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Compare and Contrast Essay Template pdf

Example of a compare and contrast essay

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Comparison and Contrast Essays pdf

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Compare and Contrast Essay Template pdf

How Burrowing Owls Lead To Vomiting Anarchists (Or SFs Housing Crisis Explained) The Santa Clara Valley was some of the most valuable agricultural land in the entire world, but it was paved over to example of a and contrast essay, create todays Silicon Valley. The Trait To Personality Assumes! This was simply the result of bad planning and layers of leadership failure nobody thinks farms literally needed to be destroyed to example and contrast essay, create the technology industrys success. Today, the the day i almost, tech industry is apparently on track to destroy one of the worlds most valuable cultural treasures, San Francisco, by pushing out the diverse people who have helped create it. At least thats the story youve read in hundreds of articles lately. It doesnt have to of a essay, be this way. But everyone who lives in the Bay Area today needs to accept responsibility for making changes where they live so that everyone who wants to be here, can. The alternative inaction and self-absorption very well could create the cynical elite paradise and middle-class dystopia that many fear.

Ive spent time looking into the citys historical housing and development policies. With the protests escalating again, I am pretty tired of seeing the citys young and disenfranchised fight each other amid an extreme housing shortage created by Case in Violent, 30 to 40 years of NIMBYism (or Not-In-My-Backyard-ism) from the old wealth of the city and down from the of a, peninsula suburbs. Here is on Adapting Great Expectations From to Film a very long explainer. Sorry, this isnt a shorter post or that I didnt break it into 20 pieces. If youre wondering why people are protesting you, how we got to this housing crisis, why rent control exists or why tech is even shifting to San Francisco in compare and contrast essay, the first place, this is Making Case use of Force in Violent Pursuit of a meant to provide some common points of example compare and contrast essay, understanding. This is a complex problem, and Im not going to distill it into young, rich tech douchebags-versus-helpless old ladies facing eviction. Essay On Adapting From! There are many other places where you can read that story. It does us all no justice.

Homeowners have a strong economic incentive to restrict supply because it supports price appreciation of their own homes. Example Of A And Contrast Essay! Its understandable. Many of them have put the Essay on Adapting Novel to Film, bulk of their net worth into their homes and they dont want to and contrast, lose that. So they engage in NIMBYism under the name of preservationism or environmentalism, even though denying in-fill development here creates pressures for brainwash zevenbergen, sprawl elsewhere. They do this through hundreds of of a, politically powerful neighborhood groups throughout San Francisco like the Telegraph Hill Dwellers. Then the brainwash zevenbergen, rent-controlled tenants care far more about eviction protections than increasing supply. Of A And Contrast Essay! Thats because their most vulnerable constituents are paying rents that are so far below market-rate, that only an ungodly amount of zevenbergen, construction could possibly help them. Plus, that construction wouldnt happen fast enough especially for elderly tenants. So were looking at example essay as much as 80 percent of the city that isnt naturally oriented to add to the housing stock. Oh, and brainwash zevenbergen, tech?

The industry is about 8 percent of of a and contrast, San Franciscos workforce. Then if you look at the cities down on the peninsula and in the traditional heart of Silicon Valley, where home-ownership rates are higher, its even worse. The true culprit behind our housing problems: let us deflect blame to Mountain Views burrowing owl! (Photo: Wikimedia Commons user Dori under a CC-by-SA 3.0 license) So the wealthy voting classes of the peninsula are also strangling themselves of the day, housing too. Compare And Contrast! The median rent in Mountain View is $2,700 compared to $3,400 in San Francisco, according to the day i almost died, Zillow. Once you factor in the cost of owning a car estimated at slightly more than $9,000 a year by of a essay, the AAA its not that much cheaper. If you look even closer to the Caltrain stations, rents go way up. The newly-opened Madera complex in i almost died, downtown Mountain View rents out 1-bedroom units starting at $3,299 all the way up to 2-bedroom apartments at example of a compare and contrast $8,000 per month. So one contributor to the tech industrys spread into massage oil tesco San Francisco is that the peninsula cities are more than happy to example of a, vote for jobs, just not homes. 2) Why is the pillars honor, tech industry migrating to cities anyway? This is a demographic shift that is much larger than the example and contrast essay, technology industry itself although there are some tech-specific reasons that have fueled a migration north from the historic heart of Silicon Valley over the last 10 years.

This is what urbanist Alan Ehrenhalt calls The Great Inversion, a major shift where cities and four of national honor society, suburbs have traded places over the last 30 to 40 years. Of A! As people marry later and employment becomes more temporal, young adults and affluent retirees are moving into the urban core, while immigrants and the less affluent are moving out. San Franciscos population hit a trough around 1980, after steadily declining since the 1950s as the citys socially conservative white and the trait approach to personality that, Irish-Catholic population left for the suburbs. Into the vacuum of example compare essay, relatively cheaper rents they left behind, came the misfits, hippies and pillars of national honor society, immigrants that fomented so many of San Franciscos beautifully weird cultural and sexual revolutions. But that out-migration reversed around 1980, and the citys population has been steadily rising for the last 30 years. This is example of a a phenomenon thats happening to oil tesco, cities all over the United States. Its happening in Seattle, Atlanta, New York City, Boston and Washington.

D.C.: Its rapacious speed may even be accelerating. Witness hyper-gentrification in Brooklyn and of a, Manhattan, or the brainwash zevenbergen, Shoreditch-ification of London. People are getting married later and are living longer. Nearly 50 percent of Americans, or more than 100 million people are unmarried today, up from around 22 percent in 1950. The job market has changed as well. In 1978, the U.S.s manufacturing employment peaked and the noise and grit of the blue-collar factories that once fueled the flight of the example of a compare essay, upper-middle-class disappeared. These vacant manufacturing warehouses turned into the live-work spaces and lofts that emerged in the 1980s and the trait to personality assumes that, 1990s in cities like New York and San Francisco.

The concept of lifetime employment also faded. Today, San Franciscos younger workers derive their job security not from any single employer but instead from a large network of example of a compare and contrast essay, weak ties that lasts from one company to the next. The density of Making Case Study: use of in Violent of a Suspect, cities favors this job-hopping behavior more than the relative isolation of suburbia. There are also some tech industry-specific reasons too. The capital costs required to found a company and launch a minimum viable product are much lower than a decade ago.

Startups also need fewer people, especially with the low distribution costs provided by platforms like Apples iOS app store or Facebook. So its easier for lots of and contrast, small companies to find pockets of commercial real estate in zevenbergen, the city for new offices. Its also easier for VCs to fund an order of magnitude more experiments, even if the same proportion of and contrast essay, them fails. The products that technology companies are making today are also different. In the 1970s, Silicon Valley literally meant making semiconductors in large fabs that required expensive equipment and clean rooms. But the big wave of the massage, last decade has been social networking. And every notable consumer web or mobile product of this wave has been seeded through critical mass in the analog world. Facebook had university campuses. Of A And Contrast! Snapchat had Southern California high schools. Foursquare had Lower Manhattan. Twitter had San Francisco.

These products favor social density. An even newer generation of startups addresses distinctly urban questions. Airbnb exists because in that, 2007, San Francisco didnt have enough hotel capacity to house visitors in town for an industrial design conference. Of A Compare! Uber exists because the citys taxi market was under-supplied with drivers and smartphones offered a new way of summoning transportation on demand. Then there are very young startups like Campus, which is like a venture-backed communal living movement, Leap Transit, which is trying to shake up scheduled transport, or any of the companies out of Tumml, an urban ventures incubator.

As tech workers have moved into approach to personality that cities, the industry has changed San Franciscos culture and San Francisco has changed the technology industry. Nevertheless, while tech is fueling San Franciscos current boom and example compare essay, has helped cut the citys unemployment rate by about half since 2010, this gentrification wave has been going on for decades longer than the word dot-com has existed. And its happening all over the country. So a great question of our time is how American cities handle this shift. They have to do this in the face of global economic changes that are dividing our workforce into Essay Expectations Novel highly-skilled knowledge workers who are disproportionately benefiting from growth and lower-skilled service workers that are not seeing their wages rise at compare essay all. 3) OK, lets build more housing! Y Combinator partner Garry Tan tweeted out a map the other week: Want to i almost, see why SF housing is so expensive? This is a map of allowed building height. Yellow = 4 stories max. Wouldnt that be simple?

But its not that easy. While the real estate market is hot, developers are currently building 6,000 units. To go beyond that, you have to build political will. You have to win hearts and minds. You have to make sure that people dont get pushed out or left behind. Origins of SFs cautious approach to example compare essay, growth are rooted in oil tesco, the freeway revolt and urban renewal struggles of the 1950s and 1960s. San Franciscos orientation towards growth control has 50 years of history behind it and more than 80 percent of the citys housing stock is either owner-occupied or rent controlled. The citys height limits, its rent control and of a and contrast essay, its formidable permitting process are all products of tenant, environmental and of national honor, preservationist movements that have arisen and fallen over decades.

To this day, theres distrust and fear that the same thing will happen again, especially if its carried out by private developers. Example Essay! Advocacy group Causa Justa has been documenting this displacement through Census data, noting that the Essay Great Expectations From to Film, Mission has lost 1,400 Latino households while adding 2,900 white households between 1990 and 2011. Of A Compare And Contrast Essay! In the died, same time period, Oakland lost 40 percent of of a and contrast essay, its black residents. Anti-tech sentiment during the first dot-com boom. (From FoundSF) During the first tech boom, there was the Mission Anti-Displacement Coalition, which pushed for a moratorium on four pillars honor new market-rate housing and live-work lofts in the neighborhood. Example And Contrast Essay! There were also more violent movements like The Yuppie Eradication Project, which slashed tires, keyed cars and broke windows. Throughout the years, these movements have found alliances with other neighborhood organizations, preservationist and environmental interests. To this day, 1972s Transamerica Pyramid remains San Franciscos tallest building.

Its only in 2017 that a taller 1,070-foot tower anchored by approach to personality assumes, Salesforce will open. As political scientist and longtime San Francisco observer Richard DeLeon puts it: San Francisco has emerged as a semi-sovereign city a city that imposes as many limits on of a compare and contrast essay capital as capital imposes on it. On Adapting Great Expectations Novel To Film! Mislabeled by some detractors as socialist or radical in the Marxist tradition, San Franciscos progressivism is concerned with consumption more than production, residence more than workplace, meaning more than materialism, community empowerment more than class struggle. Its first priority is not revolution but protection protection of the citys environment, architectural heritage, neighborhoods, diversity, and overall quality of life from the radical transformations of turbulent American capitalism.

While we have to thank these movements for preserving so much of the land surrounding San Francisco and the citys beautiful Victorians, one side effect is that the city has added an example compare and contrast essay, average of brainwash, 1,500 units per of a compare essay, year for i almost, the last 20 years. Meanwhile, the U.S. Census estimates that the citys population grew by example, 32,000 people from 2010 to the day i almost, 2013 alone. Even today, you can see these factions engaging in behavior that might seem absurd in the context of example of a compare, a housing shortage. Exhibit A: Rich, Non-Tech People Trying To Downzone The Waterfront Amid An Acute Housing Crisis. On the ballot this June, is an initiative that will require voters to individually approve height limit exemptions for developments on the citys waterfront. The Day I Almost Died! It jeopardizes three major projects including the Warriors stadium (pictured below) and example compare and contrast essay, a plan to turn Pier 70 into a mixed-use development with office space and apartments. Those developments are slated to deliver as much as 3,690 housing units and $124 million in affordable housing fees, according to a memo written by John Arntz, the director of the citys department of elections. This initiative is funded overwhelmingly by a non-tech couple named Barbara and the trait to personality assumes that, Richard Stewart, who gave $75,000. Example! (They did not reply to requests for brainwash zevenbergen, comment.) It is overwhelmingly expected to pass, so even the mayor isnt taking a position on example of a essay it. Would you like free ice cream San Francisco? Why yes I would, is how one political consultant summed up Prop.

Bs voter appeal to John Cote at Decision Making Case excessive use of Pursuit of a by Policemen the San Francisco Chronicle. Of A Compare! Why stand up against something where 60 to i almost died, 70 percent are going to vote with the other side? No. This is not free ice cream! The proposed Warriors stadium, which is in example of a compare and contrast essay, jeopardy along with 3,690 housing units because of a Waterfront Height Limits ballot initiative this summer. (From the Novel, NBA) Exhibit B: Protests Against New Housing Developments That Dont Get Rid Of Any Existing Housing. Youll also end up seeing demonstrations like this one at of a 16th and Mission, which protest a proposed 351-unit condominium development that replaces a Walgreens and the day, a Burger King. Example Of A And Contrast Essay! It does not remove any existing housing or directly displace anyone.

A coalition of Mission-based non-profits and activists demonstrating against the trait approach, a proposed 351-unit condominium development at 16th and Mission. (From the Plaza16 Coalicion Facebook Page.) At face value, this might not make sense. But there are a couple reasons that this happens. One is and contrast that gentrification raises the brainwash, gap between market-rate rents and rent-controlled rents, strengthening the financial incentive for compare and contrast, landlords to evict longtime tenants. Unlike the wealthy waterfront NIMBYists, these communities are at risk of the trait to personality that, being displaced. If they dont speak up for themselves, who will? Look at Vida on of a compare Mission Street, which is a fancy new mixed-use building slated to open up next January (pictured below). The Vida project, which got green-lighted quickly through lots of pillars, collaboration with local Mission-based neighborhood groups. As Lauren Smiley wrote in San Francisco magazine last month, when developer Dean Givas wanted to build luxury condos in the heart of the Mission District, he bent over backward for example, local community groups to get the project quickly green-lighted. Over two years of negotiations with community groups, Givas agreed to died, buy a plot on nearby Shotwell Street for the city to develop 40 units of affordable housing, dwarfing the 14 units that would have been required within the Vida building.

He was already on the hook to compare, pay $1.4 million in city-mandated impact fees, yet the community got him to the day, agree to example of a compare, much more. He donated $150,000 to a fund to help mom-and-pop Mission businessesto be buoyed with a sales tax on future condo sales. Then, in what the projects attorney called an Decision Case excessive Force in Violent Pursuit Suspect by Policemen, unprecedented move by a developer in the Mission, he donated $650,000 to 23 community groups, a strategy that drew sellout criticisms from purists in the nonprofit community and shakedown charges from pro-development forces worried that his philanthropic palm greasing would set a precedent. Of A Compare And Contrast Essay! Next, Givas donated $1 million for the Texas-based Alamo Drafthouse Cinema chain to renovate the long-shuttered New Mission Theater next door into a five-screen dinner-and-a-movie cineplex. The Texans agreed to Great to Film, hire 50 percent of compare, its staff from the neighborhood and to let nonprofits host at-cost benefits at the facility. In principle, its fine to use the levers of that, urban politics to redistribute the wealth an of a compare, economic boom creates in San Francisco. But these concessions are being negotiated housing development by housing development, which slows the citys ability to produce housing both market-rate and Force in Violent Pursuit by Policemen, affordable at scale. Its a good first step, but. 4) SFs planning process is example of a deliberately bureaucratic (or highly participatory!) for political reasons:

San Franciscos construction permitting process (non-ironically written in brainwash, Comic Sans). One of the things that makes housing development different in example of a compare, San Francisco compared to the day i almost died, other major U.S. cities is that building permits are discretionary rather than as-of-right. Essay! In other cities, if a developer already matches the existing zoning and height restrictions of the the trait approach assumes, city plan, they can get issued a permit relatively quickly. But for new housing developments in San Francisco, theres a preliminary review, which takes six months. Then there are also chances for your neighbors to appeal your permit on either an entitlement or environmental basis.

The city also requires extensive public notice of proposed projects even if they already meet neighborhood plans, which have taken several years of example of a compare and contrast essay, deliberation to on Adapting to Film, produce. Of A Compare Essay! Neighbors can appeal your project for something as insignificant as the Decision excessive Pursuit Suspect by Policemen, shade of paint, although the of a compare and contrast, citys planning department and commission tries to get through minor appeals quickly. If those fail, neighborhood groups can also file a CEQA or environmental lawsuit under California state law, challenging the environment impact of the project. Perversely, CEQA lawsuits have been used to challenge a city plan to add 34 miles of bike lanes. Then if that fails, opponents can put a development directly on died a citywide ballot with enough signatures. (Thanks, Hiram Johnson?) Thats what happened with the controversial 8 Washington luxury condo project last November even though it had already gone through eight years of deliberation. These barriers add unpredictable costs and years of delays for every developer, which are ultimately passed onto buyers and renters. It also means that developers have problems attracting capital financing in weaker economic years because of the political uncertainty around getting a project passed. The sophistication with which neighborhood groups wield San Franciscos arcane land-use and zoning regulations for activist purposes is one of the very unique things about the citys politics. But the citys political leadership doesnt want to example compare and contrast essay, change it, because it fears backlash from the day, powerful neighborhood groups, which actually deliver votes. 5) Also, parts of the compare and contrast, progressive community do not believe in supply and demand. Yeah, I was surprised by this.

We cant build our way to affordability, is Decision Case Study: use of Force Pursuit a common refrain. Tim Redmond, who used to compare essay, edit the San Francisco Bay Guardian, even suggested today that the pillars honor society, government should take 60 percent of the example compare, citys housing off the private market over Essay on Adapting Novel to Film the next 20 years. (I have no idea how you would fund this.) Why the private market can never solve SFs housing crisis Several activists also sent me this paper, authored by Calvin Welch, of the Council of Community Housing Organizations. Admirably, Welch has been fighting for affordable housing in San Francisco for the last forty years and is part of the compare, politically powerful Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council, which has seen that neighborhood through, well, everything. But this paper conflates correlation with causation. Four Of National! He argues that when there is a decline in new housing units, there is example of a compare essay also a decline in price. Namely, he points to 2001 and 2002, while brushing off the mega-gigantic-enormous confounding variable of the dot-com bust and a regional recession. 6) OK, clarification: Affordable housing advocates would support development if it had a meaningful share of below-market-rate units. So I met Welch and he made good points. (Hes been working on this for brainwash zevenbergen, nearly forty years.)

His organization, the Council of Community Housing Organizations, argues that raw, additional construction will not make housing more affordable to working-class or lower-income San Franciscans. Left to its own devices, the market will only example of a compare and contrast essay, produce housing that chases the very richest buyers. In a time of four of national, rising inequality, those market-rate units are increasingly out of reach, even for middle-class San Franciscans. He points to example compare, tables like this one, which shows San Franciscos residential housing pipeline for the last quarter of 2013. Under state mandate, each city has a Regional Housing Need allocation or RHNA. In San Francisco, the market is producing almost double the number of housing units for people with Above Moderate incomes, or 120 percent of the areas median income, as the RHNA says it needs to build. So affordable housing advocates say that developers should be required to have a higher percentage of below-market-rate units built. The issue with inclusionary housing is that construction costs are so high in San Francisco calculated here to be nearly $500,000 for an 800-foot square unit that affordable housing requires generous public subsidies.

The Mayors Office of Housing and oil tesco, Community Development says there are 1,759 units of of a compare essay, affordable housing that are currently being built or preserved at Case excessive use of in Violent of a a cost of $824.5 million. About $274.1 million of that funding is coming from the city, and the remaining $550.3 million has to come from somewhere else. The federal and state government used to help with this, but their assistance has dropped off dramatically since the 1980s. (Cuts to the federal Housing and Urban Development department budget under the Reagan administration coincided with the rise of urban homelessness in and contrast essay, San Francisco.) 2,800 people applied to live in this 60-unit affordable housing building at 474 Natoma. Also, inclusionary housing has its own trade-offs. It can pass on four honor society the costs of building below-market-rate units to example compare and contrast essay, market-rate buyers, cutting out massage units that would be affordable to middle-class buyers. Hence, another reason for example of a compare, the disappearance of the San Franciscos middle-class. Youll see in Essay From, the table above that the market is mostly producing housing for above moderate incomes, then some low income housing units, but hardly anything for moderate incomes. The lack of options for middle-class San Franciscans in turn feeds the essay, two-tier systems that were seeing in transportation with MUNI-versus-Uber and in education, where 30 percent of the citys students go to private schools at $30,000 per year while the public school system will see almost all of its enrollment growth coming from public housing over the next three decades. The magic ratio is hard to find and the trait to personality assumes, it constantly shifts, depending on and contrast essay the state of the housing market and construction costs. 7) Yet were arguing over four pillars shades of gray. Sorry, supply and demand still totally matter.

More construction probably wont make prices go down , but it will prevent them from skyrocketing as much as they would otherwise. If you look at this Trulia study examining housing production since 1990 and prices in 10 of the U.S.s biggest tech hubs, youll see that San Francisco had the highest median prices per of a and contrast essay, square foot and had the lowest number of new construction permits per the trait approach to personality assumes, 1,000 units between 1990 and 2013. There are also many long-term studies like this one or this one or this one from economists like Edward Glaeser of Harvard University and and contrast, Joseph Gyourko at the University of Pennsylvania examining the approach to personality assumes, impact of land-use restrictions and zoning on U.S. home prices in desirable areas like Boston, New York and Coastal California since 1950. But in places where zoning regulations create artificial limits on home production, the of a and contrast essay, final prices to home buyers jump far above construction costs. In the 1980s and 1990s, they found that virtually all of San Franciscos home prices were at least 140 percent above base construction costs. You can also look at four historical housing production levels in New York City and California. Manhattan was permitting more than 11,000 units each year during the postwar boom years between 1955 and 1964.

But between 1980 and and contrast essay, 1999, the the trait, New York City borough was permitting just an average of 3,120 units per year. Between 1970 and essay, 2000, the median price of a Manhattan housing unit increased by 284 percent in constant dollars. Similarly, California once accounted for one of every five building permits issued in the U.S. Decision Making Case Of A Suspect! during the 1960s. That construction rate slowed down, and of a and contrast essay, real housing prices in the state have increased by 385 percent from 1970 to brainwash zevenbergen, 2010. Heres a similar historical chart for of a compare and contrast, San Francisco housing production. Its as if both cities reacted 10 or 20 years late long after the Decision Making Case Force in Violent Pursuit Suspect, Great Inversion started and before anybody had any idea about how big or transformative this suburban-urban migration would become. This issue is of a compare and contrast profound.

Regional economic booms normally benefit all workers by creating more jobs throughout the economy supporting locally-owned businesses and bringing in more tax revenue for public services. Even if most people dont have tech jobs in the Bay Area, they would get many more opportunities than if there was, say, no economic growth. The point is that if the entire Bay Area had a more elastic housing supply, it would not only make living affordable for most people, it would allow a far larger portion of the population to find jobs and do things like save or spend money instead of moving somewhere distant and spending their money on driving, or even being unemployed. But in San Francisco, that spillover effect is much smaller. This is in no small part because so much of Making Study: excessive use of Force Pursuit of a Suspect, our incomes end up going toward housing costs.

The citys economist Ted Egan estimates that each San Francisco tech job likely creates somewhere slightly north of two extra jobs, not five. San Franciscos city economist, Ted Egan, argues above that the tech industry and its spillover effects have been responsible for example and contrast essay, virtually all of the citys job growth since 2010. Still, the multiplier effect in San Francisco at slightly more than 2 jobs created for every single tech job, is much lower than the 5-to-1 ratio UC Berkeley economist Enrico Moretti calculated nationwide. Housing costs dampen the spillovers since people end up spending so much more on of national rent and mortgages. However, its hard to have even basic debates over modest increases in the housing supply here because of this ideological dispute. 8) 1978 and 1979: Proposition 13 and Rent Control. I keep coming back to the late 1970s because both the city of San Francisco and the state of California made choices that have had enduring impacts on housing to this day.

If San Francisco seems torn apart by class war today, the city was in example of a and contrast essay, profound agony in 1978. A charismatic, religious leader named Jim Jones had won the favor of citys political elite and helped deliver the mayorship to George Moscone. Amid emerging allegations of physical abuse, Jones and oil tesco, hundreds of his followers defected from example of a compare, San Francisco to to personality, Guyana, where he sought to example compare and contrast essay, build a utopia. Instead, he convinced more than 900 of his followers, including mothers and infants, to ingest cyanide mixed with punch in a mass suicide. Four Society! It was an enormous tragedy for the city; nearly every family in the black Fillmore district knew someone they had lost in Jonestown. Then, just nine days later, there was a double blow. Supervisor Dan White murdered mayor Moscone and gay political icon Harvey Milk in the heart of San Franciscos beaux-arts City Hall. Of A Compare! Tens of Making Case use of Force Pursuit of a Suspect, thousands of grief-stricken people marched down Market Street in a candlelight vigil. It was into this chaos that Dianne Feinstein, who had recently been widowed after her husband passed away from and contrast, colon cancer, stepped into power and assumed mayorship. The broader U.S. economic picture was not great.

Inflation shot from the trait to personality assumes, 9 percent at the time Feinstein became mayor to 13.3 percent a year later as the example of a, Iranian revolution triggered another energy crisis. Gas lines formed once again around stations throughout the country again, prompting another cultural re-consideration of suburban ideal. Earlier in the summer of massage, 1978, a cantankerous former small-town newspaper publisher named Howard Jarvis led a taxpayer revolt as property prices were soaring, threatening to throw home owners out of and contrast, their homes because of rising tax bills. Jarvis idea was to cap property taxes at 1 percent of their assessed value and to prevent them from rising by more than 2 percent each year until the property was sold again and its taxes were reset at a new market value. Howard Jarvis launched the taxpayer revolt that got Proposition 13 passed, capping property taxes for four pillars of national honor, homeowners. One argument that Jarvis used to rally tenant support for Proposition 13, was that he promised that landlords would pass on their tax savings to renters. They didnt. They pocketed the savings for themselves. Tenants were furious, and rent control movements erupted in at least a dozen cities throughout California, from Berkeley to Santa Monica. San Francisco might have gone a different way, but Angelo Sangiacomo was the alleged trigger.

The Italian-American landlord, who was born and raised in the Richmond District, demanded across-the-board rent increases of 25 to 65 percent in seventeen hundred apartments in March of 1979. Amid the outrage, Feinstein pushed for a 60-day rent freeze that would ward off the rise of a tenant-backed mayoral challenger. Both policies have had far-reaching and unanticipated ripple effects. Overnight, Californias property tax revenues fell by almost 60 percent, and the state had to make emergency allocations from a surplus that year to keep services afloat. Because the compare essay, states K-12 schools are financed largely by property taxes, Californias spending per student fell from 5th in the nation in the mid-1960s to honor society, 50th in this decade. Without the essay, ability to rely as heavily on property taxes, city governments throughout the state had to favor office and retail development over housing in order to boost sales taxes. It may have even accelerated the homogeny of on Adapting Expectations From Novel, suburbs as smaller city governments had to cut deals to attract big box retailers to boost sales tax revenue, crowding out independently-run stores.

It also created a lock-in effect as California property values soared, creating a bigger gap in property taxes on newly-sold properties and ones that homeowners had held onto for a long time. Compare And Contrast Essay! That rigidity further enhanced the political power that NIMBY-ist homeowners accumulated in suburban city councils throughout the state. Proposition 13s legacy? Owners of this Presidio Heights home, which just closed at a price of $5,125,000 earlier this week, had been paying around $2,885 in annual property taxes. The homes new taxes should be around $60,885.

San Franciscos 60-day rent control ordinance also stuck around, and it was subsequently strengthened through the following decades. The maximum allowable annual rent increase went from 7 percent to 4 percent in mid-1980s and then to a fraction of the inflation rate set by the Rent Board in 1992. Because both Proposition 13 and rent control insulate homeowners and brainwash zevenbergen, rent-controlled tenants from dramatic tax or rent increases when the example of a and contrast essay, market undersupplies housing, they undermined political will for building homes. Both of these policies were enacted just as the Great Inversion started. 9) Rent controls impact on the citys housing stock and politics is more complex than any basic economics textbook would suggest. Rent control is Decision use of of a by Policemen a naturally divisive topic in essay, the tech community. Progressives view it as a sacred right that protects the massage oil tesco, remnants of a working- and example and contrast, middle-class in the city. Its a non-renewable resource, Erin McElroy, who is part of the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, explained to me. But the tech community is Great to Film both socially liberal and market-oriented, with more than 90 percent of political donations from of a compare, Apple and Google employees going to oil tesco, Barack Obama in the last election. So price controls in and contrast essay, the name of community stability and equity just makes peoples brains explode.

Some influential tech leaders will be supportive (and, as I said, Conway and Benioff back Ellis Act reform). Then there are others, like venture capitalist Marc Andreessen, who has been vocal against rent control on approach assumes that Twitter. Stop SF evictions. Stop the example of a and contrast essay, Ellis act. Just know that it covers around 75 percent of the massage, citys rental housing stock.

If the example of a compare and contrast essay, Google Bus protests were centered on 216 Ellis Act evictions in the last Rent Board year, you could imagine what would happen if you broached the topic of rent control. Want to alienate about half of San Francisco? Have fun. Yes, rent control is a blunt instrument of income re-distribution in Decision Study: Force in Violent Pursuit of a Suspect by Policemen, an increasingly unequal world. It is not means-tested, meaning anyone from well-salaried, white-collar workers to very low-income residents can benefit from it. Of A Compare And Contrast Essay! It also forces a number of approach to personality assumes that, small-time, mom-and-pop landlords to individually subsidize someone elses cost of living in example of a compare essay, the city. It creates two classes of tenants one that is very legally protected and another that is the day not.

For market-rate tenants, there is no law compelling their landlords to give them as much as $44,842 in relocation expenses under new city legislation like they will for example of a and contrast, Ellis Act evictees if they raise rents beyond what they can afford. But tenants activists see San Franciscos rent-controlled housing stock as a vital public good that gives middle-income residents a foothold in the city. And while the make-up of the citys rent-controlled hasnt been studied in Essay Great, more than a decade, it likely contains less-wealthy San Franciscans on average than the market-rate units do. Compare And Contrast Essay! In studies of other cities where rent control unexpectedly ended via a change in Decision Case Force of a Suspect by Policemen, state law like Cambridge, Massachusetts, tenants in these apartments had lower incomes than those of market-rate renters. San Franciscos version of rent control also does not apply to buildings constructed after 1979, so it shouldnt dis-incentivize developers from example and contrast, producing new units. Instead, a lot of other factors are constricting supply. That said, I do think it undermines the political will that would otherwise exist for building more housing. 10) So a highly-restricted housing supply + rising demand + a volatile local economy prone to four pillars of national society, booms and busts + strict rent control without vacancy control = Eviction crisis every decade!

San Franciscos version of rent control lacks vacancy controls, which means landlords can re-set rents at whatever the market will bear when new rent-controlled tenants move in. The logic is that with vacancy controls, landlords wont invest in maintaining their properties. But the of a compare and contrast essay, flipside is that the landlord also has a strong financial incentive to evict longstanding tenants who are paying below-market rates. So every decade during a boom, there is a tragic, elderly face for the story of displacement. This past year, it was Gum Gee Lee and Poon Heung Lee, the elderly Chinese-American couple with a mentally disabled daughter who were evicted last fall from their home of 34 years. But back in Great Expectations to Film, the 1990s, there was Lola McKay. A year after her eviction fight started, McKay died alone in example of a compare, her Mission apartment of the trait assumes that, 42 years at of a and contrast essay age 83 in 2000. It sucks. I sat in a high school gym in four of national honor, the Tenderloin full of terrified elderly and example of a and contrast, disabled people at the citywide tenant convention. During every real-estate boom, no-fault evictions typically of Essay on Adapting From, rent-controlled tenants tick or skyrocket upwards. (From an October 2013 memo to of a compare and contrast, city supervisor David Campos.)

At the four pillars honor, heart of the Google Bus protests are a specific kind of eviction called an Ellis Act eviction. There are 16 types of evictions, eight of which are considered For Cause and another eight which are considered No Fault. The Ellis Act is one of these. While its hard to fight a surge in other kinds of of a compare and contrast essay, no-fault evictions like Owner Move-In evictions, the brainwash, tenants movement has a stronger moral upper hand with the Ellis Act. Thats because the law, which was passed in compare essay, 1985, was explicitly designed to massage oil tesco, let landlords go out of business . Tenants activists say that the of a, Ellis Act is instead abused by Decision Making excessive use of Force in Violent of a Suspect, real estate speculators, who evict their tenants, turn these rent-controlled apartments into example compare and contrast essay tenancies-in-common and sell them at a profit.

They point to a list of a Dirty Dozen landlords, who are the worst serial Ellis Act evictors. I Almost Died! One of them is Urban Green Investments, which is evicting 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant, who live up my street. Phillips moved to the city in the late 1930s as a war bride and moved into this 1950s-era apartment building on Dolores Street, across the way from what is now a huge apartment complex containing a brand-new bottom-floor Whole Foods Market. Her last day was supposed to be six days ago on April 8. But shes still there, at least until the sheriff receives a court order to take action. At 98, she has nowhere to go. 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant are being evicted from their apartments in of a and contrast, the Mission District by Urban Green Investments.

Phillips last day was supposed to be six days ago. Zevenbergen! She doesnt have anywhere to go and doesnt have enough money to example and contrast essay, afford current market-rate rents in San Francisco. Massage! Brant, her neighbor, helps care for her. (From VanishingSF) The city government is trying to example compare and contrast, respond as quickly as it can, but it can only do so much because the Ellis Act is state law. Earlier this week, city supervisor David Campos, who represents the other part of the Mission, pushed legislation through the Decision Making Case Study: use of of a Suspect by Policemen, Board of Supervisors that would raise compensation for Ellis Act evictees. Its going from $5,200 per tenant to the difference between the tenants current rent and the market-rate rent for a comparable apartment over two years. At current rates, this would be more than $44,832 for of a compare and contrast essay, a two-bedroom apartment. Theyre trying to change the law at the state level too. Mark Leno, who represents San Francisco in the California State Senate, also introduced a bill that would require landlords to hold a property for four pillars of national honor society, five years before invoking the Ellis Act to evict tenants. It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee earlier this week. 12) Fuck, this is complicated.

Anti-tech sentiment becomes a catalyst. But the and contrast essay, Google Bus protests worked. Jessica Kwong (@JessicaGKwong) April 1, 2014. They were a media sensation. They tapped into this inchoate sense of frustration around everything from rising income inequality to privacy to massage oil tesco, surveillance to the environmental impact of the hardware we buy to a dubious sense that todays leading technology companies arent living up to their missions of not being evil.

The we-hate-tech-workers is mostly a media narrative, said organizer Fred Sherburn-Zimmer. Of A Essay! Its not about that. Its about income disparity. Its about speculators using high-income workers to displace communities. Sherburn-Zimmer acknowledged that the Great, bus protests were a tactic. But she said, without them, the movement wouldnt have been able to get 500 people to march in Sacramento for Ellis Act reform. She also said that the support of Conway, the example of a and contrast essay, advocacy group he founded called and other tech companies will be invaluable in turning votes on the peninsula to approach, get Lenos bill moving. Of A Compare! It just passed the the day died, Senate Transportation and Housing Committee this week. So the protests will keep going, because they are what keep Lenos bill and Ellis Act reform in the news. (Dont take it too personally. You can blame us the media for finding protests against globally-recognized brands like Google much sexier than protests against compare essay, individual Mountain View city council members.) 13) Who are the protesters and what do they want? Hundreds still marching in the mission to demand no more evictions of #SF teachers.

Going bldg to bldg under threat. David Zlutnick (@DavidZlutnick) April 12, 2014. Like the tech community itself, the activist community is four honor society pretty heterogeneous. There are groups like Causa Justa, which focuses on Latino and black communities. The are housing focused groups like the Housing Rights Committee and others affiliated with the San Francisco Tenants Union.

There are efforts like the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, which is example compare and contrast asking San Franciscans to boycott renting at zevenbergen places where Ellis Act evictions have happened. McElroy, who is crammed into a two-bedroom, non-rent-controlled apartment with four other people in Bernal Heights, built it along with other tech workers including Kelsey Gilmore-Innis, Sasha Magee and Silvia Amtmann. Shes been leading many of the protests several times a week at different real estate offices, Google Bus stops and homes where long-time tenants are being evicted. The broad point here is that while tech-fueled economic growth can be good, gentrification carries enormous and often tragic costs for certain individuals and communities. If those costs arent being recognized by a purely market-based system, then the political system should rectify it. We implore tech to start talking to us. Come out into the streets with us. Example Compare! I dont think it occurs to people that they can be a body too.

People live in bubbles here, McElroy said. If youre scared, what does that compare to four pillars, people who are being forced out of their homes? But there are times when it can just get weird or borderline disturbing. The Counterforce left creepy flyers at Kevin Roses house demanding $3 billion for an anarchist utopia and showed up one morning at the Berkeley home of Google engineering manager Anthony Levandowski. While McElroy communicates with The Counterforce, they are a separate group with different tactics. And it often feels like protests meant to stir meaningful discussion about income inequality, gentrification and housing veer off into misguided anger or hatred. At an anti-eviction protest on Friday, hundreds of people marched through the of a, streets of the Mission with a brass band. Expectations From Novel To Film! It was totally non-violent, with lots of children, parents, teachers and seniors singing and of a compare and contrast, shouting.

Lowell High School senior Natalia Arguello-Inglis took the Making Case use of Force of a Suspect, microphone and said, We cant blindly hate on the techies and yuppies. Who are we to judge who can come into this city and example, who can not? Gentrification is not going to go away. But we can work with the people who are causing it. But there was also one Tech = Death sign in the day i almost died, a visual reference to of a and contrast, early 1990s anti-AIDS documentary Silence = Death and a few other people carried pictures of Jack Halprin, the Google lawyer who is evicting multiple tenants from approach, his house on Guerrero Street. Following the protests, a Business Insider reporter named Kyle Russell also had Google Glass ripped off his face and of a compare and contrast, smashed.

Three protests so far have also individually targeted Google employees, including Kevin Rose, who came home to a large banner and flyers reading Kevin Rose Parasite (pictured below). Also, a protester climbed on top of zevenbergen, a Yahoo bus at the MacArthur station and vomited on it. Randy Shaw, who houses low-income San Franciscans in 1,600 units under the non-profit Tenderloin Housing Clinic, calls this backlash a new form of nativism. When he moved here in and contrast, the late 1970s, he remembered straight residents making the same complaints about an influx of gays into the Castro or a flood of Study: Force in Violent Pursuit by Policemen, Latino immigrants into what was a largely Irish-American Mission District a generation ago. the war on tech workersas opposed to tech companies or policies is not really a class war. Rather, it is example of a compare about one group of predominately white people complaining about a similar demographic group that likes many of the brainwash zevenbergen, same restaurants, bars, street festivals, and Samba classes that they dobut who makes more money. He points out that many of the union-affiliated protesters blasting Twitter in front of the example of a and contrast essay, companys headquarters are simultaneously requesting budget increases from the mayors office, which is largely possible because of the tech-fueled economic boom. In other cases, it feels like activists are misusing state laws to make a point. Several groups spent eight hours at the Board of Supervisors meeting earlier this month challenging the citys decision not to i almost, put the new tech commuter shuttle pilot program under environmental review via CEQA. This is example and contrast essay even though the the day i almost, buses take cars off the road for as many as 4,000 commuters every day. They argued that displacement of existing communities should be counted as an compare and contrast essay, environmental impact of the shuttle program.

The Board of Supervisors disagreed, voting 8-2 to uphold the exemption. Were not saying no buses, Sherburn-Zimmer said. Were saying that there are consequences that happen when these buses move into the neighborhood. Certainly, charging $1 per use of a public bus stop is excessive Force in Violent Pursuit Suspect by Policemen low when the regular MUNI fare is $2. But under California Proposition 218, the transportation agency is not allowed to create a revenue-generating program. So the program can only pay for its $1.7 million in costs now. But the activists arent happy with that. Google never came to us and asked us what we would like to see, McElroy said. We are not into backdoor deal-making with politicians. Also, none of this the increased eviction protections, the push to example essay, stall the shuttle program under CEQA, Ellis Act reform amounts to the day died, massive, systems-level change.

It protects long-time residents who are already here, but it doesnt make San Francisco affordable or available to and contrast, future middle- or working-class residents. The activists know this. Were playing fastball right now, McElroy said. These are Band-Aid solutions. Indeed, this is politics! 14) So complicated! What are compromises that have actually worked?

Normally, city policy makers favor constructing housing where there are no pre-existing units because new housing is generally less affordable than old housing. The Day I Almost! But because we are a city that has been built out since the 1950s, we have very little unused space left. One project that could point the way is example of a compare essay Trinity Plaza at 8th and Mission. Use Of Pursuit Of A Suspect By Policemen! Its a 1,900-unit complex that came about compare and contrast through an agreement in 2005 between the unlikeliest of allies. Trinity Plaza in four pillars of national, 1962. Described as San Franciscos new, luxurious, fully air conditioned 400 room motor hotel. Eric Fischer/Flickr.

On one side was the infamous Father of compare essay, Rent Control Sangiacomo. Trinity was a rundown 1960s-era motel that ended up being turned into an apartment building with 360 rent-controlled units. When Sangiacomo originally proposed re-developing the Decision Force in Violent of a Suspect by Policemen, area, it stirred up progressive opposition led by Daly and a two-year political battle ensued. It was a big win. Longtime residents werent displaced and got brand-new homes at near their old rent, plus the city got to of a compare essay, provide many more homes to four pillars honor society, other San Franciscans. 15) What is the city government doing? If you can see any possible silver lining in being antagonized every day in example compare, protests, its that the city government will be really, really, really focused on housing. A lot of i almost died, things that werent considered politically possible for years are happening now. The Board of Supervisors was able to pass a bill to of a compare and contrast essay, legalize in-law units, which can be anything from garages to attics that have illegally housed tens of oil tesco, thousands of San Franciscans for decades in a shadow housing market.

They also voted to increase Ellis Act relocation compensation, although landlords represented by the San Francisco Apartment Association say they are considering a lawsuit to challenge this. The mayor doubled the citys downpayment assistance program to first-time home buyers to $200,000. The mayor pledged to build or rehabilitate 30,000 units in the next six years, with one-third of those being permanently affordable to lower and moderate-income families. Of A Compare Essay! He also convened a working group representing more than 75 different interests that will come up with solutions to the day i almost, the housing crisis. You can read different ideas for example, solving the housing crisis here from SPUR, the San Francisco Housing Action Coalition or the Council of Community Housing Organizations. There is no silver bullet in any of these. Case Study: Excessive Use Of Force In Violent Pursuit Of A Suspect! Its a hard problem. Example Compare Essay! Lee, Leno and others are collaborating on this Ellis Act bill in four of national honor, the state legislature. Theyre also working on using city-owned land for affordable housing developments. Ahead of all these protests, Lee also got voters to pass an Affordable Housing Trust Fund back in 2012.

But any projects from and contrast essay, it are also likely to be mired in zevenbergen, that crazy planning process. 16) What is the tech industry doing? Ron Conway is asking tech CEOs across the industry to speak up in example compare and contrast, favor of oil tesco, Ellis Act reform, which would help longtime tenants at risk of no-fault evictions stay in of a compare and contrast, their rent-controlled units. Google also gave $6.8 million as a temporary source of funding for approach to personality, a MUNI program that gives free rides to low-income youth. In March, the company also opened a Bay Area Impact Challenge, which will grant $5 million to 25 Bay Area non-profits. Example Of A Compare And Contrast! Two weeks ago, they also funded all of the to personality assumes that, Bay Area projects on Donors Choose, which is a platform where teachers can list projects that they need funding for in their classrooms. The amount was roughly $600,000 for 600 area projects.

Salesforce CEO Marc Benioff also challenged tech industry workers to raise $10 million in compare, the next 60 days for anti-poverty organizations. Google was also a founding partner in the effort, called the Tipping Point SF Gives fund, with a $1 million donation. Just a few days ago, Benioff and his wife also gave a second $100 million to pillars of national society, the UCSF Benioff Childrens Hospital and its affiliate, the Childrens Hospital Research Center in Oakland. Example Compare Essay! The mayor and four honor society, have been brokering meetings between tech companies like Jawbone, Pinterest, Airbnb and non-profits like the YMCA, the Tenderloin Housing Clinic and example compare, the Mission Economic Development Agency. Jawbone CEO Hosain Rahman and YMCA San Francisco CEO Chuck Collins co-authored a piece outlining a One City strategy today. Airbnb is now remitting San Franciscos 14 percent hotel occupancy tax. Then there are lots of other efforts (and I cant remember them all), like Zendesks and citys new mobile site for homeless services called LinkSF. Square, which has been doing trash clean-ups every Friday on the streets of Mid-Market for more than a year, starting hiring security guards with equity instead of contracting this work out to other companies. There was a Hacktivation for the Homeless, where developers donated their time to build projects requested by local non-profits.

Consider these things just a start. 17) What about this Twitter tax break that the unions say is costing the city $56 million? There is massage a ton of anger at the tech industry over two tax exclusions that were passed in 2011. David Campos, the city supervisor who represents the Mission, recently called for a hearing on the so-called Twitter tax break. (Not so coincidentally, he is currently running to represent San Francisco in the California state assembly against David Chiu.) Its a complicated issue if you look into example of a compare and contrast essay it. Yes, San Francisco is an extremely desirable place and it has more leverage than most cities in Expectations, the entire country to squeeze corporations for additional taxes or concessions. But those taxes cant be so out of line with neighboring cities that companies just move one city south, leaving San Francisco with the same housing problems but nothing in business tax revenue to show for it. This is one reason for why the example of a and contrast, biotechnology industry has historically been centered in massage oil tesco, South San Francisco with companies like Genentech, even though San Francisco is example of a essay home to UCSF, one of the best medical schools and massage oil tesco, research facilities in the world. At the time that the city passed both exclusions, San Francisco was the of a essay, only city in the state of California to derive all of its business tax revenue from Decision Making excessive Force Pursuit Suspect, payrolls and one of the few in the nation that taxed employee stock options. So this uncapped, unpredictable tax liability that could stretch into tens of millions of of a and contrast essay, dollars was a huge reason to zevenbergen, leave even though Twitters leadership wanted to stay.

At the same time, San Franciscos unemployment rate was north of 8 percent at that time, so the example of a compare and contrast, citys priority was to create jobs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion (a.k.a. Twitter tax break) will be a moot point by 2018 when the city shifts entirely to a gross receipts tax. The new @twitter HQ sign is an homage to Decision Making in Violent Pursuit of a, the civic importance of its predecessor. Heres old vs new. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion, was created with Twitter in mind in 2011 to incentivize companies to stay in San Francisco and move to a part of Market Street that had 30 percent storefront vacancy rates. The point was to create a tech cluster that would generate meaningful tax revenues over the long-run through an compare, estimated $54 million over 20 years and boost economic activity in the area. The exclusion was available to all companies with more than $250,000 in payrolls that moved there. Twitter was the anchor, and it moved its headquarters to a Shorenstein-owned SF Mart building that had been vacant for five years.

Companies like Zendesk, Spotify and One Kings Lane also joined the honor society, program and got a break from the citys 1.5 percent payroll tax on additional headcount for example compare and contrast, up to six years if they moved to Mid-Market. In 2012, this amounted to $1.9 million in foregone taxes on $126.8 million in payroll expenses. Because these companies had more than $1 million in payroll expenses, they also had to create Community Benefit Agreements that documented how theyre giving back to the community through donations and volunteership. While the advisory committee overseeing the Making Study: in Violent Pursuit by Policemen, program loves IPO candidate Zendesk, its members are frustrated with Twitter and other companies for being too vague on commitments or not even showing up to meetings. Then, the whole payroll tax was subsequently reformed or scrapped by voters the following year through Proposition E in compare, favor of a tax on Decision Making excessive use of of a by Policemen gross receipts thats starting to be phased in. The argument was that payroll taxes penalize job creation.

On top of that, the city was only collecting the example compare and contrast essay, payroll taxes from i almost, less than 10 percent of the roughly 100,000 registered companies in the city at that time. A gross receipts tax focuses on revenues; its generally good for service businesses like restaurants and pre-revenue companies that could scale quickly like tech startups. The city used to example of a and contrast, charge either the greater of a gross receipts tax or a payroll tax, but the California state court system ruled that this was illegal after companies like Eastman Kodak and approach to personality, General Motors sued the city of Los Angeles for the same practice more than a decade ago. The city had tried to shift from a payroll tax to a gross receipts tax before, but the measure didnt pass until 2012. So this whole tax break that people are screaming about example of a essay will be a moot point by brainwash zevenbergen, 2018, when the gross receipts tax is fully baked in for everyone. And if San Francisco is able to example compare and contrast, convince tech companies to stay instead of moving down south to the peninsula, and one of them turns into a Facebook, Oracle or Google-sized company, the city will be able to capture a percentage of what will be billions of dollars in annual revenues. The city said today that the program had already helped generate $8.4 million in the day died, property and real estate transfer taxes, attracted 18 tech companies and convinced 17 small businesses to open on the street.

The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion zone. Companies that move to this area receive a break from the 1.5 percent payroll tax until 2017. By 2018, the city will be fully shifted over into a gross receipts tax, however. The employee stock options tax is the one that cuts to the heart of a broad inequality debate. There was a second temporary tax exemption that was passed in example of a compare and contrast essay, 2011 that focused on employee stock options and brainwash, was created to retain pre-IPO companies in San Francisco like Zynga, Twitter and of a and contrast essay, Zendesk. Massage Oil Tesco! TechCrunch covered it back in 2011 and it should also be over-ridden by the shift to of a compare essay, gross receipts taxes. This is the i almost died, one that is more controversial in the context of the broader inequality debate. James Temple, who now works at Re/Code, wrote a piece for example, the San Francisco Chronicle last fall saying that this tax break cost the city $34 million on zevenbergen top of the projected $22 million in example and contrast, foregone revenue from the Mid-Market program.

This is pillars of national where this $56 million figure keeps coming from, even though if Twitter had moved, the city wouldnt have seen any of it. Its phantom money. Paying $56 million to San Francisco-versus-paying business taxes in other neighboring Silicon Valley cities. (From a 2011 Budget and Legislative Analyst memo.) At the time it was passed, San Francisco was one of the few cities in the nation to tax employee stock options and example of a essay, it included them as part of the 1.5 percent payroll tax. The controllers office also found that San Francisco had a higher propensity to lose businesses to other locales than Santa Clara, San Mateo, Alameda, or Contra Costa counties.

The city government studied more than a dozen San Francisco-based IPOs since 1997, and found that no single company paid more than $685,000 in massage, taxes on employee stock options in any one year. So they capped the employee stock options tax at example compare $750,000 for pre-IPO companies on equity granted before a public offering. The citys leadership made a choice to retain startups as they matured into growth companies, keep those jobs and then earn taxes on gross receipts later. Yet I can see how witnessing hundreds of early Twitter employees become millionaires overnight would be aggravating to San Franciscans who are feeling squeezed or who feel like public services arent adequately supported. A lot of Essay Great Expectations Novel to Film, other VCs and founders are also digesting Thomas Pikettys new book, Capital in the 21st Century. With more than 200 years of data, it chronicles an inexorable rise in inequality that was punctuated in the middle of the 20th century by the Great Depression and World War II followed by 30 years of evenly-spread prosperity. Ultimately, it advocates a globally-coordinated tax on wealth. The keyword there is coordinated . If this issue re-emerges again in San Francisco (and it will), youd have to make sure that the of a compare and contrast essay, proposed solutions dont end up driving away jobs or growth-stage companies. The previous employee stock options tax was poorly-designed in the context of what neighboring cities were doing which is brainwash zevenbergen nothing. Moreover, its a highly volatile source of tax revenue.

No one had any idea that Twitters IPO would go so well, or that Zyngas would go so terribly. Youd either have to design something less punitive compared to neighboring cities or create something that is coordinated with the rest of of a compare and contrast essay, Silicon Valley. If not, there are plenty of ways that the tech boom is of national honor society supporting city coffers. At an annual $7.9 billion, the citys current budget is more than $1.5 billion more than what it was at the recessions low point, largely because of the tech-fueled economic recovery. Also, remember Proposition 13 and all those houses that are paying taxes tied to 1970s or 1980s assessments? Now that theres a revived real estate market, all of and contrast essay, those homes are being re-assessed at current market values when they get sold.

So the brainwash, city expects to see $79 million more in property taxes than the $1.15 billion it had originally budgeted for this fiscal year, according to example of a compare essay, an update last month. And again, were switching over to Essay, gross receipts anyway. 18) Isnt the tech community made up of a bunch of of a compare, libertarians who have total disregard for zevenbergen, government and taxes? The tech leadership of compare and contrast, this generation doesnt have a reflexive anti-tax orientation like that of the Reagan era. Theyre not secretly having Laffer Curve parties in Essay From, their private jets to Burning Man. Facebooks first angel and example compare, Silicon Valleys most visible libertarian, Peter Thiel.

I wouldnt mind paying more in taxes if I could do anything I wanted to do with the the day died, rest of the money, which Im largely restricted in example of a and contrast, what I can do, from the massage, FDA on down to the San Francisco zoning department. I live in the Marina area in San Francisco. They built the Golden Gate Bridge in three and a half years in the 1930s, 33 to 36. Theyre now building an access road to the bridge thats taken eight years and possibly will end up costing more in inflation adjusted dollars than the example compare, whole bridge cost in i almost died, the 30s. So its one of the reasons I personally dont want to pay more taxes, because I feel the government spends the money so extraordinarily badly. Of A Compare! Id be fine with paying more if I felt the the trait to personality that, government was run as well as it was run in example compare essay, the 50s, 60s, 30s. Even venture capitalist Tim Draper, who is pushing this far-out plan to break California into six states, conceded that Silicon Valley was the least likely to support it out of all the brainwash, hypothetical Californias he wants to create.

He didnt say why though. And your renegade law-breaking companies of Airbnb, Lyft and Uber? They proved product-market fit, built something that people were willing to pay for, scaled their businesses and now they are both transforming and of a compare essay, being reined into the existing regulatory and the day died, tax infrastructure. Airbnb is now remitting its 14 percent in hotel taxes and seeing enforcement from the citys planning department. While there is example and contrast essay a visible libertarian fringe, the four honor, tech community on compare and contrast essay the whole donates overwhelmingly to pillars of national, the Democratic party (which means theyre pro-business moderates in San Franciscos terms). 19) Real change on taxes, transit and housing will require a region-wide body with more political teeth. Example Compare And Contrast Essay! In 1912, a Greater San Francisco movement emerged and the city tried to annex Oakland. On Adapting Expectations Novel! Understandably, Oakland refused. For more than a century, the Bay Areas housing, transit infrastructure and of a compare, tax system has been haunted by the regions fragmented governance.

We arent like New York City, where the government has oversight over five boroughs containing 8.4 million people. For the 7 million people of the San Francisco Bay Area, its every city and massage, county for example of a compare essay, themselves. While there is a council of city governments called the to personality that, Association of compare and contrast, Bay Area Governments that was started in pillars, 1961, its not sufficiently powerful. That means NIMBY-ists in every city try and shove the housing issue onto someone else. That means its a race-to-the-bottom on business taxes. That means we have a fragmented transportation system between BART, MUNI, AC Transit, VTA Light Rail, SamTrans and so on. BART would have run around the entire Bay Area, but San Mateo County dropped out in 1961 and then Marin did too. Not only is example essay transportation down the peninsula fragmented between all of these different systems, the suburbs have also blocked many denser housing developments along the Caltrain stations that would have supported workforces for companies like Google and Facebook. 20) This seems overwhelming.

Why doesnt Google just move to Detroit? Actually, this is happening. Just not in Detroit. Yet. During the last tech boom, it was hard to think of more than a handful of cities that boasted a startup ecosystem. Today, there are many.

The high cost of living in the Bay Area is the rest of the worlds gain. A Startup Genome Map measuring the depth of various tech entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world. Look all over the world. In the Mitte and zevenbergen, Kreuzberg neighborhoods of Berlin. Example Of A Essay! In Zhongguancun, Beijing where Tsinghua University is sprouting companies.

In Greenpoint, Brooklyn where Kickstarter is headquartered. In Israel, where the country is having a run of consumer exits with the Waze and brainwash zevenbergen, Onavo acquisitions. In Noida and Gurgaon. The worlds leading virtual reality startup, just acquired for $2 billion by Facebook, is run out of example and contrast essay, Orange County. The worlds leading mobile gaming companies are run out of London and Helsinki. The worlds most interesting emerging handset maker, Xiaomi, is Decision Case Study: Pursuit of a Suspect by Policemen run out of Beijing. Just four years after launch, they expect to ship $11 billion worth of phones and accessories.

Snapchat, started by a handful of example compare essay, Stanford graduates who would have probably stayed here a decade ago, is run out of a beach house in Venice. The Trait Approach To Personality That! Soylent OK, make fun of them just decamped for Los Angeles because warehouse space was too expensive here. Silicon Valley is still the densest and of a compare and contrast, strongest tech ecosystem in the world. But it is the trait to personality that only ahead because in startup parlance it was a first mover. Consider when Silicon Valleys building blocks were laid in the 1940s through the 1970s through foundational companies like Hewlett-Packard, Fairchild and Shockley Semiconductor and Xerox PARC.

At that time, the rest of the worlds major economies were being rebuilt. Europe was undergoing World War II reconstruction and India and China were just establishing a sense of national unity and example compare essay, systems of governance. Both India and China have made major economic reforms and today, the choice between Bangalore, Beijing and approach that, Silicon Valley is more of a coin toss for entrepreneurial talent than a no-brainer. While Silicon Valley certainly isnt in peril, its continued resilience depends on whether it can keep attracting the compare essay, best talent and new ideas from everywhere. No, were not fucked. If youve actually read this far, you know why were here. Were paying crazy rents and mortgages or rolling around on oil tesco gMuni bouncy balls in of a and contrast, the streets because the Bay Area has done a lot of things right. But do you know what else is the trait approach to personality true? They found that children in San Jose and San Francisco had the highest chances of moving from the bottom income quintile to the top quintile out of all major metropolitan areas in the United States. Then there are the more realistic ones, like that of my mother, who moved to the Bay Area in the late 1970s as a Vietnamese refugee.

Because my grandparents were too old to work and they couldnt speak English, my mother and her five sisters pooled together their earnings to collectively buy a home in San Jose all while in their mid-twenties. They then parlayed the equity from that home into example of a and contrast buying homes of their own when they were ready to start families. We have to remember that cities are unequal because the the day, opportunities they provide attract both the very rich and and contrast, the very poor. San Franciscos extreme juxtapositions of wealth and Case Study: use of in Violent Pursuit, poverty exist because the of a compare essay, city is both an extremely desirable place to live and it maintains protections for residents through programs like rent control and $165 million a year in spending on oil tesco homelessness. The gleaming, onyx NEMA towers exist side-by-side with homelessness because San Francisco created the example of a compare essay, Mid-Market program to lure companies like Twitter and the single-room-occupancy hotels and non-profits that house and pillars, feed the citys poorest residents have been politically protected in the Tenderloin for decades. Both the tech industry and San Francisco have delicate ecologies that have taken decades to cultivate. As they become more intertwined, the political winds of the example of a and contrast, city are shifting. They could go in an increasingly antagonistic direction or a new consensus could emerge. What will it be? Tech workers: Its not as easy as just building up.

This battle has been raging on since the sand dunes of the Sunset district were flattened for the trait that, single-family homes in the 1950s. Try to of a compare and contrast essay, understand where others are coming from. There are people out there like Mary Elizabeth Phillips, who could really use your help right now, whether that means signing a petition for Decision Making Case Study: excessive use of Force Suspect by Policemen, Ellis Act reform, calling or e-mailing Urban Green, or boycotting Ellis Act eviction properties. How can your actions where you live benefit others who are losing out during this economic boom? How will you participate in your community? Will it be through charity?

Through volunteership? Through taxes? Are you willing to fight the political battles and form the example and contrast essay, alliances necessary to create housing for tech workers and Making Case Study: excessive in Violent Pursuit of a, teachers alike? You need to vote, to example compare essay, show the city government that there is political will for development or else the old, anti-growth regime will keep dictating preservationist policies that turn housing into a zero-sum game. Companies like Gap, Wells Fargo, Levi Strauss Co. and Salesforce also have long histories of zevenbergen, participating in of a and contrast, San Franciscos civic life.

What legacy will companies like Dropbox, Square, Airbnb and Twitter leave? Homeowners in the neighborhood associations and in the peninsula: The tech industry is helping your home values skyrocket, but your property taxes have not kept up with the cost of assumes, providing services or schools. Stop sitting in the background while the citys workers, the example of a compare, poor, the elderly and its young duke out in zevenbergen, this ugly charade. While there are some tech workers who do strike it rich, most just have salaries and would love to raise families in the Bay Area just as you did when you came here years ago. The Bay Area risks becoming a victim of its own success if it cant make more room. At this point, blocking individual housing developments to example of a compare and contrast essay, protect your views is tantamount to generational theft. Activists: Invoking CEQA clauses to stall the citys tech shuttle program through an environmental impact review so that 1,400 of 4,000 tech bus riders may or may not decide to move slightly south is to personality that not a game-changing way to address housing affordability in San Francisco.

The industrys leadership like Conway are asking tech companies to essay, back Ellis Act reform. But without serious additions to the entire regions housing supply, these crisis measures just make San Franciscos existing middle- and to personality assumes, working-class a highly-protected, but endangered population in the long-run. With such limited rental stock available on the market at any time, what kind of and contrast essay, person can afford to approach to personality, move here today when the citys median rent is $3,350? For the more extreme groups, you cannot logically fight both development and and contrast, displacement. The real estate speculation running through the city right now is just as much a bet on political paralysis in the face of a long-term housing shortage as it is on San Franciscos desirability as a place to live. Furthermore, the antagonism only society, ensures that deals will happen behind closed doors. The unfortunate path of least resistance for most tech companies will be to just pay their workers more, instead of and contrast, engaging in regional politics. That is a loss for everyone. For the more pragmatic groups, the tech community could easily be persuaded to support inclusionary housing, provided the numbers still work out profitably for developers and that lots more overall housing units gets built. Study: Use Of In Violent By Policemen! The same goes for Trinity-like projects.

In conclusion: The crisis were seeing is the result of decades of choices, and while the tech industry is a sexy, attention-grabbing target, it cannot shoulder blame for this alone. Unless a new direction emerges, this will keep getting worse until the next economic crash, and then it will re-surface again eight years later. Or it will keep spilling over into Oakland, which is a whole other Pandoras box of gentrification issues. The high housing costs arent healthy for the city, nor are they healthy for example compare and contrast essay, the industry. Both thrive on a constant flow of ideas and brainwash zevenbergen, people. So while Google may not be opening a giant office in Detroit anytime soon, the people of Detroit and the Midwest are coming here. I meet them every day. There are people like Brian Clark, who actually did move from Detroit, and was living off various hackathon winnings while teaching coding in MissionBits after-school programs for San Franciscos public school students. Earlier this spring, he was literally sleeping on friends couches, eating one meal a day.

But he won the Launch Hackathon and now has initial funding for compare essay, a new startup called Vue, a mobile feedback and user engagement tool he built. Or like Rey Faustino, who I wrote about last month. The Day! He grew up in a working-class family in Southern California that relied on social services to make ends meet. Example Of A Compare! Now hes working on fixing the problems he remembered as a child through One Degree, which is a Yelp-like platform that helps Bay Area families find the right non-profits and social services for the day i almost died, them. Its supported by Y Combinator and compare essay, has thousands of users. Many of the people who come here will stay, and make vital contributions for decades through their work, their taxes and their charitable contributions. Pillars Honor Society! Some will come for awhile and then go back and invigorate entrepreneurial ecosystems back home. This circulation of creative talent is crucial not only for compare and contrast, the Bay Area, but for the rest of the United States.

I would not want to deny anyone rich or poor the chance to transform or be transformed by this place. Top image: A hearse rolls up to a Yahoo bus at approach assumes that the BART MacArthur Station in Oakland. Example And Contrast Essay! A protester who had climbed on massage oil tesco top of the compare essay, bus later vomited on the vehicle. (From Andrew Kenower)

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op essays THE STANDARDS THAT WILL BE USED. TO EVALUATE YOUR OP-ED PIECE. The Point: Does the opinion piece have a point that is clearly expressed? The Point may be a recommendation for action or it may be to alert readers to a problem.

The author should make a single point well. You, as the reader, should be able to explain the author's message in of a compare essay, a sentence or two. 6-7: The opinion piece has an original, well-argued point. The piece draws the pillars, reader into essay looking at the topic in a new way or with new insight. The reader can readily summarize what the author is saying and the trait assumes why. 4-5: The opinion piece makes a point that appears original. But the supporting data appear a bit muddled. Example Of A Compare Essay! Readers are left with questions: Why is did the oil tesco, author take this position? Why take this position rather than an alternative one? 2-3: The piece leaves readers confused as to what point the of a, author is trying to zevenbergen make.

The reader cannot readily summarize the author's key point or the data supporting the position seem not to really support it. 1: The paper lacks an identifiable point. Readers are left confused as to what point the author is making and why. Persuasive: Does the piece persuade the reader? A good piece argues effectively for a particular point.

Even though the of a compare and contrast essay, reader may not ultimately agree with the author, the reader comes away from the piece willing to seriously consider the massage, author's perspective. 6-7: A reader comes away from of a and contrast, reading the piece feeling the i almost died, author has effectively argued for a certain point. The author uses concrete examples that resonate with readers. 4-5: The opinion piece highlights an important topic. But it does not really convince readers as to the value of the author's position. 2-3: The opinion piece seems mostly a personal venting. The author is not reaching out to readers or trying to compare and contrast essay connect with them in massage oil tesco, a meaningful way. 1: The piece is example of a compare and contrast unconvincing.

An unbiased reader, reading this piece, would not find the piece very persuasive. Hook and Structure: Does the opinion piece engage the reader right at the beginning? Is there evidence of thoughtful organization? Does the i almost, author summarize the main point at the end? 6-7: The main point is effectively stated in the first few sentences. These first few sentences capture the reader's attention and draw the reader into of a reading further. The Trait To Personality That! The author effectively summarizes the piece's argument in a strong final paragraph. 4-5: Readers are not immediately draw into example of a the argument.

But they are not put off by it either. They find the piece reasonable but a little slow moving. Four Pillars Of National Honor! It does not keep your attention. The final paragraph does not offer a powerful restatement of the author's position. 2-3: The piece makes a basic point.

But it does not catch your attention. It does draw you in at the beginning nor summarize its message at the end. 1: The author never draws the reader into the opinion piece. It is of a compare essay not clear what the author is saying nor why it is important. Writing and Clarity: Is the piece readily understandable to non-academic readers?

General readers should find the piece easy and interesting to read. There should be few grammatical and spelling errors. 6-7: The writing is zevenbergen clear. The author's own voice and example and contrast essay perspective come through in a convincing way. Decision Making Excessive Force Suspect By Policemen! You can identify with the author and the position she or he takes. There are no grammatical mistakes that distract from the author's argument. 4-5: The writing is reasonable.

The sentences and paragraphs are a bit too long or the passive voice is emphasized. There is a bit too much jargon. 2-3: The author tends to go on too long. Of A Compare Essay! It is not really clear what point she or he is making. Expectations Novel To Film! The author has long sentences and paragraphs. 1: A reader is left confused as to what point the of a compare and contrast essay, author is trying to make.

Tone: Is the opinion piece polite and respectful? The focus in on persuading the reader rather than voicing indignation or condemnation. 6-7: The opinion piece is polite and respectful in tone. Rather than dismissing the pillars of national honor, other side, it acknowledges its value while disagreeing with it. It comes across as written by a thoughtful professional versed in the subject being discussed. 4-5: There is generally a polite tone. But the author does not acknowledge that reasonable people might disagree regarding the example of a and contrast essay, point being made. The author asserts there is one reasonable position and she or he is presenting it. 2-3: The piece comes across as quite opinionated. It appears the author is venting about something that bothers her or him.

1: The piece is similar to a political attack ad. The author is pouring at rage with little concern for who is reading the piece. [Source: a combination of Essay Novel to Film, Karl Schmids (York University) Instructions for Wring Op-Ed Pieces and and contrast essay Duke Universitys Op-Ed Aritcles: How to Write and Place Them (] TWO GOOD AND ONE POOR EXAMPLE. ONE POOR EXAMPLE:

A Gentleman, Yes, But Not Yet a Scholar. The New Untouchables. By Thomas L. Friedman. The New York Times, October 21, 2009. Last summer I attended a talk by Michelle Rhee, the dynamic chancellor of public schools in Decision Making Case Study: excessive use of Pursuit Suspect, Washington.

Just before the session began, a man came up, introduced himself as Todd Martin and whispered to me that what Rhee was about to speak about our struggling public schools was actually a critical, but unspoken, reason for the Great Recession. As the Harvard University labor expert Lawrence Katz explains it: If you think about the labor market today, the top half of the college market, those with the of a essay, high-end analytical and problem-solving skills who can compete on four pillars of national the world market or game the financial system or deal with new government regulations, have done great. But the and contrast essay, bottom half of the top, those engineers and programmers working on more routine tasks and not actively engaged in massage oil tesco, developing new ideas or recombining existing technologies or thinking about what new customers want, have done poorly. They've been much more exposed to global competitors that make them easily substitutable. The Globe and Mail, August 31, 2009. Moods and and contrast essay fashions in Japan often arrive like tsunamis, typhoons or landslides. After more than 50 years of almost uninterrupted power, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party has been buried in a general election. Change came once before, in 1993, when a coalition of opposition parties briefly took power, but the LDP still held on to a majority in the Diet's powerful lower house.

Sunday, even that last bastion fell. The world, fixated on China's rise, was slow to pay attention to this seismic shift in the politics of the globe's second-largest economy. Japanese politics has a dull image in the world's press. Most editors, when they cover Japan at all, prefer stories about the zaniness of its popular youth culture, or the wilder shores of Japanese sex. The main reason for i almost died, this is, of course, that Japanese politics was dull, at least since the example and contrast, mid-1950s, when the four pillars, LDP consolidated its monopoly on power. Only real aficionados could be bothered to follow the ups and and contrast downs of the ruling party's factional bosses, many of whom were from established political families, and the trait approach to personality most of of a and contrast, whom relied on shady financing. Approach That! Corruption scandals erupted from time to time, but these, too, were usually part of intraparty manoeuvres to rein in those who got too big for example of a compare and contrast essay, their britches. The system worked in a fashion: Factional bosses took turns as prime minister, palms were greased by various business interests, more or less capable bureaucrats decided on domestic economic policies and the United States took care of Japan's security (and much of its foreign policy). Some thought this system would last forever. Indeed, it has often been said, by Japanese and foreign commentators, that a de facto one-party state suits the Japanese.

Stability, based on soft authoritarianism, is the Asian way, now followed by China. Asians don't like the messy contentiousness of parliamentary democracy. Look what happens when Asians are foolish enough to import such a system, as in South Korea or Taiwan, the zevenbergen, argument goes. Instead of example compare and contrast essay, civilized debate, they have filibusters and fisticuffs. But, notwithstanding the Essay From, occasional bust-ups, Korean and example of a compare and contrast Taiwanese democracies seem remarkably robust. Brainwash! And the argument that Japanese, or other Asians, are culturally averse to political competition is not historically true.

In fact, Japanese history is full of strife and example compare and contrast rebellion, and Japan was the first independent Asian country with a multiparty system. Its early postwar democracy was so unruly, with mass demonstrations, militant trade unions and vigorous left-wing parties, that a deliberate attempt was made to impose the boredom of a one-party state. This happened in the mid-1950s not for cultural reasons, but entirely because of politics. Great To Film! Like Italy, a close parallel, Japan was a front-line Cold War state. Domestic conservatives, and example the U.S. The Trait Approach! government, worried about a Communist takeover. So a large conservative coalition party (much like the Italian Christian Democrats), funded to example and contrast essay some degree by Washington, was put in place to the trait that marginalize all left-wing opposition. This involved some strong-arm tactics, especially against example of a essay the unions, but it worked mostly because the middle class settled for an informal deal: increased prosperity in exchange for political acquiescence. The LDP state was based on the trait assumes that the promise, given by example compare and contrast essay prime minister Ikeda Hayato in 1960, that family incomes would soon be doubled. Increasingly marginalized, the opposition dwindled into an impotent force, mere window-dressing to a one-party state. But one-party rule breeds complacency, corruption and political sclerosis.

In the past decade or so, the LDP as well as the once-almighty bureaucracy that ran the brainwash zevenbergen, system began to look incompetent. Prime minister Junichiro Koizumi gave the party a last breath of life by promising reform in 2001, but it wasn't enough. And Contrast! The patience of Japan's middle class finally cracked. The victorious Democratic Party of on Adapting Great Expectations From Novel to Film, Japan may not immediately set off any political fireworks. Its leader, Yukio Hatoyama, is an uncharismatic scion of yet another established dynasty his grandfather, Ichiro Hatoyama, took over as prime minister in 1954 from Shigeru Yoshida, who was the grandfather of the last LDP prime minister Taro Aso. The DPJ's aims are excellent: more authority to elected politicians, less bureaucratic meddling, less dependence on the United States, better relations with Asian neighbours, more power to voters and less to and contrast big business. Whether Mr. Hatoyama and his colleagues have the wherewithal to achieve these aims is an open question, but it would be wrong to belittle the importance of what has happened.

Even if the oil tesco, DPJ fails to example implement most of brainwash, its reforms in compare and contrast essay, short order, the fact that Japanese voters opted for change will invigorate their country's democracy. Even if the died, system were to become like Japan's democracy in the 1920s, with two more or less conservative parties, this would still be preferable to a one-party state. Any opposition is better than none. It keeps the government on its toes. A firm rejection of the one-party state will also reverberate far beyond Japan's borders. Of A Compare And Contrast Essay! It shows clearly that the desire for political choice is not confined to a few fortunate countries in four honor, the West. This is example of a a vital lesson, especially at a time when China's economic success is honor convincing too many leaders that citizens, especially but not only in Asia, want to be treated like children. Poor Example: A Gentleman, Yes, But Not Yet a Scholar.

by A. Example Essay! B. Stoddard. Aren't you just dying to four of national know what Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) is saying about his friends in high places at of a compare essay Arizona State University? And has the gossip mill targeted the exact people responsible for deciding President Obama was worthy of that, a commencement invitation but no honorary degree? It doesn't matter if we ever learn their names you know who you are and you should be laughing at yourselves! I can't imagine how that meeting went. Let's invite the president of the United States a new president, an of a compare and contrast essay immensely popular president, the first African-American president to be our speaker. The Trait To Personality That! Wait, he hasn't really spent enough time in his field to earn the degree typically conferred upon example of a compare each speaker at graduation. But he's so appealing, we'll invite him anyway. It's our practice to the day recognize an individual for his body of work, somebody who's been in their position for a long time, Sharon Keeler, an ASU spokeswoman, told The Associated Press at the time.

His body of work is yet to come. That's why we're not recognizing him with a degree at the beginning of example of a compare and contrast, his presidency. Apparently the nationwide shock was more than ASU could stand, because on Sunday they suddenly announced the creation of a Barack Obama scholarship program. But there was no acknowledgment of error or faux pas, just bewilderment at the confusion created by the media. When in doubt, blame the media (it works for Sarah Palin). University President Michael Crow said despite the view that Obama was being denied something bestowed upon Erma Bombeck, It has always been our intention to recognize and honor President Obama's accomplishments during his visit.

He added, I apologize for the confusion surrounding our invitation to President Obama to address ASU students at commencement. We all know Obama couldn't care less about the degree, he's just happy for the speaking engagement in massage, a swing state he is just itching to win in of a and contrast, 2012. And from now on some kids will be tickled to become Barack Obama scholars. Everybody wins except for massage oil tesco, those oh-so-selective big cheeses at ASU who thought it was a good idea to keep a president out of an example of a compare essay exclusive club.

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ANCIENT CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Of A Compare. ANCIENT CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Ancient China is four pillars of national honor one of the most remarkable civilizational phenomena ever known. It gave birth to a number of inventions and discoveries, which are still used in of a compare, our times, including compass, porcelain, silk, gunpowder and many others. This paper is to examine the most prominent issues of ancient Chinese science and technology. It will focus on agriculture, engineering, mathematics, astronomy and medicine. Approach That. Need essay sample on ANCIENT CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Ancient Chinese economy was based on agricultural production.

It was a river civilization so the Chinese began to build dikes to control the annual flooding. And Contrast. Later this allowed to begin rice farming. Their fertilizing allowed them to use the fields year after year, without the approach to personality need to allow it to lay fallow. In the sixth century BC the Chinese began growing crops in rows, which has not been practiced in western world until the eighteenth century. One of the evidence was the and contrast Master Lu#8217;s Spring and Autumn Annals.

It tells us: If the crops are grown in rows they will mature rapidly because they will not interfere with each other#8217;s growth. The horizontal rows must be well drawn, the vertical rows made with skill, for if the lines are straight the wind will pass gently through[1]. By the fourth century BC the Chinese government authorities started to promote a frame-plow. It was the first to have adjustable strut which regulated the plowing depth by Essay Great Expectations From, altering the distance between the blade and the beam. Also the Chinese approached towards winnowing grain to separate out husks and stalks from the grain after harvest and threshing. The grain has been thrown up into the air, preferably in a strong wind, so that the of a compare chaff is blown away while the grain falls down to the ground. Later, winnowing baskets were invented allowing to separate the heavy grain from the chaff, which is gradually tipped over the day died, the edge of the basket, leaving the grain behind. Of A. Later still, the winnowing sieve was introduced.

By the the trait that second century BC, Chinese invented rotary winnowing fan[2]. When plow farming technologies were brought into Holland and England in compare and contrast essay, the seventeenth century from China, they sparked the European agricultural revolution, and it is believed that European agricultural revolution brought up the Industrial Revolution. So, the Chinese technology paid a great contribution into the day died, rise of the West. Outstanding Chinese engineering achievements are being applied in the whole world. Though Chinese were not the first to example of a and contrast essay, make steel in the 2 century BC, they did invent two exclusive steel production processes: taking the carbon out of cast iron, and melting wrought and i almost died cast iron together to make something in between which was steel. New types of steel were used the steel mostly in the weapon making such as new swords, new crossbows, and of a essay some in the agriculture tools parts. One of the massage inventions of greatest utility which has spread from China throughout the world, so that its origins are no longer realized, is the of a square-pallet chain pump consisting of an endless circulating chain bearing square pallets which hold water, earth, or sand. Assumes That. According to some historical articles, it has been applied since first century BC. Of A Compare. Such chain pumps were effectively used in agriculture, and construction, as well as mining industry, where another outstanding technology has been developed a drilling method to drill boreholes up to 4800 feet deep. The size of Chinese drilling equipment was remarkable with derrick up to 180 feet above ground, tubes for extracting 130 feet long.

The main problem was usually to of national honor, break through hard rocks, and Chinese boreholes made it possible to drill up to dozens feet into depth of and contrast firm ground. A drill would be suspended by bamboo cables from a derrick. The Trait Approach To Personality. Invention of cast iron provided mighty drilling bits. The later development of belt-drive in the 1 century BC allowed to transmit power from one wheel to another, and example and contrast essay produce continuous rotary motion. Also, driving-belt was essential for the invention of the spinning-wheel. The belts could now run not only round normal wheels with rims, but also round rimless wheels.

The driving-belt was apparently imported to Europe as part of the oil tesco technology of quilling-wheels and spinning-wheels introduced into Italy by travelers returning from China. Flat belts and wire cables as driving-belts in Europe only began to be used in the nineteenth century. Mathematics and physics. Chinese mathematics was defined by example compare and contrast essay, Chinese in ancient times as the #8220;art of calculation#8221; (suan chu), and the day died it was both scientific and spiritual practice. The first true evidence of mathematical activity in China can be found in numeration symbols on tortoise shells and flat cattle bones (commonly called oracle bones), dated from the Shang dynasty (14th century B.C.). Compare And Contrast. In fact, the brainwash numeration system applied in the modern world originated 34 centuries ago in China. The need for mathematical calculations appeared for development of the calendar, flood-control measures, administration, and and contrast essay so on. To facilitate the calculations they invented a wide variety of mechanical aids like counting boards, and wrote numerous mathematics texts to aid them in mathematical calculation. Essay On Adapting Great Novel To Film. They also discovered a concept of zero. Together with the Greeks the Chinese came to idea of irrational number pi.

It expresses the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, a relationship which cannot be framed in terms of whole numbers. The value of pi was computed by Archimedes to three decimal places, and by Ptolemy to compare essay, four decimal places. But after that, no greater accuracy was achieved in the Western world for 1450 years. The Chinese, however, made great strides forward in computing pi. In Greece Archimedes decided that pi had a value between 3.142 and 3.140. Liu Hui of China was thus able to calculate a value of massage oil tesco pi of 3.14159.

At this point, the Chinese overtook the Greeks[3]. Algebra and geometry developed independently. Today it would be hard to imagine such a situation, however, once those sciences were not connected, and the first people to use them together, expressing geometrical shapes by example, equations, were the Chinese. A Chinese book of the third century AD called the Sea Island Mathematical Manual gives a series of geometrical propositions in algebraic form and describes geometrical figures by algebraic equations. The first European who adopted those methods from the arabs, who, in turn, studied them from the Chinese, appears to have been Leonardo Fibonacci, who in his Practica Geometriae of massage oil tesco 1220 used algebra in solving geometrical problems relating to the area of a triangle. Later Pierre Fermat and Rene Descartes developed the principles of analytic geometry. Example Of A Essay. Another famous European, who seems to have been outrun by his eastern colleagues was Isaac Newton, who formulated his First Law of Motion in the eighteenth century. It stated that #8220;every body continues in its state of rest, or of Decision Making Study: use of Force in Violent uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon example of a compare essay it.#8221; Joseph Needham#8217;s researches have now established that this law was stated in China in the fourth or third century BC. We read in on Adapting to Film, the Mo Ching: #8220;The cessation of example compare and contrast essay motion is due to the opposing force #8230; If there is no opposing force #8230; the motion will never stop.

This is as true as that an ox is not a horse.#8221; The book Mo Ching is the collection of writings of a school of philosophers called Mohists, after their founder and sage Mo Ti (more oftrn known as Mo Tzu, which means #8220;Master Mo#8221;). The Mohists disappeared completely from Chinese history after only a moderate time, and most of massage their writings remained unread and of a and contrast almost forgotten until recently. Their brilliant scientific insights were also largely lost, and made very little lasting impact on zevenbergen, later Chinese history. The Mohists were also the only ancient Chinese to consider the subject of example of a and contrast essay dynamics in the theoretical sense, though practical dynamics was continuously applied in the great strides made by Chinese technology and invention[4]. Astronomy truly is an Essay Expectations From ancient science in China. In fact, mankind#8217;s first record of an compare eclipse of the Sun was made in China in 2136 BC. The initial interest to brainwash, that what was in the skies has been shown by the Chinese to study phenomena, influencing their agrarian cycle.

The only way to predict the start of the seasons was by example and contrast essay, the positions of the stars overhead. The equinoxes and solstices were the primary way to determine the seasons. Brainwash. The middle of spring was when Niao was overhead, in the mid summer Huo is above, in the mid autumn Xu is in the sky, and in mid winter Mao is overhead. These star positions correspond to the equinoxes of the spring and example of a compare essay autumn and also to on Adapting Expectations From, the solstices of the summer and winter. Even more interest has been shown by the Chinese to apply their knowledge for astrologic purposes. By 2300 BC, ancient Chinese astrologers, already had sophisticated observatory buildings, and example of a compare and contrast essay as early as 2650 BC, Li Shu was writing about astronomy. Observing total solar eclipses was a major element of forecasting the future health and massage successes of the Emperor[5]. By about 20 BC, surviving documents show that Chinese astrologers discovered what caused eclipses, and by 8 BC some predictions of total solar eclipse were made using the 135-month recurrence period.

By AD 206 Chinese astrologers could predict solar eclipses by analyzing the Moon#8217;s motion. Before 1000 BC the eclipse records are often incomplete, however, and the dating of the bones is not reliable. Eclipse observations from the of a and contrast essay Chou dynasty and Warring States period (c. 1050-221 BC), and brainwash onward, have been reliably dated, and compare and contrast essay it appears that some astronomers recognized eclipses as naturally occurring phenomena. From the Chou dynasty, 36 solar eclipse observations are recorded in the Ch#8217;un-ch#8217;iu beginning around 720 BC. The Piao and the Shih-chi documents refer to nine solar eclipses from the Warring States period[6]. The Chinese were the brainwash zevenbergen first to record Halleys Comet. Their recording mentions the #8220;broom star#8221; on the handle of Yin. Compare And Contrast. They also knew of many movements of the stars and were able to determine the difference between stars and planets. They also accounted for guest stars being present in the sun which would be referred as sunspots now. They had thought stars were within the sun.

The path of the sun and the moon were recorded and studied. The sun and the moon were on Making Force, separate paths and are important for the complicated Chinese calendar. Chinese traditional medicine is example of a essay very different from the European one, nevertheless it gained huge popularity on the West, and its most famous element is acupuncture which is very well-known to Essay Novel to Film, the people. No one was able to trace it#8217;s origin, it is still believed, that the first relevant observations were made by military doctors, who cured soldiers, wounded with arrows. It could also have some origins in massage. Acupuncture using needles and the systematized meridians is more traceable to the past 2000 years[7]. The disease processes of the example and contrast human body came to be seen as similar to external natural events floods can ruin the pillars society crops, as drinking too much water with meals can impair digestion.

Drought can lead to fires, as a dry cough can turn into the fire of a bloody cough and fever. Example Of A Compare And Contrast. In China, indisputable and voluminous textual evidence exists to prove that the massage oil tesco circulation of the blood was an established doctrine by the second century BC at the latest. For the idea to have become elaborated by this time, however, into the full and complex doctrine that appears in The Yellow Emperor#8217;s Manual of Corporeal Medicine (China#8217;s equivalent of the example compare essay Hippocratic writings of Greece), the original notion must have appeared a very long time previously. Essay Great Expectations. It is safe to say that the idea occurred in example of a, China about two thousand years before it found acceptance in Making excessive Force in Violent Pursuit of a by Policemen, the West. The ancient Chinese conceived of two separate circulations of fluids in the body. Blood, pumped by the heart, flowed through the arteries, veins and capillaries. Ch#8217;i, an ethereal, rarefied form of energy, was pumped by example compare and contrast essay, the lungs to circulate through the body in invisible tracts. The concept of this dual circulation of fluids was central to the practice of acupuncture. The Chinese traditionally identified twenty-eight different types of oil tesco pulse, which they recognized as emanating from the of a and contrast pumping heart. The entire view of the body and its functioning was that of a dual circulation theory of blood (which was yin) and ch#8217;i (which was yang).

The two were interrelated. As a text dating from about the time of Christ says: #8216;The flow of the blood is maintained by the ch#8217;i, and the motion of the ch#8217;i depends on the blood; thus coursing in mutual reliance they move around.#8217; The Yellow Emperor#8217;s Manual says: #8216;The function of the tract-channel system of the human body is to promote a normal passage of the blood and the ch#8217;i, so that the vital essentials derived from man#8217;s food can nourish the yin and yang viscera, sustain the muscles, sinews and bones, and lubricate the joints.[8]#8217; Ancient China was truly a birth-place of many inventions and doctrines, which are applied in four society, the entire modern world, including achievements in agriculture, engineering, mathematics, astronomy and of a medicine. Decision Study: Excessive Force Pursuit Of A Suspect. The Chinese talked of the same thing as their European colleagues, and often much earlier than the Europeans did, however, they did it in example and contrast, the traditional way of their civilization, so many of their achievements were not understood or forgotten, to brainwash, be later attributed to Europeans. Essay. Nevertheless, it is impossible to reject the influence, which the massage oil tesco civilization of ancient China has on modern world, since some of its founding technologies and scientific methods origin exactly from China. Example. Ho Peng Yoke, Li, Qi, and brainwash Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China (Hong Kong; Hong Kong University Press, 1985)

Cho-Yun Hsu, Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.-A.D. 220 (University of example of a compare Washington Press, Seattle, 1980) John Merson, Genius That Was Chin (Overlook Hardcover, New York, 1990) A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (Open Court, Chicago, 1989) Charles Le Blanc, Susan Blader, Chinese Ideas about Nature and Society: Studies in Making Case excessive use of in Violent of a by Policemen, Honour of Derk Bodde (Hong Kong University Press, 1987) Paul U. Unschuld, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text (University of California Press, Berkeley, 2003) [1] Ho Peng Yoke, Li, Qi, and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China (Hong Kong; Hong Kong University Press, 1985), 121. [2] Cho-Yun Hsu, Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.-A.D. 220 (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1980), 36. [3] John Merson, Genius That Was Chin (Overlook Hardcover, New York, 1990), 103. [4] A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (Open Court, Chicago, 1989), 53. [5] Charles Le Blanc, Susan Blader, Chinese Ideas about compare and contrast Nature and Society: Studies in to Film, Honour of Derk Bodde (Hong Kong University Press, 1987), 40. [6] Ho Peng Yoke, supra note, 159. [7] Paul U. Of A Compare And Contrast Essay. Unschuld, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text (University of California Press, Berkeley, 2003), 33.

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This Compare and Contrast Essay Outline Will Help You Beat

essay on philosophy Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the of a compare and contrast essay, claims you make. Brainwash! You have to compare and contrast offer reasons to the trait that believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the compare essay, following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. From! or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by example compare and contrast essay putting some thesis or argument on Making Study: excessive Pursuit, the table for consideration.

Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the of a and contrast, argument or thesis against brainwash zevenbergen, someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the example of a and contrast essay, thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and Decision use of Force Suspect by Policemen, explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the example compare essay, thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for Decision Case Study: excessive use of Force in Violent of a Suspect by Policemen, yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. Of A Compare And Contrast! But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of the trait approach assumes that, your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper.

The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to of a compare think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to four honor society human thought. Compare And Contrast! There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class.

Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to Decision Making Case use of in Violent Pursuit Suspect think about of a essay these questions before you begin to the trait to personality assumes that write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the example compare essay, arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and on Adapting Expectations, get a sense for how they are going to of a fit together. Massage! It also helps ensure that you're in a position to example compare say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to the day i almost say.

Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. Example Compare And Contrast Essay! (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an the day i almost outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to example compare and contrast essay leave yourself enough time to think about the Study: excessive use of Force Pursuit of a, topic and write a detailed outline. Of A Compare And Contrast Essay! Only then should you sit down to four of national society write a complete draft. Example Compare Essay! Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and four society, get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point?

Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out example and contrast a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to Making excessive in Violent Pursuit Suspect by Policemen another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the example of a compare essay, right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is the day, obscure and complicated.

Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of example of a compare, all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in honor society, the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. Of A Compare And Contrast! If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to Essay Expectations From Novel to Film make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.

Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to example compare do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is.

My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in massage, several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of example of a compare, X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P.

I will argue for pillars, the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Example And Contrast! Firstly. The strongest objection to on Adapting From Novel to Film Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Of A Compare And Contrast! Isn't it easy to see what the brainwash, structure of these papers is?

You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. Essay! The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in approach to personality assumes, a given paragraph. You can't make the of a compare, structure of approach assumes that, your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of example of a compare and contrast essay, your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an Decision Making Case excessive Force in Violent Pursuit of a Suspect outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully.

These demands might seem to of a compare and contrast essay pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and approach assumes that, the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in example of a and contrast, depth than to try to cram in too much.

One or two well-mapped paths are better than an massage oil tesco impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is of a compare, relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Massage Oil Tesco! Explain it; give an and contrast example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing.

It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and zevenbergen, has not given the example of a compare, topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true.

But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for the day, explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. Essay! You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from massage oil tesco, everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about example compare essay abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by the trait approach assumes that a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless:

A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. Example Of A And Contrast! On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. I Almost! So everything turns here on what the author means by person.

The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in example of a, ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to the trait assumes make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and and contrast, chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only the trait assumes, call a human being a person.

But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by compare and contrast essay it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the zevenbergen, way through. Example Of A! So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and Decision Making Case Study: use of Force Pursuit Suspect by Policemen, then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. Example Of A Compare And Contrast! If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about that something new.

Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for example, instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Four Honor! Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.

Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the example of a compare, views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. Essay Great Expectations From Novel To Film! It's not good enough for of a compare and contrast, you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the Essay on Adapting Great to Film, other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is of a compare essay, making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.

You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). Society! But don't treat the example of a compare and contrast essay, philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for Essay on Adapting Great, it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and of a and contrast, so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to Making Study: excessive in Violent Suspect by Policemen it. Try harder to example of a figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the Making Case use of Pursuit of a Suspect by Policemen, view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that.

In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. Example Essay! If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the pillars honor society, criticism you offer of X is example compare and contrast, a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. On Adapting To Film! It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text.

When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Example Of A Compare And Contrast Essay! Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from Expectations From to Film, a text is of a compare, particularly useful in Decision Study: excessive Pursuit by Policemen, supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to of a compare and contrast essay specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. On Adapting Expectations! Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly.

When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to of a say so. Zevenbergen! (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an example compare and contrast argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.

You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. The Trait To Personality Assumes! If necessary, you may want to example and contrast essay distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to the trait assumes explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Example Compare And Contrast! For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the i almost died, perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into example of a compare, our thought or consciousness.

Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. Oil Tesco! By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and example of a compare and contrast, violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. Brainwash! There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the of a compare and contrast essay, author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out approach assumes what the text means well enough to example of a essay express it in Decision Making Case Study: Force in Violent of a by Policemen, his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do.

My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in compare, our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. Decision Case Study: Excessive Use Of In Violent By Policemen! In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . Of A Compare Essay! These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the Essay on Adapting Great Expectations From Novel, following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. Example Of A And Contrast! He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is massage oil tesco, a very 'forceful' mental state, like the example compare and contrast, sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about pillars honor society it, rather than looking at it. Example Compare And Contrast! It is the day i almost died, not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to of a compare and contrast essay your own thesis.

It is Essay Expectations Novel to Film, better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Of A Compare Essay! Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to four pillars society ask questions and raise problems in compare and contrast, your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and the trait approach to personality assumes that, about what makes the example of a and contrast essay, question interesting and the trait approach to personality assumes that, relevant to the issue at example of a compare essay hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to four pillars of national honor you, don't gloss it over. Of A Compare And Contrast! Call attention to the unclarity. Oil Tesco! Suggest several different ways of example of a essay, understanding the view.

Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the the trait approach to personality, two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to example compare and contrast which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to approach to personality change your thesis to one you can defend.

For example, instead of of a and contrast, writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is oil tesco, faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by.

But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the example of a compare and contrast essay, Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. The Day Died! Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of of a essay, these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to died the draft and example of a, re-read it.

As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Massage Oil Tesco! Get rid of of a compare and contrast essay, any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. The Trait To Personality Assumes! You should never introduce any points in of a and contrast, your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and Decision Making Force Pursuit by Policemen, you have the room to really explain them.

If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Example Of A! Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean.

But you shouldn't write this way. Massage Oil Tesco! Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. Example Compare Essay! In philosophical prose, you have to died be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to example of a and contrast essay clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and oil tesco, what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the of a compare and contrast, point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. Four! It has to example of a compare and contrast essay be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to i almost died other students in the class, and get their comments and example and contrast essay, advice.

I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of i almost died, your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at example of a and contrast all to i almost died someone else.

Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. Of A! You may know what you want to oil tesco say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. Example Compare And Contrast! At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to four pillars revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses

Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. Of A Essay! They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by Decision Making Study: excessive Force of a Suspect splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose.

Do avoid other sorts of example essay, grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the brainwash, tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the example, verb is Essay on Adapting Expectations Novel, or to example of a essay be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the the trait approach to personality assumes, papers is to of a compare and contrast teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against Decision Making Case excessive Pursuit of a, some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in of a essay, class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.

Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to four pillars of national honor get the example of a and contrast essay, papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. The Day I Almost! And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on compare essay, three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer?

Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to died the reader what your main thesis is?

Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of essay, your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples?

Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by pillars honor this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is example and contrast essay, unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is the day i almost, a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false.

Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of example of a, that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to approach to personality assumes go beyond the essay, specific errors and zevenbergen, problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and of a compare and contrast, what the structure of on Adapting From Novel to Film, your paper was supposed to be, and of a and contrast, so on.

You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in four pillars honor, your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and of a compare and contrast, write from approach to personality assumes, that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Essay! Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. Essay On Adapting Great! So this is another reason you should try to example of a improve the of national society, whole paper , not just the example and contrast, passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to approach assumes that the next grade level. Compare! Sometimes that happens.

But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to massage oil tesco write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of compare, it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.