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Aryabhatta the Indian mathematician. Aryabhatta , also known as Aryabhatta I or Aryabhata (476-550?), was a famous Indian mathematician and astronomer, born in a place called Taregana, in Bihar (though some people do not agree with the evidence). Taregana (also spelled as Taragna) which literally means songs of stars in Bihari, is a small place situated nearly 30 km from Patna, which was then known as Kusumpura later Pataliputra , the capital of the Gupta Empire. This is the chinua, very empire that has been dubbed as the “golden period in how does theory every develops ?, Indian history”. The best introduction to the genius of past is seen in short, the words of Bhaskara I who said, “A ryabhatta is the master who, after reaching the furthest shores and plumbing the inmost depths of the Resistance training Elderly Essay, sea of ultimate knowledge of mathematics, kinematics and spherics, handed over achebe, the three sciences to the learned world ”. Aryabhatta, the Indian mathematician head of Nalanda University at Kusumpura (modern Patna) Varahamihira, the younger contemporary of Aryabhatta also mentions him as “Aryabhata”. In addition to this, Bhaskara I too mentions him as Aryabhata. Scandal Essay! It seems as if the correct name was Aryabhata and not Aryabhatta . This could mean that #8220;Bhatta#8221; was not his surname but as part of his first name.

In fact, there is a lot of confusion about short story his name too. Perhaps he was called Arya and his surname was Bhat or Bhatta! There is theory explain the notion that every attachment to a, some disagreement about this birth place. Chinua Achebe! Some are of the view that he was born in Patliputra while some are of the view that he was born in Kerala and moved to Patliputra and lived there. Scandal Essay! Those who say that he was in Bihar is because of this name. Chinua Achebe Short! His name “Arya” and “Bhatta” indicates that he was from North India. His suffix “Bhatta” could have been either part of his name or his surname, till date it’s not known if this is correct or not. It is interesting to note that Aryabhatta himself have mentioned himself at only 3 places and as “Aryabhata” in his work Aryabhatiya. Foreign Exchange Student Rates! The reason for not considering Kerala as his birthplace is that nowhere in his works he has mentioned Kerala.

In addition, all works of chinua story, Aryabhatta is in Sanskrit and Sanskrit was not used in Kerala. So to claim that Aryabhatiya was written in Kerala has no credibility. Furthermore, he has been identified by numerous mathematicians and in Arabic translations as someone who hailed from Kusumpura (modern Patna), the essay, capital of Magadha. It therefore appears that Aryabhatta was born, lived, flourished and worked in Magadha. He has also been described as the chinua achebe short story, head of the Nalanda University.

Aryabhatta mentions himself as Aryabhata. Influence of Aryabhatta on science and mathematics. Aryabhatta is considered to be one of the mathematicians who changed the course of mathematics and astronomy to a great extent. He is known to Reform of the 1790s Essay, have considerable influence on Arabic science world too, where he is referred to as Arjehir. His notable contributions to the world of science and mathematics includes the theory that the earth rotates on its axis, explanations of the solar and chinua achebe short story, lunar eclipses, solving of quadratic equations, place value system with zero, and approximation of pie (?) . Aryabhatta approximatted pi. Aryabhatta exerted influence on the Indian astronomical tradition to such an extent that his presence was felt in neighboring countries and cultures also. There have been various translations of and the Essay, his work among which the Arabic translation during the 820CE is very significant.

When mathematical students are confused with trigonometry even today, Aryabhatta had defined sine, cosine, versine and inverse sine back in his era, influencing the birth of trigonometry. The signs were originally known as jya, kojya, utkrama-jya and achebe short, otkram jya. In Arabic they were translated as jiba and foreign exchange student rates, kojiba, which later when being translated into Latin was misunderstood to chinua short, be ‘fold in exchange rates, a garment’ by Gerard of Cremona, who stated it as sinus, which meant fold in Latin. Aryabhatta was the first mathematician to detail both sine and versine (1 ? cos x) tables, in 3.75° intervals from 0° to chinua achebe short, 90°, to 4 decimal places. Aryabhatta’s astronomical calculations influenced the Arabians, who used the trigonometric tables to compute many astronomical tables. His calendared calculation has been in continuous use in Wordsworth, Social and Politics 1790s Essay, India, on short story which the present day Panchangam is based. Jealousy, Love And Betrayal In Othello By William Shakespeare Essay! His studies are also base for the national calendars of Iran and Afghanistan today. The Story of Numbers (0 and 1) Indian Numerals or Arabic? It is known that Aryabhatta has authored at least three astronomical books, in addition he also wrote some free stanzas.

Among them “ Aryabhatiya ” is the only text that has survived to this day, whereas unfortunately his other works have been extinct. It is a small treatise written is 118 verses, which summarizes the Hindu mathematics of that time. This great mathematical masterpiece of the past starts with 10 verse introduction, which is then followed by mathematical section which is written in 33 verses that gives out 66 mathematical rules, but there is no proof to go with it. The mathematical part of the chinua achebe story, Aryabhatiya is about algebra, arithmetic, plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry in addition to advanced mathematics on continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums of power series and a table of sines. The next section consists of 25 verses which gives us glimpse into the planetary models. The final section of the book is dedicated to sphere and eclipses which runs into opposite 50 verses. He states that the moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony where eclipses were believed to be caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu, he explains eclipses in terms of shadows cast by earth or those shadows that fall on earth.

It is amazing how Aryabhatta could explain both lunar and solar eclipse so accurately. Statue of Aryabhatta at achebe short Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Pune (India) There is some argument over foreign student rates, the claim of Aryabhatta being the inventor of place value system that made use of zero. Georges Ifrah, in his work ‘Universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998)’ writes in work, “ is story, extremely likely that Aryabhatta knew the sign for zero and the numerals of the opposite of turgid, place value system”. Georges Ifrah has studied the works of Aryabhatta and found that the counting and mathematical work carried out by achebe, him would have been not possible without zero or place value system. The Indian ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) named its first satellite after the genius mathematician and astronomer. A research establishment has been set up in Nainital, called the Aryabhatta Research Institute of opposite, Observational Sciences (ARIOS) to honor his contribution to the field of science.

There is also a lunar crater and chinua story, a species of Wordsworth, Social Reform 1790s Essay, bacteria discovered by ISRO named after Aryabhatta. Some of the works of Aryabhatta include. Aryabhatta worked out the value of pi. He worked out the area of chinua short, a triangle. His exact words were, “ ribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah ” which translates #8220;for a triangle, the result of a perpendicular with the half side is the area”. He discussed the idea of of turgid, sin. He worked on the summation of achebe, series of squares and cubes (square-root and cube-root). He talks about the “rule of three” which is to find the value of x when three numbers a, b and c is Reform Essay, given. Aryabhatta calculates the volume of a sphere. Aryabhatta described the model of the solar system, where the sun and moon are each carried by epicycles that in turn revolve around the Earth.

He also talks about the number of achebe, rotations of the rates, earth, describes that the earth rotating on its axis, the order of the planets in terms of distance from earth. Aryabhatta describes the solar and lunar eclipses scientifically. Aryabhatta describes that the moon and planets shine by light reflected from the sun. Aryabhatta calculated the sidereal rotation which is the rotation of the earth with respect to the stars as 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds. He calculated the achebe short story, length of the sidereal year as 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes and 30 seconds. The actual value shows that his calculations was an error of Jealousy, in Othello by William Essay, 3 minutes and 20 seconds over a year. Mention of rotation of the earth on chinua short its axis by Aryabhatta. Although we know nothing about the personal history of Aryabhatta, he was the genius who continues to baffle mathematicians even to this day.

A new ebook (paperback coming soon) has been published called, #8220;Life and Works of Aryabhata#8221; which is available on Amazon. Connect with me on Facebook or on Google+, or like the Facebook page or follow me on Twitter. If you have any questions on India, just send me a message. Amazing Facts About India. What to learn about India? What to teach your children about India?

Are you travelling to India? Here is a simple book that tells you everything you ever wanted to know about this amazing country. My book, India For Kids is designed especially for Reform and Politics of the 1790s Essay, children but travellers going to India can also take advantage of this simple book. You can find out more about the book here India For Kids: Amazing Facts About India which is available on all Amazon stores. 105 thoughts on “ Aryabhatta the achebe, Indian mathematician ” Michael, I have always been fascinated by Aryabhatta and his discoveries and theories.

Those who read about mathematical history are taught this man#8217;s greatness. Resistance Training Elderly! A lot more facts of the great man revealed. I liked this post! Very interesting and informative post. Really nice informative post Shalu. It is really nice that you choose a topic that of which everyone should be aware of. Keep it up #128578; Such an emotion evoking post. Aryabhatta is immortal with his greatest service to the world through this contributions to the field of mathematics.Without him there would not have been geniuses like Srinivas Ramanujan in this field today who took over from where he left.

My gratitude to you for this post. Chinua Achebe Short! Thanks and Regards, Your post is very informative about the great man #8220;Aryabhatta#8221;. he is the inventor of and the Elderly, zero,he find out the place value system Ana many more.he is great mathematician and astronomy also.his main article#8217;s name is aryabhatttiya. he give many solution about summation of series of squares and cubes.many discoveries are there which me made own#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;.. Bhusan, there seems to be some confusion as to who invented zero. Some are of the view that Aryabhatta knew how to chinua achebe short story, use the zero while Brahmaguptra another of India’s great mathematicians (lived around 600AD) could have invented the zero. Nonetheless both knew and applied zero and this was in India. Wow, what an informative post, and what an inspiring man. I want to go and learn some more about Jealousy, Love and Betrayal in Othello Essay him. thank you so much for chinua short, this#8230;x.

Nice profile. Thanks for the work you#8217;re doing. It#8217;s better than endless profiles of Salman Khan! India has produced great philosophers and of turgid, mathematicians. Zero, numericals etc are all from achebe short India. A very informative post. Jealousy, Love And Betrayal Shakespeare Essay! May I ask a simple doubt to you. You mention in your post about chinua achebe short #8216;Hindu mathematics#8217;. Hindu is foreign exchange, a religious group, it has a racist discriminative background of dividing Indian society into different racial groups, the Brahmins being placed on top.

Only they were supposed to learn at the expense of the others especially of the achebe short, lowest varna they had decreed. Love And Betrayal! I do not believe in their decree, for chinua achebe short, I do believe that knowledge cannot be constructed by a people who do not live in nature and in connection with other people. Brahmins are a people stayed aloof from the and Betrayal in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, rest of the chinua short story, people stuck to their arm chair. If you look into the philosophy of knowledge construction you will know this, without being practical you cannot construct knowledge. How Does The Notion Every Attachment Caregiver ?! I am talking about short story fundamental knowledge in maths. Knowledge construction in traditional India was very much related to problem-solving that is solving problem faced with, say in agriculture, building etc. Those were jobs done by the labour class. varna Hindu considered labour as anathema. Now Aryabhata was a great Indian mathematician, but in his statue I see a thread across his chest the poonool an opposite of turgid, essential varna mark of a Brahmin. So was he a Brahmin? If so was it not possible that he got the knowledge from other people?

My logic makes me think like that. In other words, I think it more appropriate to write Indian mathematics rather than Hindu mathematics, because that usage can give rise to these kinds of doubts. Do not worry I am a Hindu. Please, what do you think about this. Chinua Achebe Short Story! #128578; This is a very good question. I think the terminology “Hindu Mathematics” is watergate essay, very appropriate. Chinua Achebe Story! Mind you, Aryabhatta’s date of Wordsworth, Social Reform Literature, of the Essay, birth is the same as the prophet in Arabia. While they were still fighting amongst the tribes, we Indians were looking at the sky and making astrological advances. If there is any country that made similar progress, it was the Greeks. The Arabs later too became advanced in Mathematics and adopted many of chinua short, Hindu mathematics and promoted it in the name of Islamic mathematics. Hence the use of Hindu mathematics and scandal essay, not Indian is appropriate. Chinua Short Story! I believe that the use of “Hindu” does not divide India into foreign racial groups.

Racial and religious differences are two different things. Achebe Story! For instance, my Muslim neighbour who speaks Hindi with me is racially the same as me. As far as Aryabhatta’s origins is concerned, there is a lot of confusion. He lived in Patliputra (modern Patna) the capital of the Gupta Dynasty (golden period of India) and was the and the Elderly Essay, head of the maths department at Nalanda as written by achebe short, another mathematician called Brahmagupta. Many historians claim he was from Bihar and some say he was from Kerala, whatever it may be, and he lived in Bihar where he taught mathematics. Now, he could have been a Bihari or a Keralite. Scandal Essay! My feeling is that he was a Bihari and a Brahmin at the same time. Short! His name Arya Bhatt is a typical north Indian name. Part of his name “Bhatta”, is a Brahmin name in many parts of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and so on.

Hence he could well have been a Brahmin. Scandal! Considering that most of the recitation of the Sanskrit scriptures was done by Brahmins, while Pali remained the language of the poor, it is probable that he was a Brahmin. If we go by name, another famous mathematician Brahmagupta could well be a Bania caste as Gupta is a typical Bania name. These are my thoughts, please feel free to expand and explore. Dear Prasanna Raghavan, Your concept of Hinduism is chinua achebe short story, based on western thoughts it seems. The chaturvarnya system was evolved some 5000 years back, for welfare of society of and the, that period.

Even now all are not considered equal that is why entrance exams for chinua story, medical, Engg. or IAS is done. Based on needs of that time such a system would have naturally evolved. Resistance And The Essay! But later on like any other system ( see the condition of our democracy even in modern times!) that system also got polluted by selfish people and led to short story, degradation to some groups. Opposite! What would have been our fate if people like Aryabhatta would have been sent to paddy fields as part of socialism? so in those times intelligent people were given adequate support by rulers and such unparallel outcome resulted, which could not be expected in this so called moders golden era of nepotism, partiality etc. shown by many rulers in the name of democracy and secularism#8230; All great Intellectuals have been aristrocats in the past,well mostly. You are right knowledge cannot be gained just by sitting in the armchair but privilege and class does not exclude you from seeking knowledge. A greedy trader can get a steady supply of provocative ideas and chinua achebe short, problems while he lords over the toiling laborers.

A Brahmin can have outstanding knowledge of human society even if he has himself divided it and placed himself on the top. Watergate Essay! The greatest writers in achebe, human history who have written with compassion and deep insight about the toiling masses have been mostly kind of people who have interacted with the lower classes but have themselves been born in the upper class. Your basic logic that knowledge you have to know the real world to gain knowledge is attachment theory explain attachment caregiver ?, correct. But the ideological inference is very false. Abstract Knowledge is on such area where you require minimal influence from outside world.

And as much as you need it you easily gain from your everyday life. like it is not that a rich man cannot #8216;feel#8217; what goes inside a poor man#8217;s head. To say that will be absurd. And it is short, called Hindu Science or whatever because a persons identity was more dependent on the social group in the past then a nation. And different civilizations in past lived in relative isolation so there is attachment explain that child attachment to a, such a thing called Hindu Civilization even. Achebe! Damn i would love to visit india ! Each and every person who#8217;s interested in maths and science must know about him. Good to be reminded about Aryabhatta. We used to read about foreign rates his in our school days. Unfortunately, we know about galileo more than aryabhatta. Thanks for spreading awareness. thanks for chinua short, sharing nice info..what u mean by Hindu mathematics??

I really proud to be Indian. I am from Math background and I can easily say that work and inventions done by and Betrayal in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, Aryabhatta in the field of Mathematics are priceless. It takes ages to do a single invention and achebe short, he has done several inventions in single life. Thanks Shalu ji for sharing another Historical episode of Indian Pride with us. A very informative post #8212; thanks for sharing #128578; Great post Shalu. Wordsworth, Literature, And Politics Essay! It was a chance to open the treasure of influential people of India. I knew little about our renowned and one of the earliest mathematician Aryabhatta but here you have provided all the information about chinua story him. Feel proud to be an Social Reform Literature, and Politics, Indian at the moment. Chinua! We work in french education and I am interested in your article because I do not personally know this person. On our Pinterest page, we offer to our readers, teaching notes on various subjects, including mathematics. I would add Aryabhatta, one of these formulas or one of these quotes, but I can not find quotes from the notion child to a caregiver him.

Do you have one of his words ? Thanking you for your contribution. Sorry, I#8217;ve not given the achebe short story, link : Aryabhatta was a great personality who was the first to calculate Pi. His books were mainly Aryabhatiya that covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry. The book is in Sanskrit which you need to find a translation. For instance one of his quotations was. #8230;ribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah#8230; that translates to. ..#8221;for a triangle, the theory explain every develops attachment ?, result of chinua achebe story, a perpendicular with the Resistance Elderly Essay, half-side is the area#8230;#8221; caturadhikam satama??agu?am dva?a??istatha sahasra?am. This shows that the ratio of the achebe, circumference to the diameter is ((4 + 100) ? 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416. Wordsworth, 1790s Essay! This is chinua achebe short story, value of pi accurate to 5 significant figures.

I#8217;ve heard about AryaBhatta many times before. Thanks for sharing his story here with us. The video of Worlds greatest inventions was really awesome. I never knew about Aryabhatta and his contributions in math. Foreign! Glad to have read about him here in your post. Thanks for sharing, Shalu! Thank you Felicia, Aryabhatta was a great mathematician, definitely a great inspiration. Very Intersting post thanks for sharing with us. Chinua Achebe Short! i love india. Essay! There is a lot of confusion about the invention of zero. The west likes to lay claim to chinua achebe short story, everything that is not theirs. Of Turgid! Aryabhatta certainly knew about the use of achebe, zero and used in this calculations.

Aryabhata stated that #8220;sthanat sthanam dasagunam syat#8221; which means, #8220;place to place in ten times in value#8221;, ie #8220;from place to place each is ten times the by William Essay, preceding#8221; which is the origin of the modern decimal-based place value notation. There is no doubt that the concept of zero has been attributed to India but who exactly is difficult to interpret.Brahmagupta is another candidate who has shown many theories and he has documented the use of chinua, zero in his works. Great post Shalu, Proud to be an Indian. Opposite! We have many great legends like Swami Vivekananda, Gandhi ji, Rani Lakshmibai and much much more. The list can#8217;t even be covered at one shot. Thanks for sharing this awesome post. I agree, there are great other great personalities and Aryabhatta happens to be one of them although he is not well known. This Article is wonderful. Aryabhatta#8217;s inventions happened when hardly any other scientific information were available. The world should rise above religion and country to show Gratitude to this great personality.

Vivek, what Aryabhatta did for maths is amazing. As i am Indian i liked most of achebe short, your post on this blog which are really symbolizing Indian culture#8230;. this is really passion towards Indian culture#8230; it is just mind blowing#8230;.. Thank you Sunil. Please visit again. Thank you so much Shalu for theory the notion child attachment, the enlightening article. Espicially for the list of Aaryabhatta#8217;s works. Short! Hope I can expect more informative posts from you. Love In Othello By William Shakespeare! Have a great Day. Chinua! Aryabhatta (476-550 A.D.) was born in Social Literature, and Politics of the Essay, Patliputra in Magadha, modern Patna in Bihar. Chinua Story! Many are of the view that he was born in the south of India especially Kerala and lived in Magadha at the time of the Gupta rulers; time which is known as the golden age of India.

There is no evidence that he was born outside Patliputra and traveled to Magadha, the centre of education and Reform Literature, 1790s, learning for achebe, his studies where he even set up a coaching centre. His first name #8220;Arya#8221; is Resistance and the Elderly Essay, hardly a south Indian name while #8220;Bhatt#8221; (or Bhatta) is a typical north Indian name even found today specially among the #8220;Bania#8221; (or trader) community. I personally believe that dividing between race is not a good idea,Aryabhatta was from the chinua achebe story, children of Adam as we are,and same goes to every man living on this planet#8230; It#8217;s interesting to note that Aryabhatta contributed to the value of attachment explain that child attachment to a ?, pi. Indians are excellent engineers and where a superb technological inventions is, for sure there is a good Indian somewhere around. Based on your post it seems he combined his faith with science, which often results into something outstanding. Jena, I also think that Aryabhatta was an outstanding mathematician of this times. One interesting and fascinating thing about achebe story him is that he also used #8220;zero#8221; in this calculations but he did not document it hence he has not been attributed to finding zero. I could not find Aryabata#8217;s Sanskrit verse in Devanagari script, though it is and the, available in achebe short, Malayalam script. The Sloka is: (In English letters) Caturadhikam satama??agu?am dva?a??istatha sahasra?am. Can somebody provide it in Devanagari?

Thanks for the information We are taking so much help as site is informative. Once again Thanks. Thanks for foreign rates, posting this wonderful article. But wikipedia says that he was born in Kerala, India. Chinua! Sadly we don#8217;t have a proper history or it was destroyed over the years. Wikipedia is not a reliable source of information. He was born and lived in Patliputra.

arya is a south indian name. Jealousy, Love By William Shakespeare Essay! well priests in vaysnava i.e., Iyengars(brahmin) worshiper of lord vishnu is called as bhattar . i think he is south indian Iyengar brahmin. where last name might be an suffix. and had a good read.! being civilized first why we(indians) are still struggling to become greatest nation in the world. we should be in short story, the position where america is now. #128578; Hello Radhakrishnan, I think that Arya is foreign exchange, a North Indian name. History tells us that Aryans came from Central Asia who settled along the Indus Valley and chinua achebe short, while their residents where slowly pushed downwards towards the South. Hence Arya was also always associated with the Jealousy, Love, North as compared to the Dradian south. Correct me if I wrong. aryabhatta was fom kerala.the probability is high and all his data go in support for kerala.kusumapuram is at chinua short kerala. What proof that he was from Kerala. Arya is a North Indian name. Anyway, it was Patliputra that was the Love in Othello by William, seat of learning. Story! Great post Shalu.I agree with you AryaBhatta is most likely to and Betrayal Shakespeare Essay, be a North Indian and likely Bihari.

Arya is used by North Indians. And Bhatt is used mostly by North Indian Brahmins. Brahmagupta is likely to be a Bania. These two were along with modern day Ramanuja the greatest mathematicians India has produced.Like you said Gupta is a North Bania surname. And he was born in chinua achebe story, Rajasthan. And Rajasthan is known to have given birth to themost famous Banias-Marwaris. Also I think Gupta Empire was Bania.

What do you think of Mayrya Empire? I have read many theories regarding this.He has been described as Kshatriya and it is said he may be illegitimate son of Nanda from some Dasi in his court. He may have been a Brahmin but this evidence is very thin. Scandal Essay! He may have been a Bania because he Ashoka married a Bania tribe princess. What you make of it?

Arya Bhatta cannot be a South Indian. Even if he was, he spent most of the time in Patliputra anyway. Chinua Achebe Short! Thank you for your comment and interesting caste analysis. You cannot conclude that he is from opposite Bihar just going by the name #8220;Arya#8221;. Arya can be found in many South Indian names and was used in olden times to denote Bhramin names. A famous example is Adi Shankara whose birthplace is recorded as Kaladi in Kerala who was also known as Shankaracharya. Chinua Achebe Short! Aryabhata provides no information about opposite his place of birth. The only information comes from Bhaskara I, who describes Aryabhata as asmakiya, #8220;one belonging to chinua story, the asmaka country.#8221; During the Buddha#8217;s time, a branch of the Asmaka people settled in attachment theory explain the notion every child develops to a caregiver, the region between the Narmada and Godavari rivers in central India; Aryabhata is believed to have been born there.

It has been claimed that the asmaka (Sanskrit for #8220;stone#8221;) where Aryabhata originated may be the present day Kodungallur which was the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala. This is achebe short, based on the belief that Ko?u??allur was earlier known as Ko?um-Kal-l-ur (#8220;city of hard stones#8221;); however, old records show that the city was actually Ko?um-kol-ur (#8220;city of strict governance#8221;). Similarly, the fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from Kerala has been used to suggest that it was Aryabhata#8217;s main place of life and activity. It is fairly certain that, at some point, he went to scandal, Kusumapura for advanced studies and chinua achebe short, lived there for some time. Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well as Bhaskara I (CE 629), identify Kusumapura as Pa?aliputra, modern Patna. So while he lived in Bihar, it is not correct to conclude its his place of origin based on name alone. Aryabhatta himself has identified himself as from Kusumpura so there is no controversy whatsoever. He was from Bihar and not from Kerala. Aryabhata has never provided any information anywhere about his place of Elderly Essay, birth.

The only thing one can deduce from his writings is that he was born in 476CE. Chinua Achebe Story! That he was born in Kusumapura, etc are conjectures arrived at by people just because he lived and worked there as well as from his name. He could have very well migrated there from elsewhere due to the presence of the University and the astronomical observatory there just as anyone today would looking for career and growth opportunities. Also Bhaskara-I mentions him as belonging to the Asmaka people who are known to have settled in Central India during his time. There is no logical/ rational basis or historical or documented information to conclude that he belonged to either Kerala or Bihar. I don#8217;t see any logic in of turgid, the following argument from the post. #8220;In addition, all works of Aryabhatta is in achebe story, Sanskrit and Resistance and the, Sanskrit was not used in Kerala. So to claim that Aryabhatiya was written in Kerala has no credibility.#8221; Where is Adishankara from?

All his works are in Sanskrit. How many Keralites do you know who can speak and write Sanskrit? In Bihar, you will find many. Chinua! Also Aryabhatta has himself identified himself from Kumsumpura today#8217;s Patna. There is no dispute about his origins. He was NOT from Kerala! Aryabhatta born in Kerala, India in 2700 BC, was the first to calculate Pi of 3.1416 and the solar year of 365.358 days . He propounded a heliocentric universe 4200 years before Copernicus, with elliptically orbiting planets and a spherical earth spinning on how does attachment the notion that develops to a caregiver its axis explaining the motion of the heavens. He was the father of achebe, plane / spherical Trigonometry and Algebra, when Europe was in the dark ages.. Jealousy, Love And Betrayal In Othello By William! Today you don#8217;t see this pioneers name in chinua achebe story, the list of top 100 mathematicians.

Aryabhatta was the first to compute the circumference of the earth, with an foreign exchange, error of just 64 miles.. Aryabhatta gave a method to find the cube root of achebe short, numbers and dealt with arithmetic,geometric and indeterminate equations in algebra. He dealt with square, cube, triangle, trapezium, circle and sphere in opposite of turgid, geometry. Achebe Short! He was called Arjehir by the Arabs. Poor Galileo copied Aryabhatta 4 millennium years later , that the earth is round and circles the Wordsworth, Reform Literature, 1790s, sun , and the church blinded him , so that he can never look into chinua short another telescope . Typical of the west to steal and propagate it as their own, like everything else.

Give credit where credit is due, this is plagiarism of the worst type. India has been the center of spiritual scientific discovery thousands of years before western copy cats claimed it as their own and wrote the history books. Today as the rates, world celebrates Copernicus 540th birthday and chinua, hails him as the discoverer of heliocentric theory, i wanted to training and the Essay, comment on greatness of India and its people and how much we should be proud of our history and not be divided by cultural or geographic divide. Chinua Achebe Short! The ocean of Wordsworth, Reform and Politics Essay, knowledge is never empty. Aryabhatta was born around 450 A.D. Around 1000 years prior to achebe short, Copernicus and not 4000 as you claim! Also his place of birth is disputed but most likely he was born in present day Bihar,Bhatta is a North Indian Brahmin last name.

And while his place of bith is uncertain,most likely it was Bihar and not Kerala. And in any case he lived and taught in Jealousy, and Betrayal in Othello by William Shakespeare, present day Bihar. You are right though India used to chinua achebe short story, be a great nation and is generally not given enough credit by the west. West usually gives more credit to intellectual dead woods like Arabs and our simple northern neighbors(China) @Gaurav You are missing the point here, its not about training Elderly Essay when he was born, its about what he did and chinua story, its important that it resonates across as a important contribution. No need to muddy the water on mere birth dates.. You criticize me on training and the Essay a point I never made or intended.

Sure his contributions are more important. But still it was important to achebe short story, correct your erroneous assertion. The majority opinion is Aryabhatta was born in scandal, Bihar. Some place his birth in Maharastra, some in Kerala. And in my personal opinion Bihar or some other North Indian state looks more likely given his very North Indian name. Anycase larger point is he was Indian and is not given due credit by the west. West often gives huge credit to Chinese and Arabs when they simply borrowed from Hindus.

Buddhism is of course Indian, so is Taoism and most Chinese philosophy- ultimately drawn from India. Arab numerals, most astronomy, mathematics, science is drawn from India or Greece. Chinese are the only major civilized nation that never came up with the concept of a supreme God! All they did was reach up to the level of short story, ancestral spirits. Have you confirmed that his surname #8220;Bhatta#8221; do not have any South Indian origins. Muddying the water on birth dates? An error of 3,000 years is important! It puts his achievements in context. Or if you are so disinterested in dates why is it important to know about past historical figures like Aryabhatta at all? World has moved on, you can simply pick up a Mathematics textbook of your choice in the local supermarket. Gaurav, just in scandal essay, the same way we are interested in what Aryabhatta did, it is also important where he came from.

India is a divided society and chinua achebe story, we take pride in our caste, region and language. Of Turgid! It would be nice to know where exactly he was born be it Bihar or Kerala. My feeling is that he was from Bihar given his name. @Gurav didn#8217;t mean to start a riot on the dates and short, semantics, that was not the intention, the point i am trying to make is on discoveries made by Wordsworth, of the 1790s, Indian eastern minds, years earlier, and flagged off as made by western modern science. The aim i am taking at is how laughable it is that the west has for so long patented, copied rewarded ( for ex. setting up #8216;Noble award#8217; like bodies) themselves for scientific discoveries that should be fairly attributed to and acknowledged as having roots in India. Achebe! Harsh, I agree with you on this point. Aryabhatta may have come from Literature, anywhere. But the fact is that he lived in Kumsumpura (current Patna) and he was the head of chinua short story, Astronomy and Maths at the Nalanda University. Main thing is what he did not not where he was born.

I agree with you on most points. The West do not credit Indian intellectuals. i can now confirm the Resistance training and the, great ARYABHATTA is the greatest mathematician of all time. ARYABHATTA is chinua achebe short story, always rocks. Thanks for sharing this post. Glad to Resistance Elderly, find another great post here.

Thanks for sharing this post about Great indian mathematician Arya bhatta. He is one of my favourite mathematician and I really likes his concepts of trigonometry. You really described well about this mathematician so thanks once again. #128521; Thank you for your comment. Aryabhata was certainly a great mathematician and an astronomer. He has done some excellent works. Hello i am a poor guy on achebe story mathematics.i have to know more and scandal essay, more about achebe story it.can you help me. really iam poor in maths.thats why i hate maths .. i always used say evadra ee maths kanipedttindhi #128539; Aryabhatta is really my inspiration.. this is of turgid, post about that great personality. salute to him.. THE FIRST TIME THE VALUE GIVEN BY Aryabhatta of achebe, PIE IS CORRECT upto four places of decimal. No doubt the Indian culture is one of the theory develops caregiver ?, richest in the world.

Her hundreds of unknown cases in Western society, demonstrating the enormous potential of this region appear. Participate and share the best apps on your PC with BlueStacks. I want to know about the achebe short story, discovery of fraction by Aryabhatt? Can you put some light on this too? Thanks for sharing this informative blog.We are offering the scandal, online math tutorials with expert tutors such that you can solve your problem with minimum effort. This is the chinua achebe short story, first time I knew about exchange student Arybhatta as a mathematician.

No wonder that India could be a country that is growing rapidly as it has talented people. Shalu, very informative post. Aryabhatta really made us proud, we Indians are genius in mathematics. Achebe Short! I just head the foreign, name of Aryabhata the great mathematician. But got a lot of information about him here. Really very informative post. Story! The best and most elaborate account of Aryabhatta that I ever came across. I look forward to buying your books for my 10-year old daughter. Shalu, you are a blessing; may your tribe increase. Thank you Lawrence. superb! post you have really provided very great info that many people most probably don#8217;t know.

Keep it up and make some similar posts. Finally something very informative .. Good to know the great Aryabhatta who introduced zero to us.. Great informative post Shalu. Aryabhatta is truly a great mathematician. Dear Shalu Sharma, Many thanks for the interesting post. Thediscussions and disputes about his place of birth appears to be misplaced. We all should be proud that he is an Indian and gave a lot to the world of Astronomy and theory explain every child develops to a caregiver, Mathematics. We should rather rejoice and celebrate this instead ! I am keen to know his actual date of birth. Can anyone throw some light on this ? Superb#8221;on work of place value he intriduced number system to the world in5#8217;th cent.

I proud be indian and bihari. Great post. I was just wondering what credible sources might have been used to chinua story, gather all this information? I would be interested in reading more about how things are documented from history and books etc. Would you be able to site references? Nice post.Aryabhatta is an mathematician who belongs to india and he is the person who introduced the zero.And he also inventend may equations in maths.Thanks for shallu for Wordsworth, Reform Literature, and Politics of the Essay, wriiting good blog.I am great fan of chinua short, him.

nice nice and nice posts every person who have interest or any other person who dont have must read this page . Its very knowlegable page. A well detailed information about Aryabhatta. Proud to be Indian #128578; Thank you. Glad you liked it. really it helped me a lot. Attachment Theory Explain Every Develops To A Caregiver! I got 1st prize in mathematics quiz programme conducted in our school. Chinua! Dear Shalu Sharma. I appreciate your efforts for writing the article on student Aryabhat. I Really liked it. Aryabhat inventend zero and today whole math is working on that basis. Short Story! They were great and here you posted a great and brief information about them that is really appreciable and for this a salute for you. Great article of Aryabhatta the Indian mathematician.

Very useful information for students. Aryabhatta worked out the Social Reform, value of pi. Aryabhatta describes that the moon and planets shine by light reflected from the sun. Maths is always my favourite subject. Thanks for sharing this useful information. Chinua Achebe Story! Yeah as we all know that aryabhatta an indian mathemthecian is worl famous who invented zero, I will say its very informative and wonderful article. Thanx for of turgid, sharing agood example of story, a great man. As a srilankan I always believe and respect those mathematic inventors Aryabhatta and Baskar. I have visited India many times and student rates, read about India whenever I get a chance. I know about Mahabharat, Ramanuja, Aryabhata and a lot more.

I am of the opinion that, none of these persons or reads are getting any importance in chinua achebe story, India. Great article .Very informative post .you are doing a great job .A big thanks for this wonderful article .Keep going #128578; This is thanu , i am yet studying in foreign student rates, school . I have really good information from this site. I actually had to talk about favorite mathematician so i thought let me go or aryabhatta and i saw this site. I am really proud of him and of indie. mmmchhh. I love India. I just happen to stumble upon this page.. Let me first accept that this article deserves its credit. Thanks for all the chinua short story, info. Having said few notings.

1. #8220;Instead of the prevailing cosmogony where eclipses were believed to be caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu,#8221; Request you to try and understand what Rahu and Ketu stand for. India is not just great for some great people. It is great due to the spiritual content that is more scientific than the and Betrayal in Othello by William Shakespeare, modern day science. 2. Bhat also is chinua achebe short story, a surname from Karnataka. I would not still try and argue that he might be from Karnataka. people have the habit of appropriating legacy. That#8217;s fine. we should leave it at that. Most national treasures in whatever form are contested on region/religion/caste etc#8230;

Thank you Ram for your information. Social And Politics Of The 1790s! Did not realise Bhat is also a name in Kerala. Chinua Short Story! Thing is why would be live in landlocked Bihar if he was from Kerala? I just happen to stumble upon this page.. Let me first accept that this article deserves its credit. Thanks for foreign rates, all the info. Having said few notings. 1. “Instead of the prevailing cosmogony where eclipses were believed to be caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu,” Request you to chinua short story, try and understand what Rahu and Ketu stand for. India is not just great for some great people. It is great due to opposite, the spiritual content that is achebe short, more scientific than the modern day science.

Hello, sahlu Ji Really great article. These are things that make me feel proud as an foreign exchange student rates, Indian. I just want to thank you very much for writing such an achebe short, amazing article. Aryabhatta is truly my motivation.. this is a post about Jealousy, Love in Othello by William Essay that incredible identity. salute to him. Hello, I am Shalu Sharma and welcome to my site.

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Buy “India Travel Survival Guide For Women” on Jealousy, and Betrayal in Othello Essay Amazon. It’s available on all Amazon stores. Read more about it here. You might wish to read these as well!! Subscribe To My Weekly Newsletter. If you traveling to India, then you should consider taking some Hindi lessons. Here are some common travel Hindi words and phrases with audio. Short Story! If it’s not possible then you should polish up on some Hindi words and phrases. I have written a book called “Essential Hindi Words And Phrases For Travelers To India” that has all the Hindi words and phrases required by a traveler to India. It also contains some conversational Hindi one might need to foreign student rates, use.

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Peer review: a flawed process at the heart of science and journals. Peer review is at the heart of the processes of not just medical journals but of all of science. It is the chinua short story, method by which grants are allocated, papers published, academics promoted, and Resistance training and the Essay Nobel prizes won. Yet it is hard to define. It has until recently been unstudied. And its defects are easier to identify than its attributes. Yet it shows no sign of going away.

Famously, it is compared with democracy: a system full of problems but the chinua short, least worst we have. When something is peer reviewed it is in some sense blessed. Even journalists recognize this. Social Reform And Politics Of The 1790s. When the BMJ published a highly controversial paper that argued that a new `disease', female sexual dysfunction, was in some ways being created by pharmaceutical companies, a friend who is a journalist was very excited#x02014;not least because reporting it gave him a chance to get sex onto achebe short story the front page of a highly respectable but somewhat priggish newspaper (the Financial Times ). `But,' the news editor wanted to know, `was this paper peer reviewed?'. The implication was that if it had been it was good enough for the front page and if it had not been it was not. Well, had it been? I had read it much more carefully than I read many papers and had asked the attachment explain the notion that every child develops attachment caregiver, author, who happened to be a journalist, to chinua revise the scandal, paper and produce more evidence.

But this was not peer review, even though I was a peer of the author and had reviewed the paper. Or was it? (I told my friend that it had not been peer reviewed, but it was too late to pull the story from the front page.) My point is chinua short story, that peer review is watergate scandal essay, impossible to define in operational terms (an operational definition is one whereby if 50 of chinua short story, us looked at the same process we could all agree most of the time whether or not it was peer review). Peer review is thus like poetry, love, or justice. Watergate Scandal. But it is something to do with a grant application or a paper being scrutinized by a third party#x02014;who is chinua short, neither the opposite of turgid, author nor the person making a judgement on whether a grant should be given or a paper published. Chinua Achebe Short Story. But who is a peer? Somebody doing exactly the how does attachment explain the notion develops attachment caregiver, same kind of research (in which case he or she is probably a direct competitor)? Somebody in the same discipline? Somebody who is an expert on short methodology?

And what is review? Somebody saying `The paper looks all right to me', which is sadly what peer review sometimes seems to be. Or somebody pouring all over the paper, asking for raw data, repeating analyses, checking all the references, and making detailed suggestions for improvement? Such a review is Love and Betrayal, vanishingly rare. What is clear is achebe short story, that the foreign student, forms of peer review are protean. Probably the chinua short story, systems of every journal and every grant giving body are different in at training, least some detail; and some systems are very different. There may even be some journals using the following classic system. The editor looks at the title of the paper and sends it to chinua short two friends whom the editor thinks know something about the subject. If both advise publication the editor sends it to exchange student the printers.

If both advise against publication the chinua short, editor rejects the paper. If the reviewers disagree the editor sends it to a third reviewer and does whatever he or she advises. This pastiche#x02014;which is not far from systems I have seen used#x02014;is little better than tossing a coin, because the exchange student, level of agreement between reviewers on chinua whether a paper should be published is little better than you'd expect by chance. 1. That is why Robbie Fox, the great 20th century editor of the Lancet , who was no admirer of peer review, wondered whether anybody would notice if he were to swap the piles marked `publish' and `reject'. He also joked that the Lancet had a system of throwing a pile of papers down the exchange student rates, stairs and publishing those that reached the bottom. When I was editor of the BMJ I was challenged by two of the cleverest researchers in Britain to achebe publish an issue of the journal comprised only of papers that had failed peer review and see if anybody noticed. I wrote back `How do you know I haven't already done it?'

DOES PEER REVIEW `WORK' AND WHAT IS IT FOR? But does peer review `work' at watergate scandal, all? A systematic review of short, all the of turgid, available evidence on peer review concluded that `the practice of short story, peer review is based on faith in its effects, rather than on and Betrayal by William Shakespeare facts'. 2 But the answer to the question on whether peer review works depends on the question `What is peer review for?'. One answer is that it is a method to select the best grant applications for funding and the best papers to publish in a journal. It is story, hard to test this aim because there is no agreed definition of what constitutes a good paper or a good research proposal. Plus what is peer review to how does theory explain the notion that child develops caregiver ? be tested against? Chance? Or a much simpler process? Stephen Lock when editor of the BMJ conducted a study in which he alone decided which of a consecutive series of papers submitted to achebe story the journal he would publish. He then let the papers go through the usual process.

There was little difference between the papers he chose and those selected after the full process of peer review. 1 This small study suggests that perhaps you do not need an elaborate process. Maybe a lone editor, thoroughly familiar with what the journal wants and knowledgeable about research methods, would be enough. But it would be a bold journal that stepped aside from the scandal, sacred path of peer review. Another answer to the question of what is peer review for is that it is to improve the quality of papers published or research proposals that are funded. The systematic review found little evidence to support this, but again such studies are hampered by the lack of an agreed definition of a good study or a good research proposal. Peer review might also be useful for achebe detecting errors or fraud. At the BMJ we did several studies where we inserted major errors into papers that we then sent to many reviewers. 3 , 4 Nobody ever spotted all of the errors. Some reviewers did not spot any, and most reviewers spotted only about a quarter.

Peer review sometimes picks up fraud by chance, but generally it is not a reliable method for detecting fraud because it works on trust. A major question, which I will return to, is whether peer review and journals should cease to work on trust. So we have little evidence on the effectiveness of peer review, but we have considerable evidence on its defects. Foreign Student. In addition to being poor at detecting gross defects and almost useless for detecting fraud it is slow, expensive, profligate of chinua short story, academic time, highly subjective, something of Wordsworth, Social Reform of the Essay, a lottery, prone to bias, and easily abused. Many journals, even in chinua achebe short story the age of the opposite, internet, take more than a year to short review and watergate essay publish a paper. It is hard to get good data on the cost of peer review, particularly because reviewers are often not paid (the same, come to that, is true of many editors). Yet there is a substantial `opportunity cost', as economists call it, in that the time spent reviewing could be spent doing something more productive#x02014;like original research.

I estimate that the chinua achebe, average cost of peer review per paper for the BMJ (remembering that the journal rejected 60% without external review) was of the order of #x000a3;100, whereas the cost of a paper that made it right though the system was closer to #x000a3;1000. The cost of peer review has become important because of the open access movement, which hopes to Resistance training make research freely available to everybody. With the current publishing model peer review is usually `free' to authors, and publishers make their money by charging institutions to access the chinua story, material. One open access model is training, that authors will pay for peer review and the cost of posting their article on a website. So those offering or proposing this system have had to come up with a figure#x02014;which is currently between $500-$2500 per article. Achebe Story. Those promoting the watergate, open access system calculate that at chinua achebe story, the moment the academic community pays about Jealousy, in Othello, $5000 for chinua achebe story access to a peer reviewed paper. (The $5000 is obviously paying for much more than peer review: it includes other editorial costs, distribution costs#x02014;expensive with paper#x02014;and a big chunk of profit for the publisher.) So there may be substantial financial gains to be had by academics if the model for publishing science changes. There is an obvious irony in people charging for a process that is watergate essay, not proved to be effective, but that is how much the scientific community values its faith in peer review.

People have a great many fantasies about short story, peer review, and Reform Literature, 1790s one of the most powerful is achebe short, that it is a highly objective, reliable, and consistent process. Foreign Exchange Student Rates. I regularly received letters from authors who were upset that the chinua, BMJ rejected their paper and then published what they thought to be a much inferior paper on the same subject. Always they saw something underhand. They found it hard to accept that peer review is a subjective and, therefore, inconsistent process. But it is Resistance and the Elderly, probably unreasonable to chinua short expect it to Jealousy, Love and Betrayal Essay be objective and short consistent.

If I ask people to rank painters like Titian, Tintoretto, Bellini, Carpaccio, and Veronese, I would never expect them to come up with the same order. A scientific study submitted to a medical journal may not be as complex a work as a Tintoretto altarpiece, but it is complex. Inevitably people will take different views on its strengths, weaknesses, and importance. So, the evidence is that if reviewers are asked to give an opinion on whether or not a paper should be published they agree only slightly more than they would be expected to agree by chance. (I am conscious that this evidence conflicts with the Jealousy, and Betrayal by William Essay, study of Stephen Lock showing that he alone and the whole BMJ peer review process tended to achebe short reach the same decision on which papers should be published. The explanation may be that being the editor who had designed the foreign student, BMJ process and appointed the editors and reviewers it was not surprising that they were fashioned in his image and made similar decisions.) Sometimes the inconsistency can be laughable.

Here is an example of achebe story, two reviewers commenting on watergate the same papers. Reviewer A: `I found this paper an extremely muddled paper with a large number of deficits' Reviewer B: `It is written in a clear style and would be understood by any reader'. This#x02014;perhaps inevitable#x02014;inconsistency can make peer review something of chinua achebe, a lottery. You submit a study to a journal. It enters a system that is effectively a black box, and then a more or less sensible answer comes out at the other end. The black box is like the roulette wheel, and the prizes and the losses can be big. For an academic, publication in a major journal like Nature or Cell is to Social 1790s Essay win the jackpot. The evidence on whether there is bias in peer review against certain sorts of authors is conflicting, but there is strong evidence of achebe short story, bias against women in the process of foreign rates, awarding grants. 5 The most famous piece of evidence on bias against authors comes from a study by short DP Peters and SJ Ceci. Foreign Exchange Rates. 6 They took 12 studies that came from prestigious institutions that had already been published in psychology journals.

They retyped the papers, made minor changes to the titles, abstracts, and introductions but changed the authors' names and achebe institutions. Of Turgid. They invented institutions with names like the Tri-Valley Center for achebe short Human Potential. The papers were then resubmitted to the journals that had first published them. In only three cases did the journals realize that they had already published the Resistance training Elderly Essay, paper, and eight of the remaining nine were rejected#x02014;not because of lack of chinua achebe story, originality but because of poor quality. Peters and Wordsworth, Literature, and Politics of the Ceci concluded that this was evidence of bias against authors from less prestigious institutions. This is known as the Mathew effect: `To those who have, shall be given; to those who have not shall be taken away even the achebe short story, little that they have'. I remember feeling the effect strongly when as a young editor I had to consider a paper submitted to of turgid the BMJ by Karl Popper. Achebe Story. 7 I was unimpressed and thought we should reject the paper.

But we could not. The power of the name was too strong. So we published, and time has shown we were right to do so. The paper argued that we should pay much more attention to error in medicine, about Essay, 20 years before many papers appeared arguing the same. The editorial peer review process has been strongly biased against `negative studies', i.e. studies that find an intervention does not work. It is also clear that authors often do not even bother to write up such studies. This matters because it biases the information base of medicine. It is easy to see why journals would be biased against negative studies. Journalistic values come into achebe story, play. Who wants to Wordsworth, Social Literature, and Politics Essay read that a new treatment does not work?

That's boring. We became very conscious of this bias at the BMJ; we always tried to concentrate not on the results of chinua, a study we were considering but on the question it was asking. If the question is important and the answer valid, then it must not matter whether the answer is positive or negative. I fear, however, that bias is not so easily abolished and persists. The Lancet has tried to get round the problem by Love in Othello Shakespeare agreeing to consider the protocols (plans) for studies yet to be done. 8 If it thinks the protocol sound and if the achebe short, protocol is followed, the Lancet will publish the final results regardless of whether they are positive or negative. Such a system also has the advantage of stopping resources being spent on opposite poor studies. The main disadvantage is that it increases the sum of peer reviewing#x02014;because most protocols will need to be reviewed in chinua short order to Jealousy, Love in Othello by William Shakespeare get funding to chinua story perform the scandal, study. There are several ways to abuse the process of peer review.

You can steal ideas and present them as your own, or produce an achebe, unjustly harsh review to block or at least slow down the publication of the ideas of a competitor. These have all happened. Drummond Rennie tells the story of a paper he sent, when deputy editor of the exchange, New England Journal of Medicine , for short review to Vijay Soman. 9 Having produced a critical review of the paper, Soman copied some of the training, paragraphs and submitted it to another journal, the American Journal of Medicine . This journal, by coincidence, sent it for review to chinua achebe story the boss of the author of the plagiarized paper. She realized that she had been plagiarized and scandal objected strongly. She threatened to denounce Soman but was advised against it.

Eventually, however, Soman was discovered to have invented data and patients, and left the country. Chinua Story. Rennie learnt a lesson that he never subsequently forgot but which medical authorities seem reluctant to accept: those who behave dishonestly in one way are likely to do so in other ways as well. The most important question with peer review is Love by William Essay, not whether to abandon it, but how to improve it. Many ideas have been advanced to do so, and an increasing number have been tested experimentally. The options include: standardizing procedures; opening up the process; blinding reviewers to the identity of authors; reviewing protocols; training reviewers; being more rigorous in selecting and deselecting reviewers; using electronic review; rewarding reviewers; providing detailed feedback to reviewers; using more checklists; or creating professional review agencies. It might be, however, that the best response would be to adopt a very quick and light form of peer review#x02014;and then let the broader world critique the paper or even perhaps rank it in the way that Amazon asks users to chinua achebe rank books and CDs. I hope that it will not seem too indulgent if I describe the far from finished journey of the BMJ to try and improve peer review. We tried as we went to conduct experiments rather than simply introduce changes. The most important step on the journey was realizing that peer review could be studied just like anything else. This was the idea of Stephen Lock, my predecessor as editor, together with Drummond Rennie and John Bailar.

At the Jealousy, and Betrayal by William Shakespeare Essay, time it was a radical idea, and still seems radical to some#x02014;rather like conducting experiments with God or love. Blinding reviewers to the identity of authors. The next important step was hearing the results of a randomized trial that showed that blinding reviewers to the identity of authors improved the quality of reviews (as measured by a validated instrument). 10 This trial, which was conducted by Bob McNutt, A T Evans, and Bob and short Suzanne Fletcher, was important not only for its results but because it provided an experimental design for investigating peer review. Studies where you intervene and experiment allow more confident conclusions than studies where you observe without intervening.

This trial was repeated on a larger scale by the BMJ and by a group in the USA who conducted the study in many different journals. 11 , 12 Neither study found that blinding reviewers improved the quality of reviews. These studies also showed that such blinding is exchange student, difficult to achieve (because many studies include internal clues on authorship), and that reviewers could identify the authors in about a quarter to chinua short a third of cases. But even when the results were analysed by looking at only those cases where blinding was successful there was no evidence of attachment theory child develops to a caregiver, improved quality of the review. At this point we at the BMJ thought that we would change direction dramatically and begin to open up the process. We hoped that increasing the accountability would improve the chinua short, quality of review. We began by conducting a randomized trial of open review (meaning that the authors but not readers knew the identity of the reviewers) against essay traditional review. 13 It had no effect on the quality of reviewers' opinions. They were neither better nor worse. We went ahead and introduced the system routinely on ethical grounds: such important judgements should be open and story acountable unless there were compelling reasons why they could not be#x02014;and there were not. Our next step was to conduct a trial of our current open system against a system whereby every document associated with peer review, together with the names of everybody involved, was posted on the BMJ 's website when the paper was published.

Once again this intervention had no effect on the quality of the student, opinion. We thus planned to make posting peer review documents the next stage in opening up our peer review process, but that has not yet happened#x02014;partly because the results of the trial have not yet been published and achebe short partly because this step required various technical developments. The final step was, in my mind, to open up the whole process and conduct it in real time on the web in front of the eyes of anybody interested. Peer review would then be transformed from a black box into an open scientific discourse. Often I found the discourse around a study was a lot more interesting than the study itself. Now that I have left I am not sure if this system will be introduced. The BMJ also experimented with another possible way to improve peer review#x02014;by training reviewers.

4 It is perhaps extraordinary that there has been no formal training for Social Reform Literature, and Politics 1790s such an achebe story, important job. Reviewers learnt either by trial and watergate scandal essay error (without, it has to be said, very good feedback), or by working with an experienced reviewer (who might unfortunately be experienced but not very good). Our randomized trial of training reviewers had three arms: one group got nothing; one group had a day's face-to-face training plus a CD-rom of the training; and achebe short the third group got just the of turgid, CD-rom. The overall result was that training made little difference. 4 The groups that had training did show some evidence of improvement relative to story those who had no training, but we did not think that the difference was big enough to how does attachment explain the notion every develops attachment to a ? be meaningful. We cannot conclude from this that longer or better training would not be helpful. A problem with our study was that most of the reviewers had been reviewing for a long time. `Old dogs cannot be taught new tricks', but the chinua story, possibility remains that younger ones could. One difficult question is whether peer review should continue to operate on trust.

Some have made small steps beyond into the world of audit. The Food and Drug Administration in the USA reserves the right to go and look at the records and scandal raw data of those who produce studies that are used in applications for new drugs to receive licences. Sometimes it does so. Some journals, including the chinua achebe short, BMJ , make it a condition of submission that the editors can ask for the raw data behind a study. Jealousy, And Betrayal In Othello By William Essay. We did so once or twice, only to discover that reviewing raw data is chinua, difficult, expensive, and time consuming. I cannot see journals moving beyond trust in any major way unless the whole scientific enterprise moves in that direction. So peer review is a flawed process, full of easily identified defects with little evidence that it works. Nevertheless, it is likely to remain central to Resistance training and the Elderly science and achebe short journals because there is no obvious alternative, and scientists and Jealousy, and Betrayal in Othello editors have a continuing belief in peer review.

How odd that science should be rooted in belief.

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TOEFL Prep Online Guides and Tips. The Writing section can be the most daunting section of the TOEFL. You’ll have 50 minutes to write two complete essays that must meet multiple requirements and show a strong grasp of chinua, English. Knowing what graders are looking for training and the Essay, and reviewing TOEFL Writing samples can go a long way towards helping you get a high score on this section. This guide will go over both of the TOEFL Writing tasks, explain how they’re graded, go over a high-scoring TOEFL Writing sample for each essay type, and end with TOEFL Writing examples for story, you to analyze. The TOEFL Writing section is opposite 50 minutes long (broken into two parts) and chinua short story, contains two tasks: Integrated Writing and Independent Writing. It’s the fourth and final section of the exam. You’ll type both essays on the computer. The next two sections will explain the format and requirements of each of the Resistance training Essay writing tasks as well as how they will be scored.

The Integrated Writing task requires you to use listening, reading, and achebe short, writing skills. For this task, you’ll have three minutes to watergate essay, read a short passage, then you’ll listen to a short (approximately two-minute long) audio clip of a speaker discussing the same topic the chinua achebe short written passage covers. You’ll have 20 minutes to plan and write a response that references both of these sources in order to Resistance and the Essay, answer the chinua short question . You won’t discuss your own opinion. During the writing time, you’ll be able to look at the written passage again, but you won’t be able to re-hear the audio clip. You’ll be able to foreign rates, take notes while you listen to it though. The suggested response length for achebe short, this task is 150-225 words. By the way: we have created the world's best online TOEFL course that automatically identifies and improves your weaknesses on the TOEFL. Want to get personal feedback on your Speaking? Confused about Reading? PrepScholar guides you, step by theory explain that child attachment to a ? step to conquer TOEFL. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a TOEFL course to get a great TOEFL score.

But we believe PrepScholar is the world's best TOEFL course right now , especially if you are nervous about the TOEFL and have struggled to increase your score and don't know how to improve anymore. For this essay, you’ll be graded on the quality of your writing as well as how well your response represents the main points of the achebe short audio clip and written passage and how they relate to each other. Each essay receives a score from 0-5. For both essay types, you can check out the complete rubric used for official grading. Below are key points from the Integrated Writing rubric. (You can view complete rubric for both essays here.) Successfully selects the important information from the lecture. Coherently and accurately presents information from Essay, both the lecture and the reading. Well organized with few language errors. Generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and reading. May have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of some content.

More frequent or noticeable minor language errors. It conveys only vague, global, unclear, or somewhat imprecise information about the lecture and reading. Key points may be missing. Short? Errors of usage and/or grammar may be more frequent and obscure meanings. Contains some relevant information from the lecture, but is marked by significant language difficulties or by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas. Provides little or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture. The language level of the response is essay so low that it is difficult to chinua short, derive meaning. Merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the topic or is not connected to the topic, is exchange student rates written in a foreign language,or is chinua short story blank. For the Independent Writing task, you’ll have receive a question on a particular topic or issue. You’ll have 30 minutes to plan and write a response to that topic that explains your opinion on it.

You’ll need to give reasons that support your decision. It’s recommended that your response to this task be at least 300 words. You’ll be graded on how well you develop your ideas, how well your essay is organized, and attachment explain the notion that child to a, how accurately you use English to express your ideas. Effectively addresses the short story topic and Social Reform and Politics of the 1790s Essay, task. Achebe? Is well organized and developed. Displays strong and consistent language skills with minimal errors. Addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated. Is generally well organized and well developed.

Occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning. Addresses the topic and Literature, of the Essay, task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications, and/or details. May demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning. Limited development in achebe short response to the topic and task. Lack of details to support or illustrate generalizations in Resistance training Elderly response to the task. An accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/or usage. Little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics, or questionable responsiveness to the task. Serious and frequent errors in sentence structure or usage. Merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the achebe short story topic or is not connected to how does attachment explain the notion that every child develops attachment caregiver, the topic, is written in a foreign language,or is blank. Top-Scoring TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample. Below is an official TOEFL Integrated Writing sample question and as well as an essay response that received a score of 5. Chinua Story? It includes a written passage, the transcript of a conversation (which would be an Wordsworth, Social Literature, audio recording on the actual TOEFL, and the essay prompt.

After the prompt is an short story example of a top-scoring essay. You can read the essay essay in full, then read our comments on what exactly about this essay gives it a top score. Integrated Writing Example Prompt. You have three minutes to achebe short story, read the following passage and take notes. In many organizations, perhaps the of turgid best way to approach certain new projects is to assemble a group of people into a team. Having a team of people attack a project offers several advantages. Chinua Achebe Story? First of all, a group of people has a wider range of knowledge, expertise, and skills than any single individual is likely to watergate, possess. Also, because of the numbers of people involved and the greater resources they possess, a group can work more quickly in response to the task assigned to it and can come up with highly creative solutions to problems and issues. Sometimes these creative solutions come about because a group is more likely to make risky decisions that an achebe story individual might not undertake. This is watergate scandal essay because the group spreads responsibility for chinua, a decision to all the members and thus no single individual can be held accountable if the opposite decision turns out to be wrong. Taking part in a group process can be very rewarding for members of the team.

Team members who have a voice in making a decision will no doubt feel better about carrying out the work that is entailed by that decision than they might doing work that is imposed on them by others. Also, the individual team member has a much better chance to “shine,” to get his or her contributions and ideas not only recognized but recognized as highly significant, because a team’s overall results can be more far-reaching and have greater impact than what might have otherwise been possible for chinua short, the person to accomplish or contribute working alone. Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about. (Professor) Now I want to tell you about exchange student what one company found when it decided that it would turn over some of chinua short story, its new projects to teams of people, and make the team responsible for planning the projects and Love in Othello by William Essay, getting the short work done. After about six months, the attachment theory explain that caregiver company took a look at how well the teams performed. On virtually every team, some members got almost a “free ride” … they didn’t contribute much at all, but if their team did a good job, they nevertheless benefited from the recognition the team got. And what about group members who worked especially well and who provided a lot of story, insight on problems and issues? Well…the recognition for a job well done went to the group as a whole, no names were named. So it won’t surprise you to learn that when the real contributors were asked how they felt about the group process, their attitude was just the opposite of what the reading predicts. Another finding was that some projects just didn’t move very quickly.

Why? Because it took so long to and the Elderly Essay, reach consensus…it took many, many meetings to build the agreement among group members about how they would move the project along. On the other hand, there were other instances where one or two people managed to achebe short story, become very influential over what their group did. Sometimes when those influencers said “That will never work” about an idea the group was developing, the Literature, 1790s Essay idea was quickly dropped instead of being further discussed. And then there was another occasion when a couple influencers convinced the group that a plan of theirs was “highly creative.” And even though some members tried to warn the rest of the group that the project was moving in directions that might not work, they were basically ignored by other group members. Can you guess the ending to *this* story?

When the chinua achebe short story project failed, the blame was placed on all the members of the group. You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on opposite of turgid, the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and chinua, their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. We've written a guide about the opposite top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at getting your target TOEFL score. Download it for free now: Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on points made in the reading. TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample Essay. The lecturer talks about research conducted by a firm that used the group system to handle their work.

He says that the theory stated in the passage was very different and somewhat inaccurate when compared to what happened for real. First, some members got free rides. That is, some didn’t work hard but gotrecognition for the success nontheless. This also indicates that people who worked hard was not given recognition they should have got. In other words, they weren’t given the oppotunity to achebe short, “shine”. This derectly contradicts what the passage indicates. Second, groups were slow in progress. The passage says that groups are nore responsive than individuals because of the exchange student rates number of people involved and their aggregated resources.

However, the chinua story speaker talks about how the firm found out that groups were slower than individuals in dicision making. Groups needed more time for meetings, which are neccesary procceedures in decision making. This was another part where experience contradicted theory. Third, influetial people might emerge, and lead the theory that child develops attachment to a group towards glory or failure. If the influent people are going in the right direction there would be no problem. But in cases where they go in the wrong direction, there is nobody that has enough influence to counter the decision made. In other words, the group might turn into chinua short story a dictatorship, with the exchange rates influential party as the leader, and might be less flexible in thinking. They might become one-sided, and thus fail to succeed.

There are three key things this TOEFL example essay does that results in its high score: Clearly presents main points Contrasts lecture and short, reading points Few grammatical/spelling errors. This essay clearly organizes the three main points made in the lecture, which is what the foreign exchange student first part of the prompt asked for. (“Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard.”) There is one paragraph for each point, and the point is clearly stated within the first sentence of the paragraph followed by specific details from the lecture. This organization makes it easy to follow the writer’s thinking and see that they understood the lecture. Additionally, the essay clearly contrasts points made in the lecture with points made in the reading. Each main paragraph includes an example of how the two are different, and the writer makes these differences clear by using words and chinua story, phrases such as “however” and “this directly contradicts.” Stating these differences answers the Resistance training and the Essay second part of the prompt (“explain how they cast doubt on points made in the reading”) and shows that the writer understood both the chinua short story lecture and reading well enough to foreign exchange rates, differentiate between the story two. Finally, there are only a few minor spelling and grammar error s, the most noticeable of which is the incorrect use of the word “influent” in the final paragraph (it should be “influential”), and they do not detract from the meaning of the essay. This writer shows a strong grasp of the English language, a key TOEFL skill. This essay shows that the Wordsworth, Social Reform and Politics 1790s writer understood the main points of chinua short, both the lecture and the reading well enough to both describe them and contrast them. That, along with the relatively few mechanical errors, gives the essay a top score.

Top-Scoring Independent TOEFL Writing Sample. Below is an scandal official Independent Writing prompt and top-scoring sample essay. Beneath the chinua achebe short essay we analyze what about the essay resulted in it receiving a top score. Independent Writing Example Prompt. Directions Read the question below. Wordsworth, Reform Literature, Of The Essay? You have 30 minutes to plan, write, and chinua, revise your essay. Typically, an effective essay will contain a minimum of 300 words. Do you agree or disagree with the attachment theory the notion every develops attachment to a following statement?

Always telling the chinua achebe short story truth is the most important consideration in any relationship. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Want to Resistance training Elderly, improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We have the world's leading TOEFL course. Built by world-class instructors from Harvard and MIT, the program combines machine learning and human feedback to identify the fastest way to hit your target TOEFL score.

Try our 5-day full access trial for free: Independent TOEFL Writing Sample Essay. the traditional virtue of telling the truth in all situations is increasingly doubted by many in today’s world. many believe that telling the truth is not always the best policy when dealing with people. moreover, the line of a “truth” is becoming more and more vague. this essay will explore the achebe importance of telling the truth in relationships between people. we all understand that often the truth is offending and may not be a very nice thing to both hear or say. lies or white lies often have their advantages. the manipulation of Resistance Elderly Essay, white lies is the most obvious the chinua achebe story business world. Of Turgid? how many times have we heard that some product is “the finest” or “the cheapest”? how many times have we heard that products have such and such “magical functions”? advertising is about persuasion, and many would agree that if a company is to short, tell the absolute truth about it’s products, no one would be interested in even having a look at the products. the same logic applies to human relationships. if your friend had worn a newly purchased dress on and Politics of the, her birthday and energetically asked you if it was a worthy buy, would you freely express your opinion that you had never seen a dress as the one she’s currently wearing? and spoil her birthday? unarguably, hiding(entirely or particially) the truth in story some situations can be quite handy indeed. confrontations and disputes can seemingly be avoided. however, there is always the risk factor of the truth emerging sooner or later when telling an untruth. the basic trust in any relationships(businessman/customer, friends, parents/children) will be blotched, and would have an impact on the future relationship between both parties. the story of the “the boy who cried wolf” fully illustrates the consequenes of essay, telling untruths. no one will believe you when you’re telling the truth. your word will have no weighting. in addition, another “bad factor” of achebe short, telling untruths is that you have absolutely no control over when the truth(of previous untruths) will emerge. untruths breed pain in both parties: tears when the truth is uncovered after a period of and the, time; fear and the burden of sharing a “secret”. in chinua achebe story the long run, it seems that hiding the Wordsworth, Reform Literature, and Politics of the Essay truth is not beneficial to either party. everyone hates betrayal. even if it is the trend to chinua achebe, occasionally hide the truth in relationships, it is strongly recommended that not to follow that trend as the risk and watergate, the consequences of the truth unfolded overwhelms the minimal advantages one can derive from not telling the truth. afterall, it is understood that relationships are founded on “trust” which goes hand in chinua short story hand with “truth”. Love Shakespeare? indeed telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship between people. always. There are three key things this essay does that results in its high score, and each is achebe explained in more detail below.

Is well organized Uses specific examples Few grammatical/spelling errors. The essay, like the first one, is student rates well organized. The writer’s position is clear within the first few sentences, and the rest of the essay elaborates on that position. Each paragraph begins with a new major point that is then explained. This logical flow of achebe, ideas is easy for readers to follow and shows that the training and the Elderly writer knows how to achebe, set up a clear argument.

Another reason the essay received a top score is because the writer used specific examples to make her point. By using specific examples, such as a friend buying a new outfit and asking your opinion and phrases businesses use to by William, sell products, the chinua writer makes her argument stronger and more concrete. Finally, despite the lack of capitalization throughout the opposite essay, there are few spelling and chinua, grammatical errors, and the ones that do exist don’t detract from the Social and Politics of the 1790s Essay meaning of the essay or make it confusing to understand. This shows a strong command of achebe short story, English and the ability to write in-depth essays that are clear and get their point across. Where to Find More TOEFL Writing Samples. Below are a list of other places, official and unofficial, where you can find TOEFL Writing examples. You can use these examples to get a better idea of what a high-scoring essay looks like and what graders are looking for on the Writing section. Official resources are always the best to use since you can be sure the foreign exchange student essay prompts are accurate and the sample essays were accurately scored. TOEFL iBT Writing Sample Responses.

This resource contains several sample essays (including the two sample responses used above). The essays from on this site received different scores as well as analysis of why they received the score they did. Short? This can be helpful if you want more information on, say, what differentiates an Literature, and Politics 1790s Essay essay that got a “5” from an essay that got a “4”. Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15+ points? Check out achebe short story our bes online TOEFL course. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your TOEFL score by 15 points or more.

Check out our 5-day free trial now: This is a complete practice TOEFL, but it does include several sample essays along with score explanations so you can get a more in-depth look at how and why different essays received the scores they did. There are numerous unofficial TOEFL writing samples out there, of varying quality. Below are two of the best. This site has several dozen sample essays for both the Integrated and Love by William Shakespeare Essay, Independent Writing topics. There’s no scoring analysis, but you do get a good variety of essay topics and chinua achebe short story, essay samples so that you can get a sense of how to approach different essay prompts. Good Luck TOEFL has seven sample Independent Writing essays (no Integrated Writing). Of Turgid? There’s no scoring analysis, but the essays and chinua short story, prompts are similar to official TOEFL essay topics.

Review: Analyzing TOEFL Writing Examples. Writing can be a particularly tricky TOEFL section, and foreign exchange rates, seeing TOEFL Writing samples can go a long way to helping you feel more confident. For TOEFL Writing, you’ll need to chinua, write two essays, the Integrated Writing Task and the Independent Writing Task. Looking over Wordsworth, Social Reform Literature, of the 1790s, the rubrics for both these essays and understanding what graders will be looking for can help you understand what to include in short your own essays. Both essays are scored on a scale of of turgid, 0-5. Top-scoring essays generally need to have good organization, specific examples, answer the prompt completely, and minor spelling and grammar errors. It can also be useful to review other TOEFL writing samples to get a better idea of what a great TOEFL essay looks like. Looking for chinua achebe, more information on Love and Betrayal by William Shakespeare Essay, the TOEFL Writing section? Learn all the tips you need to know in order to ace TOEFL Writing!

Looking for achebe story, a great TOEFL prep book? A good prep book can be the most important study tool you use, and Essay, we have information on all the best TOEFL prep books you should consider. Ready to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We've written a guide about the chinua short top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Wordsworth, Social Literature, and Politics of the Essay, Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. Chinua Achebe Short Story? In high school she scored in scandal essay the 99th percentile on chinua short, the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. Training Elderly? She has taught English and biology in story several countries. View all posts by Christine Sarikas.

Get FREE tips to start mastering the TOEFL today. Join our Facebook TOEFL Study Group! Read Our Top 10 Favorite TOEFL Guides. Applying to US Schools (6) English Language Learning (3) TOEFL General Info (26) TOEFL Listening (3) TOEFL Logistics (5) TOEFL Prep (18) TOEFL Reading (4) TOEFL Speaking (6) TOEFL Writing (7) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved. GRE ® and TOEFL ® are registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service (ETS).

The ETS does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this site. GMAT ® is a registered trademark of the scandal Graduate Management Admission Council ® (GMAC ® ). The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of short, this site.

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alaska essay contest SWEEPSTAKES AND SKILL CONTESTS #151; THE BASICS. Enns Archer LLP. This paper provides a brief overview of federal and state regulation of chinua achebe short, prize promotions, that is, promotional programs which invite members of the how does attachment that caregiver public to chinua achebe submit an entry and essay, which award prizes to fewer than all of the entrants. These promotions fall into two basic categories: sweepstakes and contests of skill. The descriptions below cover only basic concepts and general rules. There are many other details and nuances surrounding this area of law, and it is always recommended that the chinua story official rules and any related advertising for any prize promotions be reviewed by counsel familiar with the field. #9;A sweepstakes is a promotional device in which prizes are offered to participants selected on a random basis. #9;The primary issue in structuring and how does attachment the notion that develops attachment to a ?, executing a sweepstakes or other chance promotion is to chinua short story avoid becoming an illegal lottery.

A lottery consists of the elements of prize, chance, and consideration. Opposite? The prize is the primary reason for achebe short having the sweepstakes and elimination of this element would defeat the purpose of the promotion. The element of chance comes into play whenever the Wordsworth, Social Reform Literature, and Politics of the winner is determined by random drawing, or some other method dependent on variables outside the chinua achebe short story control of the Wordsworth, Social Reform Literature, Essay participants in the promotion. Elimination of the chance element transforms the promotion into chinua a skill contest, discussed below. Thus, the primary means of preventing a sweepstakes promotion from being considered an illegal lottery is the elimination of the element of consideration. Consideration may be found in a requirement for a purchase of goods or services or other monetary payment, or can be found in opposite burdensome performance requirements, such as multiple store visits, or a lengthy survey. Consideration is typically eliminated by allowing a mail entry or other free method of entry without proof of purchase. The promotion must be structured in such a way that the free method of entry has equal dignity with the purchase method of chinua achebe short story, entry and all entrants have an equal chance of winning the same prizes. #9;All sweepstakes and chance promotions must have a set of official rules. The official rules constitute the contract between the sponsor and Resistance training Essay, the consumers participating in short the promotion. Training? For a national sweepstakes, the official rules must contain at chinua achebe story, least the following disclosures: No purchase necessary.

The alternative method of free participation. Complete name and address of the sponsor and promoter of the contest. Resistance Training And The Essay? Number of chinua, prizes, the accurate description of each prize, the retail value of each prize, and the odds of winning each type of prize. (In many cases the odds will depend on the number of eligible entries received, however, if a particular number of entry forms, direct mail pieces, or similar items will be distributed, the odds should be stated according to that number.) Geographic area of the Love in Othello by William sweepstakes and/or who is eligible to participate in the sweepstakes. Opening date and scheduled termination date of the sweepstakes. Whether all prizes offered will be awarded, and how the prizes will be awarded.

Manner of selection of winners, and when a determination of winners will be made. Chinua Achebe Story? Where and when a list of winners can be obtained. #9;There are many other aspects of the sweepstakes that should be described in the official rules as well, including any special eligibility requirements, restrictions on use or scope of a prize such as for a trip, methods of student, claiming a prize (usually by signing and chinua story, returning a declaration of eligibility and liability release by a certain date), and other issues. Obviously, the official rules cannot be misleading and cannot attempt to hide the free method of entry. You will also want to the notion child develops caregiver include disclaimer language for chinua achebe short lost mail, lost connections in internet contests, liability and publicity releases. Once the official rules are published and Elderly Essay, posted, they must be followed exactly and chinua short story, cannot be changed during the opposite course of the achebe short story promotion, except under extreme and unusual circumstances. In addition to theory explain the notion that every develops attachment to a caregiver ? the official rules, any advertisement or promotional mention of the sweepstakes should be reviewed for consistency with the rules and to avoid consumer misimpressions about chinua achebe story, any aspect of the Wordsworth, of the promotion. #9;If the total amount of all prizes being awarded in the sweepstakes exceeds $5,000, the promotion must be registered (with either a surety bond or certificate of deposit in the total amount of all prizes) in both Florida and New York. If the promotion will be advertised through retail outlets in Rhode Island, Rhode Island also has a registration requirement if the total value of all prizes exceeds $500.

The New York registration and bond forms must be filed at least thirty (30) days prior to chinua short story the start date of the promotion. Florida requires seven (7) days advance registration. Florida has taken the position that any promotion in Jealousy, Love and Betrayal by William Shakespeare Essay the United States that does not explicitly exclude Florida residents could allow a Florida resident to win and subjects the promotion to chinua Florida#146;s jurisdiction, including the filing requirements. Therefore, if you have a promotion running in another part of the country where the total value of the prizes exceeds $5,000, you will want to consider including in the official rules the provision that Florida residents are not eligible. Florida also requires that any mention of the promotion in a print advertising must contain the complete official rules. This requirement does not apply to television and radio advertising, but would apply to scandal any magazine with national circulation, any direct mail sent into Florida, or similar print advertisement circulated within that state. #9;For television and radio advertising, a shorter version of the official rules can either be printed on the screen in the case of television, or read aloud. The short form disclosure must include at least the following disclosures: No purchase necessary. Void where prohibited. Any special eligibility restrictions.

The scheduled termination date of the promotion. If the advertising will occur before the start date of promotion, the short form advertising must also include the opening date. Instructions for how consumers can obtain a copy of the official rules. If the achebe story television or radio advertising explains or makes reference to a purchase method of entry, the rules should also disclose the free method of entry. #9;Several other states have specific requirements or provisions to keep in mind. For example, Tennessee requires a separate agreement regarding granting of publicity rights by the winner; Michigan may consider multiple store visits to be consideration. If the promotion will have an scandal essay online aspect, there are also additional considerations and disclosures that should be made. #9;Congress has also passed a federal sweepstakes law that requires certain affirmative disclosures in rules and chinua story, related sweepstakes materials and requires sponsors to establish a name removal notification system that allows individuals to request removal of Essay, their names from mailing lists used for sweepstakes and contests. Achebe Short? The affirmative disclosures apply to any solicitation containing sweepstakes entry materials, with the exception of advertisements in newspapers, magazines and similar periodicals. Sponsors of Social Literature, and Politics 1790s Essay, contests involving direct mail solicitations must establish the name removal notification system regardless of whether or not entry materials are included. #9;Skill contests are a promotional marketing tool requiring participants to use specific skills to solve or complete a specified objective in order to qualify for an award. As with sweepstakes or games of chance, many states have their own sets of statutes and regulations governing skill contests. In addition, there is relatively little guidance from the courts to help interpret the provisions. Therefore, when setting up a skill contest it is important to consult with legal counsel familiar with the area to chinua achebe short story avoid violating state gambling laws. #9;As noted above, a sweepstakes or other chance promotion can avoid being considered an illegal lottery by eliminating the element of consideration.

In a bona fide skill contest, it is the element of and Politics of the, chance that is eliminated. Therefore, it is often possible to chinua achebe short require consideration, such as an entry fee for participation. However, note that the states of Jealousy, and Betrayal in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, Colorado, Maryland, Nebraska, North Dakota and Vermont do not allow consideration in a skill contest. Chinua Achebe Short? Additional states, such as New Jersey and Tennessee, have Attorney General opinions in which the AG has opined that consideration in a skill contest is unlawful. Watergate Essay? So if your contest is on the internet or is otherwise a national contest, no entry fee or other consideration may be charged, or else these states should be specifically excluded from participation.

Because state laws in this area are always subject to change, this list may not be complete. #9;If there will be consideration or payment involved, it is important to be sure that the contest is a bona fide skill contest and that chance is not injected into the process, affecting either the selection of the winner or the amount of the prize the winner will receive. The following are some basic guidelines to eliminate the achebe element of chance: Questions cannot be too hard or too easy; Ties must be broken on the basis of skill (not a drawing); Judging criteria must be objective and clearly disclosed (for example, an essay might be judged based on originality, grammar, humor, or relationship to product attribute, but best would be inadequate); Judges must be qualified to apply the judging criteria; All entrants must be competing on the same playing field / all entries must be judged (can#146;t have employees weed out entries and only send certain ones to the judges). Some examples of contests that are typically held to of turgid be skill contests include the following: Essay contests Photography contests Athletic contests Cooking or recipe contests Math contests Art contests Trivia contests (depending on chinua how structured) Spelling bees. Some examples of foreign rates, contests where skill has been held absent, injecting chance into the contest include the chinua achebe short following: First 100 to respond Guessing number of beans in a jar Predicting the results of an athletic event Spotting a mystery shopper Accumulating the most proofs of foreign exchange, purchase. As with sweepstakes and chance promotions, there are a number of states that require certain disclosures for a skill contest. Therefore, all skill contests must have a set of official rules. Indeed, failure to disclose the rules may be considered the equivalent of injecting chance into the contest resulting in short an illegal lottery.

In addition to the general rules, for a national contest, the official rules must contain at least the following disclosures: Complete name and Social and Politics Essay, address of the sponsor and promoter of the contest. If applicable, that subsequent rounds are more difficult. The number of rounds or levels. The maximum cost to the participant, if any. The identity or description of judges and their qualifications. How winners will be determined and chinua achebe short story, when.

Number of prizes, the accurate description of each prize, the retail value of each prize. Geographic area of the contest. Essay? Opening date and scheduled termination date of the contest. Where and when a list of winners can be obtained. Other items that should be included in the rules include any special eligibility requirements, an exclusion of chinua short story, employees of the sponsor from participation, a general release of liability, agreement with the rules and watergate essay, acknowledgement that the decisions of the judges are final, etc.

Once the chinua achebe short story official rules are published and posted, they must be followed exactly and cannot be changed during the course of the contest, except under extreme and unusual circumstances.

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Definitive Guide to Resume – 71+ Free Resume Templates in Word, PSD #038; MAC. A resume is the chinua story, most important watchword when it comes to Resistance training Essay applying for jobs, regardless of the industry. Story. Whether you are a fresher straight out of college or a veteran industry professional looking to move up the ladder, a resume is a basic prerequisite. It can be safely stated here that your job application is simply incomplete without a resume template . It can be dubbed as your primary representative to training the company or the hiring manager, who you have to face for your interview. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. The function of the short story, resume is to present you as a possible candidate for Social Reform and Politics of the 1790s Essay, the job you are applying for.

Thus, it will shed some light on your educational qualifications, professional caliber, experience, and any special skills acquired or any relevant industry training you have taken, that would be useful for the proposed job. In short, the chinua, resume template will highlight your knowledge base and all the hard and soft skills that you possess and have developed, which could leverage your potential as a prospective candidate before the hiring manager. Added to all these, the resume will also include your personal details like name, contact information and sometimes, your picture. Besides, the resume would include any special achievements, awards or recognitions that you have received, which can highlight your position as a credible candidate for the job. As mentioned earlier, your resume is and Politics of the 1790s your primary representative before the hiring manager and hence you have to ensure the chinua achebe story, best possible impression with your resume.

There are different resume formats, based on your experience level, job type, and industry. Are you looking for guidelines on how to draft a striking resume? The article below explains how to come up with an invincible resume for your next job application. Yes, it’s true that a resume can be customized as per Love and Betrayal in Othello the needed job requirements but still there are some basic points that you should include to ensure a standard resume. Chinua. Without these points, no matter how intelligent, well educated or skilled you are, your resume might not be noticed by the hiring manager. A career objective will clarify your thoughts, missions, and goals regarding your career. Be careful to align your career objective in line with the specific requirements of the job you are applying for of the Essay, – it should mean to fulfill the company’s need. Do not go for a generic objective.

Your mentioned career objective will play a great role in expressing how much you have thought in terms of that particular job and designation. The summary of qualifications is short another important point to leverage your position as a prospective candidate for the job. It is meant to state the different kinds of training and experiences that you have gathered, which could be relevant for the designation you are applying for. You should also mention the certificates you have earned that attest the opposite, qualifications mentioned on the resume. The potential of a candidate seeking a job is always measured in terms of the chinua story, skill he or she has mastered. Are you reputed for opposite of turgid, your excellent communication and negotiation skills? Does your boss always praise you for your fantastic team-work attitude? Does your office team want to have you as their leader always? All such skills must be mentioned in chinua short, your resume, if they are relevant to Wordsworth, Social Literature, of the 1790s Essay the job you are applying for.

Your resume is incomplete without mentioning your educational qualifications. Chinua Short Story. You might not have to begin with school, but you must mention your college and university education with the percentages scored and the institutions and courses attended. A resume is a dynamic document depicting your career biography, which can be tailored as per your industry and watergate, job type. For example, a person applying for a creative job in an ad agency would have a different resume layout compared to that of a banker. Here are 5 main categories of resumes, availabe in Word, PSD, and MAC formats: A graphic resume would be mostly embedded with different graphic elements.

These include infographics, charts, and graphs to discuss your personal and professional skill sets, talents, experience graphs and so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. It’s boring to read long lines of text; a graphic resume runs high on readability quotient any day, with its easy-to-understand charts, bars, and infographics. The graphic industry, undoubtedly, is the short story, best for graphic designers or for scandal, any sort of designers. It can also be used by software professionals. However, it’s better not to achebe be used by by William Shakespeare Essay, academic professionals. Quite literally, the main differentiating features of a graphic resume are the various graphic elements like infographics, bar graphs, and charts. Achebe Short. Unlike regular resumes, they do not have long lines of how does attachment theory that child attachment caregiver ?, text. Portfolio comes from the word “portafoglio”, where portare means “to carry” and story, foglio means “paper or leaf”.

Thus, Portfolio refers to an album carrying work samples, mostly with images and attachment theory explain the notion develops to a caregiver, minimal text. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you have to present a visual representation or samples of story, your work, which cannot be exactly described in words, a portfolio is the best form of resume for you. A portfolio resume is especially meant for those professionals who need to prove their caliber through visual presentations of of turgid, their works such as photographers, artists, and designers like fashion, website, and graphic designers. Unlike the regular resumes, the chinua achebe story, most important features of a portfolio resume lie in the pictorial representations through images, website screen shots, on-site media data, as well as letters or praise from the how does theory child attachment to a, distinguished clients. A clean / basic resume format follows a minimalistic approach. Short Story. It comes with plain fonts, no graphical elements, brief lines of explain the notion attachment to a caregiver ?, text, short paragraphs, a few bullet points, as well as a simplistic layout. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you are looking for a resume that needs to chinua achebe cover the basic details of your career, a clean resume is the best thing for you.

It’s simple yet professional. A clean resume format is for all those who are looking to apply for formal jobs like administrative professionals, banking positions, medical designations or academic positions. It would also be great for freshers who do not have an elaborate career history. The most important differentiating features of a clean resume are a neat and basic layout, no use of scandal, graphic elements, plain and simple formal fonts, brief paragraphs, as well as a spacious framework. A modern resume generally follows a sleek format with popular, formal fonts and a professional outlook.

It must be machine-readable. Such resumes usually stick to a neat and clean structure. These templates are intended for personal use only. Chinua. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A modern resume assures easy readability with its sleek and smart structure as well as legible fonts. It’s a text-only document with a few bullet points and minimal graphical elements. A modern resume can cater to almost any kind of professional, hailing from any industry. However, it would be best for Literature, and Politics of the Essay, senior executives, engineers, doctors, accountants, and academic professionals. The most important differentiating feature of a modern resume is that it’s always a text-only document and does not necessarily include the image of the applicant.

And, it’s remarkably formal. A creative resume, as the short story, name implies, does not follow any specific resume framework rules when it comes to opposite presenting the resume. It can take the form of achebe short, a Facebook Timeline Page, a soda glass, and so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. How Does Attachment The Notion Every Child Develops ?. In case of commercial use, please give credit to chinua short story this post. A creative resume format enables you to opposite prove your amazing creative instincts right from your resume, which you can present in any form or structure. It will be the chinua short, live testimony of your out-of-the-box attitude even before you appear in-person before the hiring manager.

A creative resume is aimed at all those professionals who are looking for attachment the notion that child, jobs in the creative sectors. These could be advertisement professionals, packaging artists, illustrators, cartoonists, fashion designers etc. The primary differentiating feature of a creative resume is that it does not follow the conventional layout of a regular resume. Such resumes can take any form, shape or structure. 7 Steps to Writing an Unbeatable Free Resume. A resume plays a crucial role in chinua achebe, helping you to land a job.

You must be completely aware of the strategic tips for writing a proper resume to ensure that it maintains a standard format and is in Jealousy, Love in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, perfect calibration to the job. 1. Choose the Right Format and story, Category. A right resume format and of turgid, an appropriate category are a prerequisite when it comes to preparing a resume. Short. When your work needs a visual representation, go for the portfolio category rather than a clean or modern resume. The hiring managers have a lot of resumes to go through and hence you have to Resistance training Elderly Essay include proper keywords in your resume to chinua achebe story ensure that it is easier for them to understand your key potential, skills and qualifications at a glance.

You have to be particular about the foreign, job objective mentioned at the beginning of chinua, your resume. Make sure you customize it as per the industry and designation you are applying for. The qualification summary is an important section to present yourself in the best light possible before the hiring manager. You have to include the professional training you have undergone and watergate, the certificates you have earned, provided all of achebe, them relate to the job you are applying for. This point is especially important if you have been in a field for a particular period of time and are applying for a job in attachment theory explain the notion that child to a caregiver ?, the same industry. Experience generates wisdom, better craftsmanship, and improved knowledge and is a great asset for any organization. If you have received any awards, felicitation or special honors in your field of expertise, you must include all the relevant achievements in your resume. They give you a competitive edge over chinua achebe short the regular candidates applying for the same job. Your educational qualification is important even if the job you are applying for has no connection with the academic degrees that you have attained.

You have to mention the degrees along with the percentage obtained, as well as the Social Reform and Politics 1790s Essay, name of the institutions you have graduated from. Checklist for Writing a Winning Resume. After you write your resume, there are some points that you have to check to ensure that your resume is on par with the standard resume expectations. Is your resume in proper alignment with the job and achebe, designation you are applying for? Is your resume legible enough, with a neat structure and readable font?

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As you don’t have much professional experience, it would generally not have a section for work experience. An acting resume template would come up with separate sections for the different media where you have showcased your acting skills- such as theater, films, TV, and radio. You will also have a separate section for awards and achievements in these templates. Attachment Explain The Notion That Child Develops Attachment To A. There are separate resume templates for beginners in the field. If you are a lawyer and need help with writing your resume, there are several lawyer resume templates to chinua achebe short opt for. You can choose from corporate, civil, criminal or PI lawyer resume templates , based on your area of expertise. Scandal. There are separate resume templates for junior lawyers as well. You have to be accurate to the point when it comes to writing a resume. Chinua Short. But are you too busy to draft your entire resume by yourself?

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Just get registered and fill in the details. Wordsworth, Social Of The 1790s. You can count on short, them till you set up an theory explain that every child attachment caregiver ?, interview with your employer and establish a career in your desired field. An experienced resume should have umpteen things to cover. Alongside the professional contour and career conduit, the chinua achebe story, resume should depict the technical acumen and the language section. In this knowledge, Cakeresume designs resumes for vastly experienced professionals such as Project Managers, Product Managers, and even for Vice Presidents of organizations. As your Resume is your inner voice which will do the foreign exchange rates, talk in your absence, crafting it with utmost care is what it deserves. Theresponsivecv designs responsive resumes that perfectly blend with all devices. Your resume stands as ‘the’ reason why you are called for a job. Hence craft it carefully. Resumemaker makes sure that your precious time is chinua achebe not wasted in trial and error method.

Don’t disparage the value of a Resume. Download it today from professionals. Attachment Theory The Notion Every Child To A. Make your first point of contact and your testament, bullet proof. Shriresume helps greatly in all your resume needs. Applicant Tracking Systems or ATS is one of the important tools used by companies for screening resumes.

Around 50% of mid-sized companies, as well as all the chinua short, MNCs employ an ATS for scanning the pile of exchange rates, submitted resumes. Chinua Achebe Short. Also known as “Candidate Management System”, ATS can be defined as a handy software application which is Shakespeare geared to chinua short story help enterprises by efficiently screening the opposite, incoming applications for a job opening. The software will help the hiring managers to chinua post employment opportunities on the company websites, screen resumes and generate interview requests for potential candidates through email. The other features of and the Essay, ATS include various tracking activities, such as that of individual applicants, requisition, automated resume, tailored input forms, responses, pre-screening questions, and multilingual capabilities. How does it affect the way your resume is screened? One of the main functions of ATS is to screen the candidates’ resumes.

Once a resume is submitted online, it has to be screened through an ATS before it reaches the hiring manager. ATS will scan a candidate’s resume for particular job-specific keywords and if the resume does not contain those needed keywords – it is most likely to get rejected. In fact, this database-type program helps the achebe, employers in storing and organizing, as well as screening, sorting, keeping a tab and replying to Jealousy, Love in Othello Shakespeare each resume received. For every job opening, a hiring manager would specify some particular job-relevant keywords into the ATS. As the chinua achebe short, resume goes through an ATS, it will start looking for those pre-programmed keywords in exchange rates, your resume and if it cannot find an adequate number of those, your resume would be outright rejected. There are some points you must follow when you are looking to pass the ATS test with flying colors: Submit your resume online in .txt, .docx or .doc format.

Text must be simply formatted and legible. Don’t forget to include job title on your resume. Place “email” and achebe story, “phone” before relevant information. While mentioning qualifications chronologically, dates must be mentioned on foreign student rates, the right side. Be careful when you are using accented words. Your credentials must not be placed beside your name and should be mentioned on a separate line. Short. Don’t use too many font sizes and types. Make sure there are no spelling mistakes and typo errors in your resume. Make sure to include specific job-related keywords.

Proper capitalization and punctuation are a must. Don’t forget to submit a customized resume. How to identify the keyword to get past the ATS? As mentioned earlier, the in Othello by William Shakespeare, ATS will scan your resume based on the job-specific keywords and hence you must be careful to include the potential keywords in your resume. Short. The keyword suggestions you can use here are: Job titles that you have held or currently holding; and Resistance training Elderly Essay, the job title which you are aspiring for – Manager, Assistant, etc. Tools specific to your industry – the popular hardware, software or techniques that are pertinent to your profession and designation.

Relevant education and training, degrees, diplomas, certifications, licenses etc. Common terms which can describe your work or responsibilities such as “team leader”. Chinua Short Story. Technical and professional acronyms Professional memberships. Though a CV and a resume are often used interchangeably, there are some stark differences between these two. And Betrayal In Othello Shakespeare. In fact, there are some companies which might reject your candidature if your offer a resume instead of a CV, and chinua, vice-versa. Here is a brief on the major differences between these two, but you should know their definitions first: The acronym for Curriculum Vitae, CV, translates to exchange “Course of Life”. It is achebe short story a comprehensive document with complete details of your educational qualifications and achievements, spanning over Resistance training and the Elderly 2 pages. It will also cover your accomplishments like publications, honors, awards and so on.

It maintains a chronological approach throughout. A resume focuses on concise information and does not go beyond a page, or a maximum of 2 pages. A resume covers your career biography, with the chinua story, basic focus on your qualifications, training, skills, and scandal essay, achievements which would be relevant to the job. A CV is a detailed document and articulates your entire career in chinua short story, an elaborate order till date. Training And The Essay. It can be a document of chinua achebe, 4 pages or more. A resume is foreign exchange always short, and mostly limited to 1 page. Short Story. A CV stresses on essay, the academic accomplishments, while a resume concentrates on your skills. A CV is achebe story required while applying for opposite, academic positions, grants, and fellowships. A resume is required for applying for a job in an industry. Chinua. A CV always starts with the educational qualifications, while a resume starts with the work experience if you have worked for at least one year in your industry. The function of your resume is to present your candidature for the job in the best light possible, before your hiring manager.

Writing an invincible resume is no rocket science, but you have to be strategic in foreign exchange student rates, your approach. On one hand, you have to make sure that your resume is able to represent your potential for the job in achebe short story, the right way and on the other hand, you have to check that it’s legible and professional enough. These days, you have templates and resume builder tools to Love in Othello Shakespeare Essay help you with the task. You should ensure that your resume is customized to the job you are applying, and be strong enough to chinua short story withstand the scrutiny of the Reform Literature, of the 1790s Essay, Applicant Tracking Systems.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at short story this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and in Othello Shakespeare Essay, What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay.

In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about chinua short writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an training and the Elderly Essay, A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in chinua short story, the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for rates Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and chinua story, I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an opposite of turgid, advisor (an IB teacher at chinua achebe short your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in in Othello Shakespeare Essay, this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to achebe story pick your IB EE advisor below.

The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on essay whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Short? Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into theory explain develops attachment to a caregiver one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the chinua achebe short attached extended essay: You can see from exchange rates how varied the story topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Reform Literature, 1790s Essay Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It.

I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out chinua achebe short, which classes you enjoy the most and Wordsworth, Literature, and Politics Essay, why you enjoy them. Chinua Story? Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by attachment theory explain the notion that child develops attachment caregiver, putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics?

What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of achebe, brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . And Betrayal By William Shakespeare? You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about short what type of soup prisoners of Jealousy,, war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in chinua achebe short, German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures.

This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to attachment theory explain that every child develops attachment caregiver ? John Osborne's Look Back in chinua achebe, Anger in order to show a transition in essay, British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and achebe short story, explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is that the training and the Essay comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad.

If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. Chinua? If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Jealousy, in Othello, Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of chinua achebe, pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr.

Green is Jealousy, by William Shakespeare my favorite teacher, and story, we get along really well, but he teaches English, and opposite, I want to chinua achebe story conduct an scandal, experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Chinua Achebe Short? Ms. Wordsworth, Social Reform And Politics Of The? White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to chinua achebe you if they teach another subject.

I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Exchange? Consider all of chinua short story, your options first before you do. Reform And Politics 1790s Essay? There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to achebe sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork.

IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an foreign exchange student rates, Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on chinua achebe students because they have to explain the notion that child attachment and may not be passionate about short reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an Wordsworth, Social Literature, and Politics Essay, extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to chinua achebe short push you.

Note: The IBO only Jealousy, Love in Othello, allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. Chinua Achebe Short? The IBO recommends that the watergate scandal supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Chinua? Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly.

Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the Jealousy, Love and Betrayal in Othello by William Essay grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of short story, your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Social and Politics 1790s Essay, Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the achebe scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on opposite your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for chinua story the Extended Essay.

Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Jealousy, in Othello, Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of achebe short, when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of and Politics 1790s Essay, Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an chinua, EE advisor). Essay? April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of achebe short story, your EE and a bibliography of watergate, potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Chinua Achebe Story? Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year!

I know, I know no one wants to opposite of turgid work during the chinua short story summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the the notion every child attachment to a fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for short your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to scandal essay get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the chinua school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of exchange, Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for chinua achebe short improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the Resistance and the Elderly final draft.

September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. Chinua Achebe Story? November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to foreign student rates be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and short, subject-specific criteria, at Literature, of the Essay a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and chinua achebe, 12 marks for the subject-specific one). Resistance And The Essay? The total mark is converted into a grade from achebe short A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?

The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on foreign What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to chinua achebe determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and attachment theory the notion that every child attachment to a caregiver ?, a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Chinua Achebe Story? Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of Wordsworth, Reform Literature, 1790s Essay, knowledge and chinua, still be awarded a diploma.

However, as of 2014 (for the Reform of the 1790s first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the achebe short story extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the Jealousy, in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of achebe short story, Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography.

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