds. Prejudice can go very deep. It is only healed when we end the war. within and accept those parts of ourselves we find so unacceptable. Then we will have the courage to accept those who are different. from us, who have different beliefs, who are a different color, or. who live differently.

When we can tolerate ourselves, then we can. be tolerable toward others and extend kindness to all equally. I was climbing up a mountain-path. With many things to do, Important business of cognition, my own, And other people's too, When I ran against a Prejudice. That quite cut off the view. Prejudices are the in book chains forged by ignorance to keep people apart. Prejudices are the Essay refuge of those who cannot think for apa cite chapter themselves. Most people wish to be consoled, confirmed.

They want. their prejudices reinforced and their structured belief. systems validated. After all, it hurts to think, and it's absolute agony to think twice. Just as a child is born without fear, so it is hofstede canada born. without prejudice. Prejudice, like fear, is acquired. Prejudices, it is well known, are most difficult to eradicate. from the chapter heart whose soil has never been loosened or. fertilized by education; they grow there, firm as weeds among stones. Piaget? Prejudice is a seeping, dark stain, I think, more difficult to fight than. hatred--which is powerful and violent and chapter in book, somehow more honest. Constantly I am having to fight and of Alvin Ailey, overcome my prejudices because I. realize that first impressions and judgments are often misleading.

We have some inspiring and motivational books that may interest you. Our main way of apa cite, supporting this site is through the sale of king of disrespect, books, either physical copies or digital copies for your Amazon Kindle (including the online reader). All of the apa cite money that we earn through them comes back to the site in one way or another. Just click on the picture to the left to fertiliser visit our page of books, both fiction and non-fiction! mission, therefore, is to apa cite chapter confront ignorance with knowledge, bigotry. with tolerance, and isolation with the outstretched hand of generosity. Racism can, will, and must be defeated. The fact that we are human beings is infinitely more important than all. the peculiarities that distinguish human beings from one another. Of Alvin Ailey? Prejudice does not think logically. It does not ask why, and remains. on the deceptive surface.

The mark of the sage is the chapter in book lack of prejudice, that of a fool, the lack of thought. What does the hofstede canada color of one's skin tell us that is of any significance. about a person? Nothing, of course, absolutely nothing. It does. Chapter In Book? not say whether the person is warmhearted or kind, clever or witty, or whether that person is good. Unless we empty ourselves of preconceived cultural or intellectual images. and expectations, we not only cannot understand the Other, we. cannot even listen.

Indeed, we cannot even feel empathy. The Different Drum. Until justice is blind to color, until education is unaware of race, until. opportunity is unconcerned with the color of people's skin, emancipation will be a proclamation but not a fact. Sign up for your free daily spiritual or general quotation. Bbc? Just for Today, the Fire Edition --scores of photos and uplifting thoughts to help you to make your day a great one!

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. Apa Cite In Book? First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.

Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is fertiliser types meant by enough is open to debate, and chapter this is of disrespect also where conventions come in.

Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. Apa Cite Chapter? It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to news generator do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. In Book? Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and king of disrespect appropriate system. The Harvard system is apa cite chapter in book also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. Generator Bbc? You do this by stating the author(s) and chapter the year of the publication you consulted. Hofstede Canada? Where the chapter in book name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.

The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is hofstede canada not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for in book example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the fake news generator bbc effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the chapter author is piaget included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the chapter two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).

Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.

However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is generator blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the apa cite chapter number of the page where you copy from. Fake Generator Bbc? This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes.

It’s not uncommon that you want to use the in book arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. King Of Disrespect? Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in apa cite Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the fake generator bbc year of apa cite chapter in book publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the of Alvin correct year can be helpful.

Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the apa cite year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the fertiliser types used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and apa cite chapter you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the types alphabet after the apa cite in book year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the fake generator letter b for the second and in book so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the Essay publication.

Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the chapter in book references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Essay? Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is in book not technically the same. Cognition? A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text.

References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the apa cite family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the hofstede canada title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the chapter name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors.

Sometimes a book is fake news generator co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the apa cite chapter in book actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.

Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Erikson’s Of Development? Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. Apa Cite Chapter? You give the family name of the author and of disrespect his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and chapter in book ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in of Alvin , and the name and in book year of the piaget cognition editor(s). If you cite only apa cite chapter, one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too.

For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in cognition Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. Chapter In Book? (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in fertiliser types a book. Apa Cite Chapter In Book? The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. End Stage Of Development? Baltes, P. Apa Cite Chapter? (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too.

The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the news bbc year in chapter in book brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by Essay on Biography of Alvin, the name of the in book journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in piaget cognition brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. Apa Cite Chapter? For example: Burt, R. King Of Disrespect? (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. In Book? (2001) ‘Volunteer work and hofstede canada well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. In Book? Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.

Pages on king the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in apa cite chapter mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the Essay of Alvin Ailey name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and in book the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at piaget, the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. Apa Cite? For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to piaget journal articles in apa cite the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the fertiliser types date is given.

The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the chapter author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the Erikson’s End Stage Essay article was found. For one page it’s customary to chapter in book use the abbreviation p. Piaget Cognition? , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in apa cite London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to End Stage Essay in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and apa cite chapter journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the End Stage of Development Essay name of apa cite in book your institution, the place, and date of the End Stage of Development Essay lecture. For example:

Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is chapter in book not an piaget cognition option. In terms of giving the apa cite in book reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the Essay of Alvin Ailey conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.

The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in apa cite in book brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the Essay Ailey author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important.

It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the apa cite chapter in book function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the End Stage Essay author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in apa cite in book Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Fake? Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the chapter in book date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the Essay on Biography of Alvin word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for chapter in book example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to hofstede canada cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.

For theses it’s common to include the kind of chapter thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the piaget publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is apa cite particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the hofstede canada publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the chapter in book name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. King? For example:

Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Chapter In Book? The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to news bbc be that of the journal itself. Apa Cite Chapter? It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized.

Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. News Generator? Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Apa Cite In Book? Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in of Alvin capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. In Book? This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end.

It’s difficult to Essay on Biography Ailey write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Apa Cite Chapter? Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. King Of Disrespect? The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.

The modern use in chapter academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Hofstede Canada? Careless work is chapter often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied.

Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on Essay on Biography Ailey the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the chapter time, it may seem a reasonable risk to cognition copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is apa cite chapter something in for you, too—that is Essay on Biography something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. Apa Cite In Book? By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. Erikson’s End Stage Essay? In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and apa cite chapter that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades.

Rather than having the original works in front of fake news generator you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the chapter triple X; and there is cognition always the apa cite chapter search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Hofstede Canada? Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example.

If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. Apa Cite Chapter? There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of fake generator course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to in book the extent that the deed is hofstede canada no longer easy to spot.

Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the chapter essay yourself. Just to fertiliser types give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only chapter in book, have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for piaget cognition duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.

If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to in book some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in hofstede canada style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and chapter in book things like proper m- and fake news generator bbc n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).

The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is chapter in book suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the types internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. Apa Cite? The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.

In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. Types? This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. Chapter? It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is fertiliser commonplace; and in book the terms are frequently used incorrectly.

Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about king ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the in book words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only cognition, use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for apa cite in book a quotation we always put a page number. This is Essay on Biography of Alvin Ailey done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference.

Short quotations are included in chapter the text, and of disrespect enclosed by apa cite chapter in book, speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in fertiliser types any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)

When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to apa cite change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. News Bbc? If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in apa cite in book square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is king of disrespect much more important, and apa cite in book often text you quote was written for a different purpose.

The consequence is that the Essay on Biography of Alvin quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. Chapter? If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to hofstede canada put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away.

Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. Apa Cite In Book? By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is king not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. Chapter? These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases.

Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the of disrespect deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.

Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.

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essay on murree Pakistan - Murree Hills. A land of Greatest Mountains Colorful Culture - A Complete Guide to Pakistan. Murree is a popular hill station and a summer resort in Pakistan, Murree is specially for the residents of Islamabad. Murree is chapter, also visited as one of the most favourite destination for Pakistani tourists in on Biography, Sumer and during snowfall of winter. Murree is located along Islamabad-Kohala highway N75, some 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Islamabad. The name Murree is derived from 'marhi', high place although there is a popular belief it was named after the virgin Mary during the British times. It is situated on the southern slopes of the Western Himalayan foothills as they ascend to the northeast towards Kashmir.

During British Rule in the nineteenth century, its altitude was established at 7,000 feet (2,100 m), but its actual altitude has now been determined as 2,300 m (7,500 ft) above sea level. Murree is apa cite in book, accessible by road from the End Stage centre of the Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas. It is still associated with Britain; many British fruits (including cherries, raspberries and strawberries) thrive locally. There is a church, built in apa cite, 1857, located at the centre of the town, which is still used as a place of types worship. Many houses around the church are still standing, functioning mostly as hotels. Old traditional restaurants have been replaced by fast food shops and apa cite, newer restaurants. Murree has expanded since 1947 at a rate much greater than that which its infrastructure can sustain. Fake News! Securing water and electricity has been a constant challenge. The jam-packed bazaar has caught fire a number of times in the last century, and the growth of tourism and a construction boom have had an adverse effect on the local environment. Murree, aftermath of fire in 1875. A 19th century post officeMurree was founded in 1851 by the Governor of Punjab, Sir Henry Lawrence, and was originally established for the British troops garrisoned on chapter the Afghan frontier[4] as a sanatorium.

The permanent town of cognition Murree was constructed at Sunnybank in 1853. The church was sanctified in May 1857, and the main road, Jinnah Road, formerly known as The Mall (and still commonly referred to chapter as), was built. The most significant commercial establishments, the Post Office, general merchants with European goods, tailors and a millinery, were established opposite the church. Until 1947, access to Jinnah Road was restricted for natives (non-Europeans). Until 1876, Murree was the piaget cognition summer headquarters of the Punjab local government; after 1876 the chapter headquarters were moved to Simla.[5] The railway connection with Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province, made Murree a popular resort for of disrespect Punjab officials, and the villas and in book, other houses erected for Erikson’s of Development the accommodation of apa cite chapter in book English families gave it a European aspect. It was described in the Gazetteer of Rawalpindi District, 1893–94 as follows: The sanatorium of Murree lied in north latitude 33° 54? 30? and east longitude 73° 26? 30?, at an elevation of cognition 7,517 feet (2,291 m) above sea level, and contained a standing population of 1,768 inhabitants, which was, however, enormously increased during the apa cite chapter [May-November] season by generator bbc the influx of visitors and their attendant servants and shopkeepers. It is the most accessible hill station in the Punjab, being distant from Rawalpindi only a five hours' journey by tonga dak. Magnificent views are to be obtained in apa cite, the spring and autumn of the snow crowned mountains of Kashmir; and gorgeous sunset and cloud effects seen daily during the rains [July-August]. Erikson’s End Stage! Part of the station, especially the Kashmir end, are also well wooded and pretty.[4] Murree also can boast of a world-class educational establishment: the *Lawrence School, Ghora Gali.

In 1901 the population of the town was officially 1844, although if summer visitors had been included this could have been as high as 10,000. In the hot season it was the headquarters of the chapter in book Lieutenant General of the Northern Command. Hofstede Canada! The Commissioner of the Rawalpindi Division and apa cite chapter, the Deputy-Commissioner of Rawalpindi also resided here during part of the on Biography hot season, for which period an Assistant Commissioner was placed in charge of the subdivision consisting of Murree Tehsil. The site was selected in apa cite in book, 1850 almost immediately after the annexation of the Province, and building operations commenced at once. Fake News Bbc! In 1851 temporary accommodation was provided for a detachment of troops; and in apa cite, 1853 permanent barracks were erected. The garrison generally consisted of three mountain batteries. In 1873, 1874, and 1875 Murree was the summer headquarters of the Punjab Government. It was connected with Rawalpindi town by a service of tongas. The houses crown the summit and sides of an irregular ridge, commanding magnificent views over forest-clad hill-sides into deep valleys studded with villages and cultivated fields. The neighbouring hills were covered during the summer with encampments of British troops, while the station itself is filled with European visitors from the plains and generator bbc, travellers to Kashmir.

A fine view of the chapter snowy peaks of Kashmir is to be had on a clear day, and the crest of king Nanga Parbat (26,182 feet (7,980 m)) can sometimes be seen. In Book! The municipality was created in 1850. The income during the ten years ending 1902–3 averaged Rs. 49,500, and the expenditure Rs. 48,200. In 1903–4 the income and expenditure were Rs. 5r,400, chiefly from fertiliser types octroi, and Rs. 54,400 respectively. The income and expenditure of apa cite chapter cantonment funds averaged Rs. 10,000 between 1893 and 1903. The chief educational institutions are the Lawrence Military Asylum for soldiers' children, and fake, the St.

Denys' and apa cite chapter, Convent English schools for girls. The station contains the Lady Roberts Home for king of disrespect invalid officers and a branch of the chapter Alliance Bank of of disrespect Simla. The Murree Brewery was the only industrial concern of any importance. Dark and Cloudy Murree Landscape[edit] 1857 War of Independence. See also: 1857 War of Independence in Murree.

In the summer of 1857, the local tribes of Murree and Hazara, including the apa cite Dhond Abbasi and Tanoli, planned to king of disrespect attack the chapter British Army. The campaign was led by the chief of the Dhond Abbasi tribe, Sardar Sherbaz Khan, and by Malik Nawab Bahadur Khan of the Tanoli tribe. They fought respectably against the British Army, giving the British considerable difficulties. The British Army eventually signed an agreement with the local Abbasi tribe, which was refused by the Tanoli tribe, thereby dividing the opposition to the British. The British Army later ignored the agreement to hofstede canada take control of Murree again. After the British forces' occupation of Murree and Abbottabad, many English soldiers and administrators opted to spend the summers there because of the cooler climate. The British settled in and raised families.

Some prominent people who were born here include: Bruce Bairnsfather - a famous cartoonist during world War I. Francis Younghusband - an chapter in book, army officer and explorer. He established the Bible Society in the Christian High School in Geryal Murree. The society did in depth research into the local languages. This society translated a chapter of new testament book Loqas in Dhondi that was noted by the compilers of the fertiliser Linguistic Survey Of India.[8] Reginald Dyer - officer responsible for apa cite the Amritsar Massacre. Bhurban is celebrated as one of the fake generator only resort areas of the country where there is a 5 star hotel built by chapter in book Pakistan Services Limited, the Pearl Continental Hotel. Bhurban is only 9 Kilometers from Murree and Ailey, practically it can be called as an area of Murree.

Murre to Nathiagali Nathiagali to Abbottabad (Tour Excursion) Nathiagali the famous resort area is only 45 minutes from Murree. The descent on the Nathia Gali - Abbottabad road leads to the city of apa cite Abbottabad right under the Murree hills. Abbottabad, a popular summer resort in the midst of generator bbc spacious valleys, is in book, surrounded by green hills and is a pretty large city and is located at a distance of 116 km from Rawalpindi and piaget cognition, 217 km from Peshawar if you follow the MAIN road. It can get pretty hot in summers and pretty cold in winters but the temperature range stays bearable. It may feel hot in the sun but its cool in the shade. Surrounded by high hills, Abbottabad is named after its first British Commissioner Sir James Abbott.

It still has a very British air. Apa Cite! The Cantonment area of Abbottabad is still very British. The European bungalows, the club, the churches and the cemeteries are still there. Lots of greenery in Abbottabad, beautiful trees and nice gardens. There is a main road which is the centre of activity (I think its called the Mall). The good hotels are SpringField, Sarban and others. Abbottabad is Erikson’s, famous for its golf courses.

Take a visit. Also see Shimla Hill View Point, Illayasi Mosque with a natural water spring and there is a pool nearby which I think carries crocodiles. The place has beautiful gardens like; Jinnah Garden, Ladies Garden etc maintained by the local Cantonment Board. The splendid stretch of turf promises plenty of room for polo, football, hockey and golf. At the back of the station towards the west is the Brigade Center, which is an apa cite chapter in book, ideal place ideal for hofstede canada walks and picnic. Nice place to chapter stay If you're coming from Lahore to visit the North. The Nathiagali region serves as home to all kinds of wildlife; various species of birds, insects, butterflies and piaget, animals.

Unlike the crows of the southern cities of apa cite Pakistan, you will find ravens in areas like Nathiagali. Visitors are advised to sun their bedding on arrival to get rid of bed-bugs, and to keep repellants and pesticides for insects as these have a tendency to show up a lot, especially in old homes, and in the monsoon season. Horses are a common sight during summer months and are offered to children and adults alike for rides at rates that are often negotiable. Monkeys are aplenty, previously known to generator bbc be a little shy, they have reportedly become more aggressive in recent years, some say this due to increased abuse suffered at the hands of tourists, who often tease these monkeys or try to steal them. Monkeys often come up to guesthouses and chapter, hotels in fertiliser types, search of snacks and can be quite noisy and playful. The World Wildlife Federation has an office in the Galiaath, in recent years, this organisation assisted in the breeding of a certain type of leopard in the Black Forest right by Dungagali and Nathiagali, this area was thought to be a perfect habitat for such creatures, but according to local reports they frequently come out of the forest to steal cattle of local villagers.

One such cat had to apa cite in book be shot. Packs of pie-dogs which were previously considered to on Biography of Alvin be a night-time menace can no longer be seen anywhere in the Galiaath, it is thought that most have been killed and consumed by the newly bred leopards. In the summer of 2006, a large number of women were found dead in the deep valleys of Galiath with wounds showing that they were killed, soon, a large leopard was caught which was believed to be the in book culprit of all cases, he was kept in captivity but was eventually shot as a result of his aggression, his body has been stuffed and kept in the Dhunga Gali Wildlife Museum, the fake bbc museum owners named him the Ghost of Galiath. These leopards are rarely spotted. However, a pet dog or animal is apa cite, very likely to be grabbed by the cats at night, and if any such pets are brought to Nathiagali they must be kept indoors to avoid this. Thandiani means cold in the local language. Its around about 1 hour and 30 minutes on fake news a good decent road. Its rises steeply at some places. It is 2700 meters above sea level on in book a small plateau surrounded by pine forests. This beautiful spot can easily be approached from Abbottabad, which is 24 km away. It is totally unspoiled and has the loveliest of views of all the hill stations of Pakistan.

The scenery here is breathtaking and superb. On Biography Of Alvin! It is pretty high. Just a few kilometres into the road and you start gaining height quickly. One place on the road offers a stunning view of apa cite Abbottabad city. Thandiani is not located in the Galliat Range but some other range. Beautiful trees on hofstede canada the way and also a few small caves which are probably home for the wildlife. Thandiani was discovered by the British but was later neglected and was only in book rediscovered as a hill station recently so it is fake news, completely unspoiled. There are few shops at Thandiani and only one basic guesthouse (no big expectations!). It only gets cold about 2 km before Thandiani.

There is also a Pakistan Television Booster at apa cite in book the top and a Pak Air-Force Radar (No Photographs). But the beauty of this area is its views. Stunning views of all the areas around this region. Views of the Galliat Range, Hazara Region, Swat Forests, Chitral region and that of Abbottabad itself. Heard the dawn was beautiful but didn't stay at fertiliser types the guesthouse though. Also heard it gets real cold at night even in apa cite chapter, summers almost below 0 C. Lots of greenery and some beautiful rocks on the ground. There is also a road at the top which seems to go straight into the sky when you first enter Thandiani but it gives wonderful views. Must visit place! Miran Jani is the highest point in the Galliat Range at about 2867 m. It is a very scenic trek to Miran Jani Top which offers wonderful views of the pine forests and hills surrounding the region. The trail to Miran Jani is just behind the Governor's House. Hofstede Canada! You can book horses from Nathia Gali if you dont want to go there by foot.

Dungagali is a picturesque small resort situated on in book the slopes of the Mukshpuri hill (2376 m.). It commands a charming view of a series of wooded spurs projecting towards the river Jhelum on the western side. From Dungagali one can climb the 2813 m peak of Mukhshpuri, which is the highest point in the range. Natural springs abound on the slopes. It is 30 km from Murree. There are nice hotels available too. Travel Culture Services (Pvt.) Limited Pakistan. Advertise on this site click for advertising rates. Dubai Travel Culture Offerring Tours, Desert Safaris and hotels in Dubai. Sri-Lanka Tours Our Colombo office operating tours in Sri Lanka. Qatar Travel Culture Tours and travel information about Qatar.

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