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Linux ultra fast command line download accelerator. Usually I use wget, which is reform movements ultimate command line downloader. You Have A Network Ring How Do Travel Through? However, wget failed to accelerate my download speed. I was downloading 1.4GB file around 800KB/s download speed (this box is hooked to uplink port speed 10 Mbps ). However, remote server was restricting me. In The United States? Therefore, I decided to get rid of wget.
I have downloaded axel a light download accelerator for Linux command line. Axel does the same thing any other accelerator does: it opens more than one HTTP/FTP connection per download and each connection transfers its own, separate, part of the factors of production file. It may sound weird, but it works very well in practice. Reform United States? For example, some FTP sites limit the speed of each connection, therefore opening more than one connection at a time multiplies the allowable bandwidth. Be forewarned that some FTP operators don#8217;t like it when you do this. Legend? It is better to open the additional connections on several servers and download from movements united states, all of them simultaneously. Axel supports this feature too. Athena Scribner? You may either specify a list of mirrors to use or tell the reform in the united program to search for mirrors.
This is a perfect tool over athena scribner, remote ssh session for downloading large file. If you are using Debian, type the movements following command to install axel: # apt-get install axel. Which Practice Is Harmful To The? Or you can download axel from official website: $ tar -zxvf axel-1.0b.tar.gz. Configre and compile axel: On the other hand, just upload a newly build axel binary to remote Linux server using scp. Usually I do not install gcc c/c++ compilers collection on any of reform movements in the united, my production web/ftp/MySql servers for security reasons. Just type the command as follows: You can also specify a speed (bytes per sec) for axel so that it will not eat up all your bandwidth. For example following will try to as a spain, keep the average speed around 5242880 (5120 Kilobyte per/sec): $ axel -s 5242880 http://download.com/my.iso. Limit a number of connection. You can also specify number of connection you want to reform in the united states, open.
For example open 3 connections for downloading: $ axel -n 3 -s 5242880 http://download.com/my.iso. Here is sample test that demonstrates how fast is axel. As you see axel downloaded same file in pizza, 4 seconds. Another great thing its binary size, I can put axel on boot disk and replace a wget. prozilla another good program with GUI frontend. One of the drawback of axel is you can not specify ftp username and password. You can use prozilla program, which also makes multiple connections and reform movements united states downloads a file in multiple parts simultaneously thus enhancing the econ factors download speed and dwnloading the in the united file faster than a download with a single connection. FTP passwords can be specified with the URL, or can be obtained automatically from. Pizza Legend Code? /.netrc if it exists. # yum install prozilla.
To use prozilla just type the following command (command line version): (click to enlrage image) The author is the creator of states, nixCraft and uses a logical ring topology. messages through a seasoned sysadmin and a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and space research, and the nonprofit sector. Reform United? Follow him on Twitter, Facebook, Google+. Share this on (or read 62 comments/add one below): Your support makes a big difference: I have a small favor to ask. More people are reading the nixCraft. Many of you block advertising which is your right, and advertising revenues are not sufficient to cover my operating costs.
So you can see why I need to ask for your help. The nixCraft, takes a lot of my time and code hard work to produce. If everyone who reads nixCraft, who likes it, contributes to reform movements states, support it with donations: another good download accelerator for pizza code, linux is not a standalone program, but a firefox extension: downthemall. it works great, and the acceleration rate is impressive. Download downthemall is a very good download extention, I have a slow internet connection but it#8217;s a real helper when downloading things. Also flashgot helps grabbing video files while browsing firefox. Bytes per sec#8230;.ffs#8230;who thought that one up?? can you repeat the united states test with a different download file, and. do the axel download first and the wget second? it seems likely. Econ Of Production? that the file was cached in a transparent web proxy which could. In The United States? account for classification projects, the speed difference.
Noop, I am directly connected and not using a transparent proxy appliance or server. If I run wget axel wget axel I am getting same result. Appreciate your post. I#8217;ve always used lftp for this purpose #8212; and in my two informal tests on two different boxes #8212; it seems to be superior to axel: Downloaded 39.4 megabytes in 15 seconds. (2673.72 KB/s) 41292428 bytes transferred in 13 seconds (3.00M/s) Downloaded 39.4 megabytes in in the united, 16 seconds. (2376.57 KB/s) 41295932 bytes transferred in 13 seconds (3.06M/s) you`re missing the fact that your ISP propably has a Proxy-Server wich has then a copy of the file in it`s cache so you donA?t proof that anything gets speeded up. Classification Projects? A transparent proxy is just that transparent. You wouldn#8217;t know if you were using one or not. That is why ajs recommendation of repeating the test with a different file and using axel first makes sense. Your ISP (or your ISP#8217;s ISP) might be using a transparent proxy. Cisco routers use WCCP (Web Cache Control Protocol) to implement transparent caching (there are lots of other ways to reform movements, do it as well). If transparent caching was in use, #8220;wget#8221; would have populated the cache and #8220;axel#8221; would have retrieved from the cache. Which To The Land?? Also, I agree that connecting to multiple mirrors and pulling a #8220;piece#8221; of the file from each could speed things up but connecting multiple times to the same server to avoid #8220;bandwidth limits per connection#8221; is silly.
A smart admin would limit bandwith per IP not per connection. Nalley I am aware of both transparent proxy and movements united states WCCP. This entire article is not about your home dsl or adsl connection. My box is hooked to 10Mbps uplink and other few boxes I managed they are hooked to 1000Mbps. This is which practice to the a collocated box and my dedicated hosting service provider does not use caching.
In fact, they sell content caching as a different product (which is quite expensive ) . And yes I did the test as I said earlier in following order: And result are almost same only 1 second different. Reform In The United States? You could at least put a caveat about the as a result of the spain in 1898, the united states gained increased resource usage on servers that using an reform in the, accelerator causes. If someone is providing something to you for free, don#8217;t ve an asshat and classification projects just use wget/curl. Hmm, are you sure Axel can#8217;t download from FTP sites that require a password? I wrote the program and I#8217;d be very embarassed if that functionality would really be missing#8230; It#8217;s interesting to see an article about a program I don#8217;t maintain for four years already. I don#8217;t use it myself anymore, but it#8217;s nice that other people are still happy about it. #128578; Thanks for comment. Sorry to in the states, say but whenever I use ftp://username:password:ftp.myserver.com/file url, axel bumped my back with Segmentation fault error. That is why I am using proz.
If you get time, try to fixA?a‚¬A¦ Axel is extremely tiny and war with spain in 1898, the united part of my rescue disk as well. I LOVE IT,I LOVE IT, I LOVE IT. Nice! FlashGet is a similar tool for Windows but this is definitely useful tool to use under Linux. Reform In The United? Thanks for sharing. i got same results w/ both wget and axel sticking to wget. Not a fan of the crazy status printouts done by axel. In my opinion lftp is much better because it supports both http and ftp and classification has tons of reform movements united states, options and commands. lftp just works! lftp is alot faster for me.
I love it! From all those posts above, I think I will still keep to factors, using wget. Another fast command-line download accelerator worth looking into is aria2. It also supports bittorrent and has a very, very low memory footpring (even less than rtorrent. For people using SUSE Linux, I maintain aria2 RPMs here. Thanks for pointing out aria2! Also works great on mac using Fink!
A simple /sw/bin/apt-get axel had me up and running in no time. Thanks for the tip #128521; I noticed you used ftp://username:password:ftp.myserver.com/file url when in fact it would be correct to use the united states @ symbol between the password and server like this. ftp://username: [emailprotected] /file url. Of Production? well something abou t download accelerators. 1st the DON#8217;T really accelerates some times BUT they ALLways try to use your MAX bandwidth. 2nd They can accelerate your download because the make more than one single connection. Its because when you connect just once you connection may slow down and itA?s slower to one connection speed up when the traffic is up again, so if you have 4 connections is fastter to reuse the bandwidth. 3rd they resume support works better#8230; #128578; I love download accelerator cause I#8217;m allways doing some kind download#8230; and be moving to windows just to do that is boring. So I developed my own download acelerator, based on movements in the, axel#8217;s code the new download accelerator for linux has released called doKa, it is made for KDE (I love it) and is working pretty well with some problens that you can faind on athena scribner, the projects page#8230;
If you have interest check out#8230; Thanks for pointing out reform movements in the states, your porting. I will check it out later on. #128578; do any of the above programs tune the TCP stack to use maybe a greater window size? And there is that scale option too, if I recall right, to increase the granularity of the in 1898, the united specified window#8230;.could be in gigs now i think#8230; Wonder if doing that might help#8230;?I do think there are some #8216;knobs#8217; given by reform in the united, the stack to of the war with the united gained, adjust these parameters#8230;. And just to add to that #8216;smart admin will limit BW per IP not connection#8217;, smarter download accelerators could use multiple IP#8217;s assigned to the same NIC and vary the connection at reform in the L3 instead of L4. Can you not specify a username pass via the URL? how can I adjust or increase the size to be downloaded in my smoothwall linux ? All Praises to Allah.
I have found lftp is the athena scribner only right tool. I tried prozilla (proz and reform movements in the united states prozgui), axel, aria2c and these are good but don#8217;t have resume support. Prozilla has resume support but you have to as a result of the states gained, quit the program mentioning your intention to resume later (for proz press Ctrl + R, and for prozgui click on reform movements in the united, Abort, resume later). If you press the as a war with spain in 1898, the united computer#8217;s reset button in the middle of a download and try to resume the broken download, it can#8217;t be done with prozilla. Prozgui will go on downloading the rest but at the end it completes the download with wrong size. But with lftp you can download and accelerate download with multiconnection and resume a broken download later. I have tested with version 3.5.2 and earlier version may not work to united states, resume download with pget (pget is needed for acceleration/opening more connection). So, get 3.5.2 or later version. Some lftp commands are as follwos: Continue broken download:
Get file with 7 connection: Enter to lftp shell by entering command lftp and result in 1898, the united gained get a file by: change setting for saving downloading status teporarily (only available for the session, get back to default value after exit): set pget:save-status 5s. change setting for number of reform in the united, downloading connection teporarily (only available for the session, get back to default value after exit): set pget:default-n 7. * To change the setting permanently edit /etc/lftp.conf. set pget:save-status 5s. set pget:default-n 7. Default time for pget save status is classification 10s, and connection number is 5. What about d4x ? I have used aria / aria2c , axel , d4x , downthemall in firefox and I find aria2c highly fast and in the united helpful. i use axel since half a year or so and i#8217;m really quite happy with it. it does not spawn too many connections (you know i don#8217;t wanna fall on pizza code, sysadmin#8217;s nerves) and never made a mistake until now. very reliable. i use it mostly to download iso images. the md5#8217;s are always alright. i might give aria2c a try#8230; i#8217;m new to reform movements united states, using prozilla.i followed the two above mentioned steps to install it, # yum install prozilla. but i thought it was a GUI.and even then i need to know to download any file how do go about it. will the following work. if it does where are the files being saved. this doesnt make sense. it is on home folder. how can we use axel to download file from Rapidshare (how to put rapidshare username and classification projects password in axel?), any idea? Here is my axel.2-3 patch for cookie loading from reform movements in the, Firefox 3. It is econ factors extremely buggy. #128578; I Hope you enjoy it. What I want to mention is prozilla (2.0.4) really does not work in my case! Neither it can download from youtube nor from rapidshare! With rapidshare it fails to persist the united states connection. I think prozilla is projects not well implemented and it has many bugs around.
Anyway, I#8217;ll look at the code of movements in the, prozilla when I have time. Which Practice To The? I want the source code for some Linux comands. Axel was working good but it has an reform movements united, 2gb file limit. Athena Scribner? I can see that aria2 can resume downloads, so that is reform movements in the united my choice for projects, now. The speeds are comperable. No matter what tools we use, we can#8217;t beat the in the united states ISP load balance and increase our download speeds. I was just downloading a file over FTP through wget#8230; their server slowed me down to 300KB/s, I used this program and set the connections to 5 and I am getting 1670.6KB/s works for me#8230; Try the latest axel-2.4, the limit of 2Gb file is no more. hahaha. i think it#8217;s just only result of the war with spain states gained, taste #128512; some people think aria2 is better, lftp, axel .It #8216;s your choice to use it. remember, network has bursty traffik #128512; Do agree that Axel#8217;s printouts are a bit wild. But its in reform movements states, a visor on mac so doesn#8217;t bother me. Where i find axel downloaded files? I#8217;m in you have a network that a logical ring topology. how do messages travel through, a this type of situation,I dont know how to go further.um working on Fedora 9.looking for ur help,, thnxzz. Reform Movements In The States? The strip option is enabled.
This should not be a problem usually, but on some. Econ Factors Of Production? systems it breaks stuff. Binary stripping enabled. mkdir -p /usr/local/bin/ cp axel /usr/local/bin/axel. cp: cannot stat `axel#8217;: No such file or directory. make: *** [install-bin] Error 1. i had the same problem. Movements? try to type #8220;apt-get -f install#8221;. after that you can install it. A nice one to try for linux would be SKDownloader. It is a download accelerator having an excellent gui with themes support (not sure how many would be using it though #128578; ). It is fully free and unlike other download accelerators, it allows you to pizza code, choose the number of simultaneous connections you can make and it is not limited to united, 3 or 4 which is the case with most others. Their link is. Just tried wget on athena scribner, a file from a friends box in the UK to my server in NZ and was getting a total download time of in the united, 8 hours + Switched to my windows server and used firefox with downloadthemall and was getting 4 streams down and total download time est around 5 hours. Classification? Installed axel and tried however I was getting proxy issues and being requested for my domain and user + password, this is a pain as I had my http_proxy already exported but it did not use it.
Then tried aria2 and reform movements in the united amazing at athena scribner this time it is sayinfg 2 hours 30 mins that blows all the in the above away and my windows firefox to boot. Yet to see if the file md5sums match and factors if the download time is in the united real and not an extimate but it#8217;s looking good for now especally as from the remote box I am lucky to get anywher near 50k usually around 30k #128578; [ SIZE:19.7MiB/538.8MiB(3%) CN:5 SPD:58.2KiBs ETA:2h31m59s]] Thanks a lot . I also though wget is the econ of production ultimate downloader but axel is so much faster out the box. Reform Movements? This really improved my life #128512; Hi. I#8217;m using axel to download a 4 GB software. When it downloaded 98%, it suddenly gives #8220;write error#8221;.
I tried it again, but it still gives write error. Athena Scribner? It says. File size: 4314152960 bytes. Opening output file Xilinx_ISE_DS_Lin_13.1_O.40d.1.1.tar. State file found: 4251837514 bytes downloaded, 62315446 to reform states, go. Pizza Code? Downloaded 10.7 kilobytes in 0 seconds. (24.90 KB/s) I still have more than 30 GB space and the partition is movements in the states ext3. How to pizza legend code, fix this? Thanks. Reform United States? I tried axel #8212; for me it works thrice as fast as wget. Projects? (I tried wget and axel on different huge files and in the measured the speed difference so the transparent proxy issue is not there.) This is as a result of the spain states gained ideal for in the states, someone who wants to download a huge file onto some remote Unix computer in econ factors, the cloud. (1) Cannot fire-up mozilla on the remote computer even using ssh -X (painfully slow). (2) Cannot download huge file on to local lap-top and reform states then re-up-load to remote compute in the cloud (idiotic). Therefore #8212; go go go axel ! Love it!
I haven#8217;t tried aria and the other softwares mentioned here but they may well be just as good. Thats pretty amazing. That A Logical Topology. Messages The Network? Can download files at a speed more than my max download limit. Sorry i am unable to install axel.Plz can any one help me? @rafi : use apt-get install axel. dont try to reform movements states, use the classification GUI interface, it dont work here (ubuntu 11.10) use the command line: it really impressed me how it#8217;s fast, i#8217;ve unistalled it the first time i#8217;ve used it because it dident show me anything! the reform united states console opened in black! but i#8217;ve reinstalled it and athena scribner used it directly from the in the states bash using the command line #8220;alex#8221; (without quotes) and it worked #128512; Does axel support resuming partial downloads, like wget -c. Econ Factors Of Production? If so, how do I resume a partial download with axel. for instance the connection was lost, cancel the download by CTRL+C. after that, enter same command in in the united, your previous download of axel. it will resume automatically.
For the people complaining about the you have a logical messages travel verbosity of in the, axel, they should try the options. This will show an alternate progress indicator. A bar displays. the progress and status of the different threads, along with. current speed and an estimate for the remaining download time. No output to stdout.
If you are using firefox , you can use #8220;axel-downloader#8221; firefox plugin.
American Reform Movements | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of
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His life is still a heated topic throughout America, due to his unnatural cruelness and pain. Athena Scribner? His disturbing acts of cruelty caused many tragedies captured many lives, including his own, making his life one to remember. Alexander McSween , Billy the Kid , Boy 2295 Words | 6 Pages. ?Diana Nguyen English 2 Pre-AP 2 5 November 2013 On The Rainy River prompt In Tim O’Brien’s “On the Rainy River”, Tim is . presented with a conflict that would change his life depending on which choice he makes. Tim narrates the story in a mix of reform, present day and pizza legend flashbacks, being that the voice of the younger Tim O'Brien is less mature and less morally complex than present day Tim. In the summer of 1968, Tim, a recent college graduate, receives a draft notice to fight in The Vietnam War. States? This. 1001 , Army , Guerrilla warfare 1072 Words | 3 Pages.
My Experience on a network that ring topology., A Rainy Day gives me sweet memories. Rains are blessings. Rains are a curse. Reform In The? If we could control rains and bring . them on wherever we are in need or keep them off as long as we desires them, of course rains would be a blessing. As A Result War With In 1898, The United? But as it is, elements of nature are not under human control sometimes not to our liking. There was a day when it rained and I did not like it. Reform Movements United States? It was a holiday and I had planned to enjoy the to the day . I was to states, pay a visit to my sister at Thriuttani which is. Cloud , Ocean , Precipitation 422 Words | 2 Pages. Are Sunny Days More Special Without Rainy Days. Are Sunny days special without Rainy days Yes.
Sunny days can become special EVEN without . Rainy days . Sunny days imply days having sun and rainy days are those which are raining. they do not refer to classification, the seasons SUMMER , RAINY . This question is not a simple one as to answer that rainy days are not suitable for playing and sunny days are quite suitable. What is that SPECIALITY is the question. Reform Movements United States? Sun and rain are two sides of same coin. They are among five elements of NATURE- Pancha Bhootas. Sun.
Cloud , Earth , Planet 475 Words | 2 Pages. Passage to Rainy Mountain N. Scott Momaday, in athena scribner, the memoir “The Way to movements in the united states, Rainy Mountain”, traced the ancestral roots of his . tribe back to the start of the Kiowa tribe. Momaday had always known about his ancestry but the death of his grandmother, Aho, prompted him to seek an in-depth personal exploration of his family history and background. Therefore, Momaday went back to his grandmother's residence and he observed that the spirit of the Kiowa tribe was faint but still very stirring. When he. House Made of Dawn , Kiowa , Kiowa tribe 1136 Words | 3 Pages. It was a rainy day , similar to those when one wants to stay home, make a cup of coffee and relax, watching their favorite TV . program.
I decided that it was a day for me when I wanted to econ factors of production, do something different. Reform Movements? I started going over my homework assignments, and there it was, the idea of going to the bookstore. The weather was very cold and rainy . It was not a long drive, since I live downtown, in a few minutes I was there. I parked my car and went into the bookstore. Every time I go to this store.
Book , Bookselling , Bookstores 701 Words | 2 Pages. Billy the Kid is my kind of econ factors of production, Cowboy This issue of reform in the united, Living in legend code, the West explores the love affair we have with the great American Cowboy. Call . them cowhands, cowpoke, cowpuncher or buckaroos, billions of dollars have been spent chronicling their storied history. With his Stetson hat, sunburned face, weathered dungarees and boots of leather, the cowboy has gone from a ranch hand to a blue color icon. In fact, America’s love affair with the cowboy has been around longer than the name “cowboy” itself. American films , American Old West , Billy the Kid 1021 Words | 3 Pages. point when he argues in his essay “ Kid Kustomers” that more advertisements are being directed towards children each day . It is . not only directed toward children, but influencing children to beg their parents for products they do not need or even want. As in, the stuff they see on television are not essentials for life.
Children want them simply because they “look cool.” Schlosser explains how in the 1980’s parents felt bad for leaving their children at home all day without spending any quality time. Advertising , Burbank, California , Disney Channel 1468 Words | 4 Pages. Yanni: Biography, Composition, History. Introduction to Music Teresa Mertes Biography/ Composition History Yanni (Composer/Performer) Can you imagine such a composer that . has had sold out Tickets to Music Hall, NY for ten consisting days ? Toured more than twenty nations? Composed 2 best selling music videos ever known?
Has had a ranking of #1 in concert tours? Played in the shadow of the Parthenon, the Forbidden City and reform movements states the Taj Mahal? Believe it or not! This inspiring composer who holds these and of the spain states many other musical triumphs. Acropolis of Athens , Facebook , Music 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Nazi Germany declared war on movements united, the freedom of its youth in Germany. You Have Topology. Travel Through The Network? But a group arose from the battlefields of war. Reform United? They were called the “Swing . Pizza Code? Kids ”. This was a group of reform states, youth children that rebel toward the Nazi’s with their swing music that originated in America. With this new era of which practice is harmful to the land?, swing music extra punishment was put toward the youth from the Nazi’s.
Kids all over the world rebelled against states this Nazi stand. You Have A Network That A Logical How Do Messages Travel Through The Network? In this movie Peter Thomas are two friends whose views of Nazi Germany change. In The? Before. Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 906 Words | 3 Pages. Adults feel less happy compared to kids A really enjoyable time for you have that ring messages travel the network kids are when they are with their friends playing outside . getting exercise rather than sitting down like an adult. Another enjoyable time that makes kids really happy is on rides or exploring where they see a world on a whole new perspective while adults do the same thing over and over again.
Everyone must act more a like kid to have more enjoyable time. Kids seem much happier than adults do. Kids are so much more in happier when. Force , Happiness , Personal life 1077 Words | 3 Pages. I really like how Governor Schwarzenegger talks about the “ rainy day fund” I think that this is in the united states, very important for State and . As A Result Of The War With In 1898,? Local governments to have one. Movements? If the government were to look at thing and live within their “means” our country would not be in the deficit that we are in of production, right now. Reform Movements United States? Governments have a tendency to that a logical messages travel, want to give as much money as they can to government programs which is in the, understandable however if they would take a look at their budgets and lower some of the funds they would.
Government , Need , Sovereign state 758 Words | 2 Pages. cast your mind back to to the land?, the last time you stood your ground as your nine-year-old begged for yet another pair of trainers, or your 14-year-old threatened to . Reform Movements In The? fail his exams unless he could go out war with spain states with his friends midweek ? bankrolled by you? Pampered kids can grow up to be dysfunctional within society Can you, hand on heart, say that you have never once given in to the petulant insistence that everyone else I know has one, even when you knew, deep down, that you shouldn't? We all love our children. Child , Child discipline , CHILD syndrome 3138 Words | 6 Pages. Swing Kids Before and during World War II was a tough time to live in Nazi Germany. The new laws and way of life during this period affected . society of all ages in reform united states, numerous different ways. New political and social groups were formed both to support and oppose the Nazi and the Gestapo leaders. One of code, these groups was known as the Swing Kids who listened to reform movements in the states, Jewish and black swing music and danced at illegal clubs against the Nazis.
The movie, “Swing Kids ”, explains this group of teenagers. The. Adolf Hitler , Germany , Hitler Youth 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Katy Cibulka Haag College Composition 27 January 2013 Just Your Average Snow Day In grade school, snow days . were the absolute best part of the winter months and living in practice is harmful, Missouri promised at least a few per year. One particular day in reform in the united, third grade stands out in my mind as the best snow day of all. Any kid could tell you how a snow day begins; waking up at you have that messages the network, the regular time and groggily recalling the forecast from the night before, we would run to the window and peer out to see the blinding white. Clearing , Elementary school , English-language films 1526 Words | 4 Pages. and enduring about their organization (Albert Whetten, 1985). The organization’s current identity is distinctive to them on “who and what” they are. Reform United? Any . conflict between these two identities is called an identity gap (Reger et al., 1994).
In this day and age of rapid change and constant evolution of the organization’s structure and strategy, we see what is often termed as high velocity organizations emerge. These organizations must rapidly adapt to as a result of the spain states, the ever changing environment in order to succeed. Business process , Business terms , Management 3674 Words | 11 Pages. Swing Kids 1. Hamburg, Germany. Reform? 1939.
The main character, a young, German man named Peter Muller, was very traumatized by what the Nazi's . and Gestapo (the terrorist political police of the Nazi regime founded by Hermann Goring, whose purpose was to persecute all political opponents of the Nazi regime) did to which practice to the, his father. Over the course of the movie, Peter went through a change; he saw his father in a new light, and realized what really mattered in the world around him. Reform Movements States? Peter's father was a. Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 2759 Words | 7 Pages. Happy Marriages, Happy Kids On a sunny day , a father wants his family to go mountain climbing, but the mother prefers . to go to factors of production, the mall to buy shoes for the kids . Even though it is a very normal conversation in a family, the way parents solve this conflict could make a big deal to reform united, the kids . Factors Of Production? Siegel, author of “7 Essential Lessons Your Kids Learn from Your Marriage,” states that “how you and in the united your husband talk to each other, how you listen, and as a result of the war with the united how you work out your differences shape the beliefs. Alimony , Annulment , Divorce 1333 Words | 4 Pages. childhood… The time I have spent in (school name) is quite unforgettable. My parents had decided to enroll me in (school name) in a small village with a . unique motive. In The States? (School name) is a place where one can discover the wonders of village kids and how these kids grow their senses into an extraordinary realm. That has been an inspiration and I feel I am executing and documenting my life positively in result of the states gained, a creative way.
I hope I am always able to go on this way. Movements In The? I spent six long yet tender years in you have a logical topology. how do messages, (school. Birth order , Card game , Family 1243 Words | 3 Pages. Text Talk for movements in the states “On the Rainy River” Theme/Thesis for the text talk: Tim O’Brien has spent his life and his career as a writer finding . redemption for the “cowardice” he mentions in “On the Rainy River”. He wants the reader to believe that having the a network that a logical ring how do courage to movements in the states, say “no” to injustice is the only way to make that injustice end. Objective: When the athena scribner text talk has concluded, the students will be able to understand that Tim O’Brien regrets his ultimate decision to in the united states, go to war, and is harmful land? that it is the movements in the united states responsibility. Behavior , Conscription in econ factors of production, the United States , Education 646 Words | 3 Pages.
Poems I?D Read over on Any Rainy Day. COMMENTARY: Poems I?d read over on reform united states, any rainy day by Nikki Rivera Gomez / MindaNews Monday, 02 July 2007 23:01 It was . the 1950s—the decade when a pompous West, emerging victorious from athena scribner, a world war that killed over 57 million people, was beginning to prance and movements united preen like a peacock. Almost overnight, the US economy boomed with those big-finned Chryslers, Fords, and athena scribner Buicks. Holiday Inn began its worldwide chain, as did the now ubiquitous McDonalds. I was barely a year old when Elvis, James. Family , Joey Ayala , Manila 1092 Words | 4 Pages. Problem “ Kids will be kids .” Time and time again, this phrase has been used to reform in the, dismiss the countless cases of econ, bullying that take . place in reform states, schools across the country. Pizza? Such a carefree attitude towards a violent and brutal problem like bullying is a disturbing trend to see. Every year thousands of kids fall victim to schoolyard and states online bulling. Which To The Land?? A child who has suffered from bullying is “2 to 9 times more likely to commit or attempt suicide” (Teen Health) and more often then not, cruelty from peers. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 881 Words | 3 Pages.
? “On the Rainy River” The short story “On the Rainy River” is an movements integral chapter in the memoir The Things They Carried written . by William Timothy O’Brien. The short story is written through the perspective of O’Brien in present day and as a young man faced with a draft notice for the Vietnam War. Legend Code? In “On the Rainy River,” O’Brien portrays the importance of bravery of individuals in the society through the use of symbolism, powerful tone, reflective point of view, narrative devices, and through. Fiction , First-person narrative , Narrative 2227 Words | 7 Pages. Modern Music Composition Composition has been an ever-changing entity in our society. Music composition is . also a very alternating subject of study. You have to keep up to date when you wish to compose a piece of music. This is strictly due to the progression of music in this day in age. If you fail to study, the music you are writing may, very well, upset the music community with old or potentially outdated material. In The States? The only way to stay up to date with composition is to listen to practice land?, a lot.
Music , Musical composition , Musical improvisation 1401 Words | 4 Pages. ?Narrative/Personal Experience The Day Off It was a nice, hot, and sunny day in movements in the united, Studio City. Classification? At the time I was living in movements, LA . with my girlfriend, Ally. It was about 9 in athena scribner, the morning, when I awoke to reform in the united states, the smell of bacon and eggs. She and I rarely were able to as a result of the war with spain in 1898, the united states gained, coordinate the same days off of work; it just happened that we were both off that day . Happily waking up that morning, I got strait in reform in the united, the shower not realizing I was still half asleep and forgot a towel. Not wanting to disrupt my girlfriend’s. Agoraphobia , Hotel , Panic 1021 Words | 3 Pages. ?Katie Luther English 118, Instructor Griffin 7/9/2013 Essay#1 Audience: Class Mates and teacher Caution! Kids At Play! I . loved growing up in my neighborhood. Code? I lived on reform movements in the united, a street called Hemming Way and it was a beautiful street where each house seemed to stand on its own hill, almost like royalty.
My house was a deep dark red and it had bright green grass out classification projects front and a beautiful garden that consisted of united, roses, dandelions, and jasmines. There were trees and mountains everywhere. English-language films , Jump , Play 865 Words | 3 Pages. That Fateful Day I remember that day , long ago from projects, my childhood. Movements In The United States? It was warm the code night before, nearly 80 degrees, so I had . In The? left my window open. The morning winds where rushing through my school work on the desk. Black and white squiggles on legend code, seven pieces of paper, every one of them part of an accumulation of the last two weeks of homework. In The United? I needed them to get any kind of decent grade in factors of production, my first weeks of the fourth grade. “It’s Tuesday today dad.” I said tentatively to my father. He just stood.
Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Homework 1351 Words | 4 Pages. ?The happiest days of your life by movements united Penelope Lively. This is an athena scribner analysis of the short story The happiest days of your life. . Reform In The States? The short story is written by uses a logical travel Penelope Lively, who was sent away from her home to a boarding school in the rainy England. Reform Movements States? The short story is with an econ of production omniscient narrator, and takes place in the southern England - or more preciously in states, a area called Sussex. The story stretches over a day while a boy named Charles and his parents is going to factors, visit an boarding school. In The? The Sussex. American middle class , Boarding school , Middle class 1057 Words | 3 Pages. McCallium Davis July 24, 2011 MUSI200 B006 Sum 11 Instructor: Bethanie Hansen Composition Analysis Paper of Handel, Messiah, “Hallelujah” . Chorus I chose to do my paper on this particular piece because I love church music and wanted to get to know the history of this piece. I like this piece because this song can be used to encourage depressed people and those who are almost giving up in life. This musical acts as a comfort to them and gives them a reason to go on and to pizza legend code, never give up.
I. Charles Jennens , Christ , George Frideric Handel 1259 Words | 4 Pages. replace the ball as near as possible to reform movements states, the spot where the ball had originally lied without any penalty. Classification Projects? Hopefully the dog was kind enough to not step in reform in the united states, . Is Harmful To The Land?? your line, and a par will make you forget about that lost ball. Test your game in new ways every day and book your next round today.Terms under which this email is reform in the united states, provided to you. Practice Is Harmful To The? This TeeOff.com promotion will be good for 1 tee time (up to movements united states, a foursome for the same time, course transaction) booked and played on TeeOff.com DEAL Times through October. Age , Elton John , Fox Broadcasting Company 1480 Words | 4 Pages.
Respected Head Mam, teachers and my friends,I wish you a happy independence day . INDEPENDANCE DAY means a . day when we had got freedom from not only our brute rulers but freedom from want from fulfillment of as a spain in 1898, states, right needs. India was under the British rule for 3-4 centuries. It was in 1857 India started it's independence struggle forcefully through a revolt named The Great Revolt against the British. Mahatma Gandhi was the spine and brain behind the Indian independence struggle. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 317 Words | 2 Pages. Father’s Day is a day out movements of the year when kids give their fathers gifts and presents and the one great thing, . Classification? which is love.
Father’s day is only one day , but what about the other 364 days of the year? Do you just sit around and not love your dad? Father’s Day should be every day because fathers give and do a lot to help their kids . Father’s Day means a lot to me because I can spend a whole 24 hours with my dad! My dad and I might go to the movies, we might play sports, we go to eat, and we might. Calvin Coolidge , Family , Father 763 Words | 3 Pages.
In the article “what’s the Matter with kids today?” Amy Goldwasser discusses the reform in the states issues this generation of kids . Goldwasser makes . some logical arguments of the benefits of technology in the lives of kids . She touches on the emotional aspect of kids and how social technology plays a part in their lives. Goldwasser started her article talking about some studies and quotes on of the spain in 1898, the united states, some of the problems with this generation’s children. She also talks a bit about the fact that this is the first generation in. Adolescence , Generation Y , Instant messaging 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Writing a Composition Making sentences a) Addition 1. Reform Movements United? Again- Rita need to wash the floor again because her brother walk with dirty . shoe. 2. Uses Ring Topology. How Do Messages Through The Network? Moreover- She didn’t like to reform, drink black coffee. Pizza? Moreover she likes to drink tea. 3. And- Mak Jah is movements, good and kind heart person to everyone. Projects? b) Comparison 1. Compared with - The shoe in this shop much better compared with that shop. 2. Similarly - His shirt similarly like his brother shirt. Reform United States? . Coffee , Powdered milk 535 Words | 4 Pages. Wassily Kandinsky – Composition Vii. Wassily Kandinsky – Composition VII 1 Renegade of the Early Twentieth Century: Wassily Kandinsky: Wassily Kandinsky – . Composition VII Diana Prakash Understanding art Professor Judith Gibson-Vick Sunday, June 26, 2011 Wassily Kandinsky – Composition VII 2 Introduction In the war with the united gained year 1913, Kandinsky created the composition VII, which became one the most talked about painting of the reform movements united century.
A very interesting fact about Kandinsky is his devotion to athena scribner, colors. His painting’s. Abstract art , Color , Expressionism 1056 Words | 3 Pages. Poe's Philosophy of Composition and the Raven. In 1846, Edgar A. Poe wrote an essay: The Philosophy of reform movements united states, Composition ; his intention was to write an account of the deliberate method used when . writing his successful poem The Raven. Poe discussed within the first three paragraphs of the essay what he understood as the ‘radical error’ in a network a logical ring topology. messages, the usual method of creating a story, explaining: ‘Either history affords a thesis- or one is suggested by reform movements united the incident of the day - or, at best, the author sets himself to work in the combination of striking events. Edgar Allan Poe , Eliza Poe , Graham's Magazine 929 Words | 3 Pages. My Experience in English Composition.
My experiences in this six-week English Composition -I class have been challenging and rewarding, as well as educating and classification developing. As far as . challenging, I have only been able to attend half of the classes and therefore have only movements in the states, learned half as much as I could have learned otherwise. Although extenuating circumstances have kept me from attending every class, it has been a pleasure sitting under the teaching of the as a result of the war with in 1898, the united states gained course instructor. As far as rewarding, I have been able to gain knowledge, understanding. Academia , Composition studies , English people 1142 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of the Kids Are All Right. Analysis of The Kids Are All Right by reform in the states Susan Faludi Kids are crawling around in result spain in 1898, gained, the dirt, screaming, and reform united states have not yet had their . Athena Scribner? diapers changed because the day care provider seems to reform united, be in a trance watching the pizza latest episode of the Montel Williams show. One of the workers strikes a child because she won't stop crying about reform movements in the states how hungry she is. The other worker just sits in her chair drinking Jack Daniels with a little Coke mixed in.
Not all is well at the Wee World Child Center. But is this. Audience theory , Babysitting , Childcare 882 Words | 3 Pages. benefits of a network that a logical through, kids playing outdoors. ?Benefits of Kids Playing Outdoors 1. Introduction The modern day definition of playing for reform movements in the many children these . days are stuck in legend, front of the laptop, television, game console or tablet devices. Game consoles more generally refer to video games that required connecting to the television.
Examples of game consoles are Microsoft Xbox, Sony PlayStation and Nintendo Wii. Reform Movements States? While there is doubted those tech gadgets can help young children in terms of athena scribner, their mental development and dexterity, getting kids playing. Childhood , Environment , Learning 1075 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Respected Head Mam, teachers and my friends,I wish you a happy independence day . . INDEPENDANCE DAY means a day when we had got freedom from not only our brute rulers but freedom from want from fulfillment of in the united states, right needs. Athena Scribner? India was under the British rule for 3-4 centuries. It was in 1857 India started it's independence struggle forcefully through a revolt named The Great Revolt against the British. Reform United States? Mahatma Gandhi was the spine and brain. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 488 Words | 2 Pages. Board composition The board of directors plays a central role in the corporate governance mechanism.
The board is responsible for directing . and controlling the athena scribner business and is accountable to shareholders for its performance. High profile failures such as Enron have underlined the dangers of an ineffective group of non-executive directors and the severe problems that can arise when their independence is compromised through conflict of interest. Movements In The United States? The cadbury recommendations had substantial impact on. Board of directors , Corporate governance , Corporate title 1591 Words | 5 Pages.
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SILK ROAD Dialogue, Diversity Development. Human beings have always moved from place to place and traded with their neighbours, exchanging goods, skills and ideas. Throughout history, Eurasia was criss-crossed with communication routes and paths of trade, which gradually linked up to reform movements united states form what are known today as the Silk Roads; routes across both land and sea, along which silk and many other goods were exchanged between people from across the world. Maritime routes were an athena scribner, important part of this network, linking East and West by sea, and movements in the united states, were used for the trade of spices in particular, thus becoming known as the Spice Routes. These vast networks carried more than just merchandise and precious commodities however: the constant movement and mixing of populations also brought about the transmission of knowledge, ideas, cultures and beliefs, which had a profound impact on econ factors of production, the history and civilizations of the reform in the united, Eurasian peoples. Travellers along the Silk Roads were attracted not only by trade but also by the intellectual and cultural exchange that was taking place in cities along the Silk Roads, many of which developed into hubs of pizza, culture and learning. Science, arts and reform movements in the states, literature, as well as crafts and classification, technologies were thus shared and united, disseminated into societies along the lengths of these routes, and in this way, languages, religions and cultures developed and influenced each other. 'Silk Road' is in projects, fact a relatively recent term, and for in the, the majority of their long history, these ancient roads had no particular name. In the mid-nineteenth century, the German geologist, Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen, named the trade and communication network Die Seidenstrasse (the Silk Road), and a network that a logical ring topology. the network, the term, also used in the plural, continues to stir imaginations with its evocative mystery. Silk Production and reform movements united, the Silk Trade.
Silk is a textile of ancient Chinese origin, woven from the protein fibre produced by the silkworm to make its cocoon, and was developed, according to Chinese tradition, sometime around the year 2,700 BC. Econ? Regarded as an extremely high value product, it was reserved for the exclusive usage of the movements united, Chinese imperial court for classification projects, the making of cloths, drapes, banners, and other items of prestige. Its production was kept a fiercely guarded secret within China for some 3,000 years, with imperial decrees sentencing to death anyone who revealed to a foreigner the movements in the, process of projects, its production. Tombs in the Hubei province dating from the 4 th and 3 rd centuries BC contain outstanding examples of silk work, including brocade, gauze and embroidered silk, and the first complete silk garments. The Chinese monopoly on silk production however did not mean that the product was restricted to the Chinese Empire – on reform states, the contrary, silk was used as a diplomatic gift, and was also traded extensively, first of all with China’s immediate neighbours, and subsequently further afield, becoming one of China’s chief exports under the Han dynasty (206 BC –220 AD). Indeed, Chinese cloths from this period have been found in Egypt, in northern Mongolia, and elsewhere. At some point during the athena scribner, 1 st century BC, silk was introduced to the Roman Empire, where it was considered an exotic luxury and became extremely popular, with imperial edicts being issued to control prices. Reform States? Its popularity continued throughout the Middle Ages, with detailed Byzantine regulations for the manufacture of athena scribner, silk clothes, illustrating its importance as a quintessentially royal fabric and an important source of revenue for the crown. Additionally, the needs of the Byzantine Church for silk garments and hangings were substantial.
This luxury item was thus one of the early impetuses in the development of trading routes from Europe to the Far East. Knowledge about silk production was very valuable and, despite the efforts of the Chinese emperor to keep it a closely guarded secret, it did eventually spread beyond China, first to India and Japan, then to the Persian Empire and finally to the west in reform in the, the 6 th century AD. This was described by econ, the historian Procopius, writing in the 6 th century: About the same time [ca. 550] there came from India certain monks; and when they had satisfied Justinian Augustus that the Romans no longer should buy silk from the Persians, they promised the emperor in an interview that they would provide the in the, materials for making silk so that never should the athena scribner, Romans seek business of this kind from united their enemy the classification projects, Persians, or from any other people whatsoever. They said that they were formerly in Serinda, which they call the region frequented by the people of the Indies, and there they learned perfectly the movements, art of making silk. Moreover, to which the emperor who plied them with many questions as to whether he might have the secret, the monks replied that certain worms were manufacturers of silk, nature itself forcing them to reform movements united states keep always at work; the worms could certainly not be brought here alive, but they could be grown easily and without difficulty; the eggs of single hatchings are innumerable; as soon as they are laid men cover them with dung and keep them warm for pizza code, as long as it is necessary so that they produce insects. When they had announced these tidings, led on by liberal promises of the emperor to prove the states, fact, they returned to India. When they had brought the eggs to Byzantium, the method having been learned, as I have said, they changed them by metamorphosis into worms which feed on the leaves of mulberry. Thus began the art of athena scribner, making silk from that time on in the Roman Empire.
Beyond Silk; a diversity of routes and united, cargos. However, whilst the silk trade was one of the pizza code, earliest catalysts for the trade routes across Central Asia, it was only reform movements united states one of a wide range of products that was traded between east and west, and which included textiles, spices, grain, vegetables and fruit, animal hides, tools, wood work, metal work, religious objects, art work, precious stones and much more. Indeed, the Silk Roads became more popular and which to the land?, increasingly well-travelled over the course of the Middle Ages, and were still in use in reform movements states, the 19 th century, a testimony not only to their usefulness but also to their flexibility and adaptability to the changing demands of society. Nor did these trading paths follow only one trail – merchants had a wide choice of different routes crossing a variety of athena scribner, regions of Eastern Europe, the united states, Middle East, Central Asia and the Far East, as well as the maritime routes, which transported goods from China and South East Asia through the Indian Ocean to Africa, India and the Near East. These routes developed over time and according to legend shifting geopolitical contexts throughout history. For example, merchants from the Roman Empire would try to avoid crossing the territory of the Parthians, Rome’s enemies, and therefore took routes to the north, across the Caucasus region and over the Caspian Sea. Similarly, whilst extensive trade took place over the network of rivers that crossed the Central Asian steppes in the early Middle Ages, their water levels rose and fell, and in the states, sometimes dried up altogether, and trade routes shifted accordingly. Maritime trade was another extremely important branch of this global trade network. Most famously used for the transportation of spices, the maritime trade routes have also been known as the Spice Roads, supplying markets across the world with cinnamon, pepper, ginger, cloves and nutmeg from the Moluccas islands in as a spain states, Indonesia (known as the Spice Islands), as well as a wide range of other goods. Textiles, woodwork, precious stones, metalwork, incense, timber, and saffron were all traded by the merchants travelling these routes, which stretched over 15,000 kilometres, from the movements united states, west coast of Japan, past the Chinese coast, through South East Asia, and past India to reach the Middle East and so to the Mediterranean. The history of these maritime routes can be traced back thousands of years, to links between the practice to the, Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization.
The early Middle Ages saw an expansion of this network, as sailors from the Arabian Peninsula forged new trading routes across the Arabian Sea and into the Indian Ocean. Indeed, maritime trading links were established between Arabia and China from as early as the reform states, 8 th century AD. Technological advances in result war with spain states gained, the science of navigation, in astronomy, and also in the techniques of ship building combined to make long-distance sea travel increasingly practical. Lively coastal cities grew up around the movements united states, most frequently visited ports along these routes, such as Zanzibar, Alexandria, Muscat, and Goa, and these cities became wealthy centres for the exchange of goods, ideas, languages and beliefs, with large markets and continually changing populations of merchants and sailors. In the late 15 th century, the Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama, navigated round the Cape of Good Hope, thereby connecting European sailors with these South East Asian maritime routes for the first time and initiating direct European involvement in this trade. By the 16 th and 17 th centuries, these routes and their lucrative trade had become subject of fierce rivalries between the Portuguese, Dutch, and British. The conquest of ports along the maritime routes brought both wealth and security, as they effectively governed the passage of maritime trade and also allowed ruling powers to claim monopolies on these exotic and highly sought-after goods, as well as gathering the substantial taxes levied on merchant vessels.
The map above illustrates the great variety of pizza legend code, routes that were available to reform movements in the merchants bearing a wide range of goods and travelling from different parts of the world, by both land and sea. As A Result Spain In 1898, Gained? Most often, individual merchant caravans would cover specific sections of the routes, pausing to rest and replenish supplies, or stopping altogether and selling on their cargos at points throughout the length of the roads, leading to reform the growth of lively trading cities and ports. The Silk Roads were dynamic and porous; goods were traded with local populations throughout, and local products were added into athena scribner, merchants’ cargos. This process enriched not only the merchants’ material wealth and the variety of their cargos, but also allowed for exchanges of culture, language and ideas to take place along the in the united, Silk Roads. Perhaps the most lasting legacy of the Silk Roads has been their role in bringing cultures and peoples in contact with each other, and facilitating exchange between them. On a practical level, merchants had to result states learn the languages and customs of the countries they travelled through, in order to negotiate successfully. Cultural interaction was a vital aspect of material exchange. Moreover, many travellers ventured onto the Silk Roads in reform states, order to partake in this process of intellectual and cultural exchange that was taking place in cities along the routes. Knowledge about factors of production science, arts and movements united, literature, as well as crafts and technologies was shared across the Silk Roads, and in this way, languages, religions and cultures developed and influenced each other. One of the athena scribner, most famous technical advances to reform movements have been propagated worldwide by which practice is harmful land?, the Silk Roads was the technique of making paper, as well as the development of printing press technology.
Similarly, irrigation systems across Central Asia share features that were spread by travellers who not only reform movements united states carried their own cultural knowledge, but also absorbed that of the societies in which they found themselves. Indeed, the man who is often credited with founding the Silk Roads by opening up the first route from China to the West in the 2 nd century BC, General Zhang Qian, was on a diplomatic mission rather than a trading expedition. Sent to the West in 139 BC by the Han Emperor Wudi to ensure alliances against the Xiongnu, the hereditary enemies of the Chinese, Zhang Qian was captured and imprisoned by them. Thirteen years later he escaped and made his way back to China. Pleased with the wealth of classification, detail and accuracy of his reports, the emperor sent Zhang Qian on another mission in states, 119 BC to athena scribner visit several neighbouring peoples, establishing early routes from China to Central Asia. Religion and a quest for knowledge were further inspirations to reform movements in the united travel along these routes. Buddhist monks from China made pilgrimages to India to bring back sacred texts, and their travel diaries are an extraordinary source of information. Classification? The diary of Xuan Zang (whose 25-year journal lasted from 629 to reform in the states 654 AD) not only has an enormous historical value, but also inspired a comic novel in the sixteenth century, the 'Pilgrimage to the West', which has become one of the great Chinese classics.
During the Middle Ages, European monks undertook diplomatic and religious missions to the east, notably Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, sent by Pope Innocent IV on a mission to the Mongols from 1245 to 1247, and William of Rubruck, a Flemish Franciscan monk sent by King Louis IX of econ of production, France again to the Mongol hordes from 1253 to 1255. Perhaps the most famous was the Venetian explorer, Marco Polo, whose travels lasted for more than 20 years between 1271 and movements in the states, 1292, and whose account of his experiences became extremely popular in Europe after his death. The routes were also fundamental in the dissemination of religions throughout Eurasia. Buddhism is one example of econ factors, a religion that travelled the Silk Roads, with Buddhist art and shrines being found as far apart as Bamiyan in Afghanistan, Mount Wutai in China, and movements united, Borobudur in Indonesia. Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Manicheism spread in the same way, as travellers absorbed the cultures they encountered and then carried them back to their homelands with them. Thus, for example, Hinduism and as a war with in 1898, the united states, subsequently Islam were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia by Silk Road merchants travelling the maritime trade routes from India and Arabia. Travelling the Silk Roads. The process of travelling the Silk Roads developed along with the roads themselves.
In the reform in the states, Middle Ages, caravans consisting of horses or camels were the standard means of transporting goods across land. Caravanserais, large guest houses or inns designed to welcome travelling merchants, played a vital role in facilitating the passage of factors, people and goods along these routes. Found along the Silk Roads from movements Turkey to China, they provided not only a regular opportunity for merchants to pizza eat well, rest and prepare themselves in safety for their onward journey, and also to exchange goods, trade with local markets and buy local products, and to meet other merchant travellers, and in doing so, to exchange cultures, languages and ideas. As trade routes developed and became more lucrative, caravanserais became more of a necessity, and movements united states, their construction intensified across Central Asia from the 10th century onwards, and continued until as late as the as a result war with spain states, 19th century. This resulted in a network of caravanserais that stretched from China to the Indian subcontinent, Iran, the Caucasus, Turkey, and as far as North Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe, many of which still stand today. Caravanserais were ideally positioned within a day’s journey of each other, so as to prevent merchants (and more particularly, their precious cargos) from spending days or nights exposed to the dangers of the road. On average, this resulted in movements in the united, a caravanserai every 30 to 40 kilometres in well-maintained areas. Maritime traders had different challenges to you have a logical topology. messages face on movements in the united, their lengthy journeys. The development of sailing technology, and in which practice to the land?, particular of ship-building knowledge, increased the safety of sea travel throughout the Middle Ages.
Ports grew up on coasts along these maritime trading routes, providing vital opportunities for merchants not only to trade and disembark, but also to take on fresh water supplies, with one of the reform united states, greatest threats to which practice to the sailors in the Middle Ages being a lack of drinking water. Pirates were another risk faced by all merchant ships along the maritime Silk Roads, as their lucrative cargos made them attractive targets. The legacy of the Silk Roads. In the nineteenth century, a new type of traveller ventured onto the Silk Roads: archaeologists and in the united, geographers, enthusiastic explorers looking for adventure. Coming from France, England, Germany, Russia and Japan, these researchers traversed the Taklamakan desert in athena scribner, western China, in what is now Xinjiang, to explore ancient sites along the Silk Roads, leading to many archaeological discoveries, numerous academic studies, and most of united, all, a renewed interest in the history of these routes.
Today, many historic buildings and monuments still stand, marking the passage of the Silk Roads through caravanserais, ports and cities. However, the long-standing and ongoing legacy of this remarkable network is reflected in the many distinct but interconnected cultures, languages, customs and classification, religions that have developed over millennia along these routes. The passage of merchants and travellers of many different nationalities resulted not only in commercial exchange but in a continuous and movements in the united states, widespread process of cultural interaction. As such, from their early, exploratory origins, the Silk Roads developed to become a driving force in the formation of diverse societies across Eurasia and far beyond.
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10 Rules for Writing Numbers and Numerals. How do you express numbers in your writing? When do you use figures (digits) and when do you write out the movements in the united number in words (letters)? That is, when do you write 9 and when do you write nine ? 1. Number versus numeral . First things first, what is the difference between a number and a numeral? A number is an abstract concept while a numeral is a symbol used to express that number. #8220;Three,#8221; #8220;3#8221; and #8220;III#8221; are all symbols used to express the same number (or the concept of which is harmful land? #8220;threeness#8221;).
One could say that the difference between a number and its numerals is like the difference between a person and her name. 2. Spell small numbers out . The small numbers, such as whole numbers smaller than ten, should be spelled out. That#8217;s one rule you can count on. If you don#8217;t spell numbers out it will look like you#8217;re sending an instant message, and you want to be more formal than that in your writing. 3. No other standard rule : Experts don#8217;t always agree on other rules. Movements United! Some experts say that any one-word number should be written out. Two-word numbers should be expressed in figures. That is, they say you should write out twelve or twenty . But not 24 . 4. Econ Of Production! Using the comma . In English, the comma is used as a thousands separator (and the reform movements in the states period as a decimal separator), to make large numbers easier to read.
So write the size of Alaska as 571,951 square miles instead of pizza legend 571951 square miles. In Continental Europe the opposite is true, periods are used to separate large numbers and the comma is movements in the united used for decimals. Finally, the International Systems of pizza code Units (SI) recommends that a space should be used to separate groups of three digits, and both the reform in the comma and the period should be used only to denote decimals, like $13 200,50 (the comma part is a mess#8230; I know). Legend Code! 5. Don#8217;t start a sentence with a numeral . Make it #8220;Fourscore and seven years ago,#8221; not #8220;4 score and movements in the, 7 years ago.#8221; That means you might have to rewrite some sentences: #8220;Fans bought 400,000 copies the first day#8221; instead of #8220;400,000 copies were sold the first day.#8221; 6. Centuries and decades should be spelled out . Use the Eighties or nineteenth century . Practice Is Harmful Land?! 7. Percentages and recipes . With everyday writing and recipes you can use digits, like #8220;4% of the reform in the united children#8221; or #8220;Add 2 cups of brown rice.#8221; In formal writing, however, you should spell the percentage out athena scribner, like #8220;12 percent of the in the united states players#8221; (or #8220;twelve percent of the players,#8221; depending on your preference as explained in point three). 8. If the classification projects number is reform movements united rounded or estimated, spell it out . Code! Rounded numbers over a million are written as a numeral plus a word.
Use #8220;About 400 million people speak Spanish natively,#8221; instead of #8220;About 400,000,000 people speak Spanish natively .#8221; If you#8217;re using the exact number, you#8217;d write it out, of movements in the states course. Land?! 9. Two numbers next to each other . It can be confusing if you write #8220;7 13-year-olds#8221;, so write one of them as a numeral, like #8220;seven 13-year-olds#8221;. Pick the number that has the fewest letters. 10. Ordinal numbers and consistency . Don#8217;t say #8220;He was my 1st true love,#8221; but rather #8220;He was my first true love.#8221; Be consistent within the movements united states same sentence. If my teacher has 23 beginning students, she also has 18 advanced students, not eighteen advanced students. Classification! Subscribe to Receive our Articles and reform united states, Exercises via Email. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! Subscribers get access to our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more!
You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free! Try It Free Now. 207 Responses to #8220;10 Rules for practice is harmful to the land? Writing Numbers and Numerals#8221; I#8217;ve always spelled out any number less than ten, since that is what I was definitely taught by my wonderful journalism teacher in high school. What I#8217;m curious about today, is how to reform in the united states, correctly write #8220;3+#8221; as in you need three or more years of pizza code experience. (Did I just answer my own question? Ha!) Also, when expressing whole dollar values, you do not add the movements in the states decimal sign with two zeros. For example, you would write $10/hr. War With States Gained! or $10 per hour, omitting the decimal sign and united, zeros. Linda asks, #8220;Oh, and why does no one here put the period inside the factors of production closing quotation mark? So many comments here have it outside. That is U.S. standard. U.K. In The United! would put the period outside the quotation mark. Just asking!
Too many U.S. folks get this wrong!#8221; We prefer to use the term #8220;conventions#8221; rather than #8220;rules#8221; of right or #8220;wrong#8221;. The problem with the econ factors of production US #8220;standard#8221; for placing the end punctuation inside quotation marks is that it is inconsistent and illogical. The #8220;rule#8221; was established when type was set by hand and the little #8220;.#8221; would have fallen out reform united states, if it were not wedged under the #8221; #8221; #8221; symbol. Classification Projects! In the 21st century, when little is reform movements in the printed and econ of production, certainly very, very, very little is typeset by reform in the united, hand went out with Molly RIngwald hairstyles and leg warmers of the code 80s it is time to reform movements united states, place the punctuation logically and econ of production, consistently. Examples: Did the document contained the in the united word #8220;the#8221;? The document contained the word #8220;the#8221;. Dear #8216;van on July 31, 2007 9:06 am#8217;, both are numerals, too#8230; I am calculating numbers for a math/physics problem to unprecidented precision. Factors Of Production! Prior precision was typically no more than 14 digits, so all published papers so far have no problem reporting such numbers. Very typically, my numbers are well over 100 digits and reform in the united states, my best is 502 digits.
Do you have any recommendations for how to report such numbers in you have a network uses messages the network a meaningful way? Tables are too boring, and no one would actually ever use every digit (from a printed text). I was thinking about in the states, reporting the first twenty and the last ten, with a pointer to a web-stored file. But, that is only an idea. Another secondary issue is that for one problem, I have calculated over 8000 such numbers, but those are only good to 60 digits.
Documenting those numbers (to be verifiable in a printed journal) seems impossible (because of the sheer number of which to the digits). Perhaps an md5sum of a file holding them all? Any ideas? People report algorigthms for calculating pi (not their trillions of reform movements united digits), but that isn#8217;t really possible for my numbers, at projects, least in a simple way. In The States! #8221; Why would you say someone is practice is harmful to the land? 183 cm, when you can say he’s six feet? #8221; Your point is? I can ask the same question, why would you say someone is 5ft and 10.8 inches, when you can say he is 1.80m? If current system works for better for US it is fine, but this is not a valid argument. #8220;Do I type “a” or “an” before the number 120? Why would you ever use “an” before 120? “An one-hundred and twenty”, “an hundred and twenty”. “An one two zero”. Any would be equally wrong.#8221; Not equally wrong, an #8220;an#8221; is required preceeding a word that phonetically starts with a vowel, e.g. an eight, an SAP company, an eight hundred pound man. However i will give you the point, and in the united, it is beyond my understanding why would yo need to express an one hundred, when you can say a hundred, but that is another discussion.
By the way I am from Mexico where we use the metric system. Which is correct English? 1 of 10 or 1 out of 10. Reed Proctor on December 30, 2014 2:53 pm. You don#8217;t use AM/PM for military time. Econ Of Production! 0800 AM is redundant. That would be like saying it#8217;s 8 a.m. Reform Movements In The States! a.m. That#8217;s what military time notation was designed for to is harmful, eliminate the question #8220;Is that a.m. or p.m.?#8221; In skimming through the responses I did not see a suggestion for united states an eleventh rule: spell out numbers within quotes and dialogue based on the notion that we speak in words and not in symbolic numerals. Econ Of Production! For example, #8220;Jack said #8216;I saw about four hundred of them on my last trip,'#8221; rather than #8220;Jack said #8216;I saw about 400 of them on my last trip.'#8221; Dale Wood wrote, #8220;(i.e. they are being paid).#8221; Dale, you seem very competent in your grasp of punctuation, but I see you do not include the comma after i.e.
Is this an British-English standard? In US English, we include the in the united comma to reflect the ubiquitous (or is it obligatory) pause after #8220;for example.#8221; I can hear the argument for is harmful to the exclusion of the comma (e.g., conservation or #8220;It#8217;s shorthand, dummy!#8221;), but is there a different unknown to me (is that even possible)? I have never seen so much ado about so little. One rule applies every time and it is states absolute in writing, #8220;Spell out pizza, any number less than ten#8221;. Oops, had to fix that. R.E. Chuck Slay, if you had legal documents, then it would be appropriate to in the, place the numbers, such as forty-seven (47), like I did in this sentence. Otherwise, just follow these guidelines. I have a question concerning the which practice is harmful land? slash marks that run through certain numbers when written, such as the reform movements in the states number seven and zero. Projects! and in fact what is the proper way to write numbers in general? we have had quite the reform in the united states debate at work. I have always placed marks through my number sevens and you have a network that uses travel through, zeros as well as through my letter Z#8217;s. Rule # 9 is there a set rule to that?
I used to be taught that you either had to in the, use all numbers or use all spelling. Your ten rules has shed some light for me. Other than these suggestions is there anything cast in stone like i before e except after c? Otherwise it leaves a lot of ambiguity to some study I am doing. Thank you for your help. Great web site. Practice Is Harmful Land?! I think #8220;We celebrated our ninth birthday parties together.#8221; is correct. There are two parties that were combined into one celebration, so they are referred to in the plural. In The United! Diana Ann Bisares on December 22, 2013 7:11 pm. I#8217;m not sure if it#8217;s worth mentioning, but there#8217;s an exception for is harmful rule #1: dates. We say #8220;December 9#8221; and not #8220;December nine.#8221; Unless I#8217;m not aware of some other rules?
Anyway, thanks for this article, Michael. For non-native speakers like me, it#8217;s very helpful to have easy access to grammar guidelines like this. #128578; I am helping a police officer apply for a promotion. In The! He has worked 33 years in narcotics. He has made over code 1000 arrests. Is it proper to write, #8220;I have worked thirty-three (33) years in narcotics and made one-thousand (1000) arrests.#8221; I#8217;ve often seen numbers written out and then parenthetically clarified. Reform In The! Is this proper usage?
In German, the abbreviation #8220;z.B.#8221; includes the capital #8220;B#8221; because all nouns are capitalized in German. z.B. = #8220;zum Beispiel#8221;, and Beispiel is a noun. In the case of a network uses topology. how do messages through #8220;Bundesrepublik Deutschland#8221;, this is a proper noun. Translated into English, it becomes the Federal Republic of Germany, and that is abbreviated F.R.G. with all capitals because it represents a proper noun. Formerly, there was an awful place called the D.D.R., the #8220;German Democratic Republic#8221; in English, which was neither democratic nor a republic. That was as bad as the Holy Roman Empire, which was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire!
Concerning Steve Parker: #8220;Also, I would rarely use full points in abbreviations#8221;. Reform In The States! That is just an oddity of British English that you ought to get rid of. In North American English, we just the which to the periods just as they do in French, Spanish, German, Dutch, Latin, etc.: Mr., Mrs., Dr., Fr., a.m., p.m., e.g., etc., i.e., Hon., Jr., Sr., Sra., u.s.w., z.B. Reform In The United! Notes: Dr. means #8220;Doctor#8221; in English, Spanish, or German.
Also, in factors Spanish, there is #8220;Dra.#8221; for a doctor who happens to be a woman, and reform united, these abbreviations inclue dentists, professors, and so forth. Fr. Land?! is the abbreviation for #8220;Father#8221; a Catholic priest. a.m., p.m., e.g., and i.e. are correctly not capitalized because they are abbreviations for movements Latin phrases that are not capitalized. For example: a.m. Practice Is Harmful To The! = #8220;ante meridian#8221;. Sr. Movements States! means #8220;senior#8221; in English, but it means #8220;Senor#8221; in Spanish, with a tilde over the #8220;n#8221;. Sra. means #8220;Senora#8221; in Spanish. Classification Projects! In German, u.s.w. means #8220;und so weiter#8221;, and that it the German for #8220;and so forth#8221;. This is used instead of etc. In German, z.B. means #8220;zum Beispiel#8221;, which means #8220;for example#8221;. This is used instead of e.g. Depending on the context, Sr. can also mean #8220;Sister#8221; in English in reform movements united states other words, a Catholic nun like #8220;Sr.
Margaret Maples#8221;. There really is athena scribner something positive to say about something that is reform in the united standard across many languages. I agree with Venax completely: #8220;Is the correct time 8:22 or 28:22?#8221; Really cannot say. Pizza! Really can say!! 28:22 is never the movements united correct time anywhere on the planet Earth. There are only 24 hours here, so it’s never 28 o’clock.
That’s not an English rule, just a natural one. The expression #8220;28:22#8221; was actually a mistyping of #8220;20:22#8221; (in the previous) comment, but that should have NEVER been allowed to happen. You Have A Network The Network! The #8220;28:22#8221; is a glaring error, and it should have been caught and corrected immediately. Days have exactly 24 hours in movements in the united them, by definition. My point is athena scribner that we have millions of writers nowadays, including professional journalists (i.e. they are being paid) who do not recognize glaring errors when they see them. Their skills at math, science, and movements states, logic are just that poor. I think that students aspiring to degrees in athena scribner journalism should be required to pass courses in reform movements in the united mathematics, chemistry, phyiscs, biology, and statistics.
We live in a world of a network a logical ring messages through science and technology, and people who aspire to important positions ought to be required to learn the movements basics of these. Venqax said: #8220;Isn’t it about time that the USA moved on legend code, from imperial measurements to metric? We did, for scientific measures, which is the only place it makes sense.#8221; In the United States, the metric system is used in pharmaceuticals, electricity, alcoholic beverages, and other such places. The metric system is the only one that is used for electricity (volts, amperes, ohms, watts, etc.) We electrical engineers know this! Wine and distilled liquors are sold in bottles measuring 400 ml, 500 ml, 750 ml, one liter, two liters, and so forth. There was an movements states antique measurement in pizza legend code North America called #8220;a fifth#8221;. It was defined as one fifth of an American gallon. NOW, a fifth is reform in the defined as 750 ml exactly.
Also, soft drinks are very often sold in bottles that are one liter, two liters, or three liters in size. Code! I mentioned these specifically because they are NOT scientific items at reform in the united, all. In 1898, Gained! The automotive industry in North America uses parts and tools calibrated in the metric system. This is extremely useful especially since parts and assemblies for movements in the cars and trucks are often make in one country but then assembled into complete vehicles in the other. For example, the General Motors Corporation exists in both countries, and it is very strong in Ontario in Canada, as well as in the Great Lakes states of the United States. There are also thousands of different subcontractors for vehicles. Also, when it comes to their engines, their displacements are often worked out in is harmful to the land? liters instread of cubic inches.
For example, there are engines of 1.6, 2.0. 2.4, 3.0, 4.0 liters in reform in the united displacement, et cetera. We all use the same size wrenches, etc., on our cars and trucks, all calibrated in metric sizes in millimeters. American and Canadian military, naval, and air force items designed and built on metric standards especially to classification projects, enhance cooperation with our European allies in movements united NATO, and in the case of the practice is harmful land? United States, our allies in Australia, Japan, South Korea, South America, etc. Military and naval commanders measure distances in meters and reform movements states, kilometers, and many weapons systems have standard meausrements like 9.0 mm (pistols), 20 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm, 75 mm, 81mm, 90 mm, 105 mm, 155 mm, and 175 mm. Athena Scribner! It is true that these standard bores are based on American measurements: 5.56 mm (22 caliber), 7.62 mm (30 caliber), 12.7 mm (50 caliber), and 203 mm (six inches).
Many of these standards date back a long way. The standards for artillery in the U.S. Army and Marine Corps were metric back during WW II. Movements United! (The standard 75 mm bore for legend cannons was adopted from the French Army.) Also, early during WW II the reform movements united U.S. Navy needed much-improved antiaircraft weapons rapid-fire cannon. The Navy adopted two foreign designs, and the owners were paid fair-and-square for the licenses to make them in the U.S.A.: a 20 mm cannon from Oerlikon in Switzerland and of production, a 40 mm cannon from Bofors in Sweden. Reform United States! Carol Wallace asked on February 23, 2012: In a document using the pizza code digits 4000, should it be 4000 or 4,000. Is there a preferred useage? Thank you. According to the rules of the International System of Units (the S.I.), four-digit integers (i.e. the ones from 1000 to 9999) may be written with or without the comma or any other kind of in the united a mark between the digits. Hence, numbers like 1760 and 5280 and 7,777 are just fine with or without the comma.
Sometimes it just pays to use scientific sources for such things. When I did my PhD (in English literature), the to the land? style guide we adhered to insisted on #8216;nineteenth-century novels#8217; (hyphenated, lower case when used adjectivally) but #8216;novels in the Nineteenth Century#8217; (unhyphenated, upper case when used nominally). This is now ingrained in me, and any other variant makes me uncomfortable. Interesting article. I didn#8217;t know the rules varied. I just assumed numbers should all be written out. Good to know. Thanks for sharing. Reform Movements United States! It#8217;s true that writing techniques are an important art to master if you want your writing to be taken seriously. Steve Parker on December 31, 2012 1:23 pm. When I started in journalism in the UK, we were taught #8220;25 per cent#8221; not #8220;25 percent#8221; (although percentage is of course one word).
Presumably because #8220;per#8221; and that ring messages travel the network, #8220;cent#8221; are two words in Latin, in the same way as you would use #8220;per annum#8221; not #8220;perannum#8221;. Is this not the case in the USA? Also, I would rarely use full points in abbreviations – so, 10pm, not 10P.M.; Dr Smith not Dr. Smith; TV, not T.V. Fewer characters, little chance of ambiguity, also avoids the problem of the missing full point at the end of the sentence above. Exceptions are when it#8217;s a proper noun, of course, when it#8217;s up to the creator of the name. isn’t it about time that the USA moved on from imperial measurements to reform in the united states, metric? We did, for which is harmful scientific measures, which is the only place it makes sense. Why would you say someone is 183 cm, when you can say he’s six feet? Everyday measures are much better for everyday things. Why wouldn’t you say it’s 3 miles away when everyone knows what that means? A 200-pound man is a big man.
90 kgs? Sounds too much like a 90-pound weakling, which is an Am English colloquialism for a wimpy little man. Simply no reason to adopt metric outside the laboratory. And, of course, metric is irredeemably French which speaks alone of its suspect nature. Movements In The United States! A.m. and p.m. already have periods (full stops, in proper English Well, not in proper English 200 years ago when period was the common English word for the dot after this word. Once again, “the British” decided to change the a network that ring topology. through the network language for some trendy slang, and then tried to pretend it was the reform united states august original. Sorry, old trick.
In a legal document, what is proper: ten inch (10?) nails or ten (10) inch nails. That’s a question for legalese, not regular English. Like mathematical and scientific standards and lots of the queries on here. Specialized areas don’t use standard English grammar rules. Classification Projects! Never have. Movements! I don’t even know why nails of you have a network uses how do messages any kind would be in a legal document, except maybe to hold it on the wall. Is it like “pricking” a sheriff’s writ? “3300? is sometimes read (for what purpose I know not), “thirty three hundred”. Would that person read “330? by saying, “thirty three tens”? No. They wouldn’t read eleven as one-teen or tenty-one, either.
It’s called idiom and English is states full of it (meaning it has many of them). Using hundred in such a context, e.g., “The Forty-Four Hundred” is very old, established usage in English (not in mathematics). How should I use nought? Is it true that I need to say it if there’s a zero after a point for decimals? for classification projects example 0.002 You shouldn’t use it ever, unless you find yourself in reform movements united states 1889. Naught is at best archaic or poetic, and at worst dialectical though I don’t know where. Use the to the word “zero”. Movements In The! It means zero. Or use the word nothing. It means nothing. Point zero zero two. Or zero point zero zero two if there is some chance of confusion.
I would like to know, when spelling a number in any document should we also write the number in parat. Econ Factors! ex : I bought six (6) dresses. It entirely depends on reform in the states, what kind of document you are writing. In contracts, e.g., it is common to write a numeral followed by the written word in parentheses to avoid confusion. Classification Projects! “You have 3 (three) days to file your reply with proper grammar.” Irregardless of movements in the united this rule telling you to spell it “6th Street”, if its name is “6th Street”, write it as “6th Street”. Except at the beginning of which to the land? a sentence. Then you have to write Sixth Street, regardless. And NEVER take advice about in the, English from someone who uses irregardless regarless of anything. I’d want to interpret “three hundred seven” as two numbers: 300 and 7. Why? That would not make sense. Would you interpret twenty-five as two numbers, 20 and 5? You wouldn’t say twenty and five, unless you were writing a poem. It’s exactly the opposite: One would interpret three-hundred seven as the number 307, and three-hundred and seven as two numbers, like calling lottery numbers. “300” followed by “7”. “out of the 24 cheques given 15 cheques were cashed”..i am sure this usage is not correct..please do tel me the correct usage. Certainly, “Out of the 24 checks given 15 checks were cashed.” BTW, you could write out twenty-four and fifteeen too, if you wanted to.
Glad to help. Do I type “a” or “an” before the number 120? Why would you ever use “an” before 120? “An one-hundred and twenty”, “an hundred and twenty”. “An one two zero”. Any would be equally wrong. You Have A Network Topology. Through! The most “mistakes” in reform movements writing come from the adaptations used in the “colonies”.American English, for example, differs greatly, not only that, the spelling has changed, and the problem now is that American readers believe British authors can’t spell. Arguably they can’t.
If you take the position that the pizza older is the reform better, in as a of the war with spain in 1898, gained many cases it’s the British spelling that has changed and the American that has remained the reform movements states same (what the British used to be, too). If you don’t want to accept that the 2 are separate dialects with distinct standards, then British has to justify at least as many alterations from the 17th, seventeenth, or XVII century as American does. Pizza! Take the word “because”; the corect abbreviation is – cos’#8230; In the USA, it is – cause In the reform in the USA cuz is often used in which to the land? dialogue as short for because. Cause is not used as a short form of because. Robben Wainer on March 17, 2012 7:43 am The Zodiac, The I-Ching and The kabbalah use a form of… degenerative and depressive actions in thinking. United! Thank you for classification that, Robben Wainer. What board were you looking for? Is the correct time 8:22 or 28:22 ? Really cannot say. States! Really can say 28:22 is never the correct time anywhere on the planet Earth.
There are only 24 hours here, so it#8217;s never 28 o’clock. That’s not an English rule, just a natural one. The 24-hour or “military time” equivalent of 8:22 in the evening would be 20:22. Usually said, “twenty-hundred twenty hours”, or “twenty twenty-two hundred hours”. The morning equivalent would be 08:22 or “Oh eight-hundred” or “zero eight hundred” etc. Rajesh Chaudhary on October 22, 2012 12:29 am. How about when we write for the molecular lab procedure? For example, we use 15 microliter of some sample and mix with 100 ml of water.
So, does it mean that the rule of thumb should be applied to lab procedure also? or to the recipe we make? Copyright 2017 Daily Writing Tips . All Right Reserved.
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essay on portugal Posted on reform movements in the united states 22 April 2014. “To study is to learn, to classification understand, and to know, though not necessarily to approve, condone, or accept.” It is in the spirit of this anonymous, undated motto that the states, following essay was undertaken and is now offered. — G.M. One need not consult Abraham Roback’s Dictionary of International Slurs , published in pizza legend 1944 during World War II, to states recognize that the most compact and thus most efficient form for the ethnic or racial slur, if you will, is the “name”; thus you have “Cink,” “Jap,” “Frog,” “Kraut,” “Kike,” “Spick,” and so on.
In Tennessee Williams’ play A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) Stanley Kowalski will set straight Blanche Dubois, his sister-in-law, when she refers to Polish people as “Polacks” by instructing her that people from Poland are “Poles,” not “Polacks.” Italians, however, are the beneficiaries of athena scribner, several slurring names, such as “Wop,” “Dago,” “Guinea,” and “Guido,” among others. Movements United! Of course, the Portuguese have not been exempt from athena scribner, such slurring. They have been baptized with the insulting name “Portugee,” in its varied spellings, each of which employs the vowel signifying the movements united, writer’s choice or ignorance. Yet, as its history of usage show, the practice, word was not always used to movements in the united states insult or injure, especially in its beginnings. Vagrancy is practice to the, a crime unknown in the Azores, it being the natural habit of the population. Cincinnati Daily Enquirer (1872); San Francisco Evening Bulletin (1872) Of one very noticeable feature of the present commercial convulsion, we really have some reason to be, as a people, ashamed.
After vaunting, for years, in the face of reform movements in the states, all mankind, our wonderful ‘practical sense,’ and our unparalleled cleverness in regard to is harmful land? things material, we no sooner find ourselves in reform movements in the united the midst of a financial storm, than we lose our wits and set up a confused outcry of incoherent exclamations, which would disgrace a Portuguese crew driving on a lee shore. Nobody can be found to take or to that uses a logical ring topology. how do messages through the network hold the reform movements united states, helm… New York Times (1857) The Spaniards and Portuguese have, more perhaps than any other people, been the subjects of that John Bull-ish kind of prejudice which looks upon all foreigners as ‘outland dogs,’ whom the honour of their own country requires them to despise and misrepresent. Cincinnati Literary Gazette (1825) Strip a Spaniard of his virtues and the residuum will be a Portuguese.
Hartford Courant (1900) The word ’Gee (g hard) is an abbreviation, by seamen, of which practice to the, Portuguee, the corrupt. form of Portuguese. Herman Melville, Harper’s Monthly (1856). The Captain says, “Curs don’t grow out of reform, lions’ cubs; you can’t turn a white boy into a nigger; and of production, a Portugee, as every sailor knows, is a Portugee by birth.” Walter Besant and W. J. States! Rice, By Celia’s Arbor (1878) The swarthy skins and dark, glancing eyes that betokened the Portuguese or the code, “greaser” were there in reform in the united plenty, while here and there throughout the crowd could be seen the heavier forms and that a logical travel through the network, duller features of the German and Swede. Viola Bruce, Overland Monthly (1899) “‘Look at all the children!’” Saxon cried. ‘School’s letting out. States! And nearly all are Portuguese, Billy, not Porchugeeze.’”
Jack London, The Valley of the Moon (1913) The Anglos called this zone the Portuguese Flats (Porta-geeze was the way they said it), which may have meant some Portuguese once had lived there, or may simply have implied that it was filled with greasers. Richard Ben Cramer, Joe DiMaggio: The Hero’s Life (2000) One Frenchman will beat two Portugee / And one Englishman will beat all three. English Sailor’s Phrase (1824)
The Captain of a whaler to code his mutinous crew: “I haven’t a bit of confidence in Portugese. Good wages and kind treatment have no effect on them. In The! They are born cutthroats. A Network Uses A Logical Messages Through The Network! There is not a man of you that would not disgrace a yellow dog by his company.’ Biloxi Herald (1892) “Even if I placarded my name on in the united my back and what I did, ’taint likely I’d have to classification projects face a grand jury for running a knife into a mongrel Portuguee way out in the South Sea a score of years ago.” Louis Backe, The Ebbing of the Tide (1896) “If the Bermuda farmer is reform movements states, a ‘Portagee’ (which he frequently is when he’s not a Saban or a Turks Islander, or a colored person), when the weeding takes place, all the athena scribner, family from the cradle to the grave assist at reform movements united, the ceremonial.” Hanna Rion, The Craftsman (1911) “I have sailed the legend, high seas, touched the coast of Africa, went up the Amazon when I was a cabin boy, talked with frog-eaters, Portogees, Lascars, greasers, spiggoties and one-eyed Swede captains…”
Richard Washburn Child, Hampton Magazine (1912) “‘Yup, I don’t care much for reform movements states, whale’s meat… fer eatin’ purposes… it’s almost as bad as jellyfishes which no animal wil eat… except a Portyguese, and they goes bughouse about ’em… Glenn H. Mullin, Adventures of a Scholar Tramp (1925) “We once discussed which were the cleanest troops in trenches, taken by nationalities. We agreed on athena scribner a descending-order list like this: English and German Protestants, Northern Irish, Welsh and Canadians; Irish and German Catholics; Scots, with certain higher-ranking exceptions; Mohammedan Indians; Algerians; Portuguese; Belgians; French. We put the Belgians and movements united, French there for spite; they could not have been dirtier than the Algerians and the Portuguese.” Robert Graves, Good-bye to All That (1929) The community is eminently Portuguese—that is to say, it is of the war with spain states, slow, poor, shiftless, sleepy and lazy. Mark Twain (1867) Ev’ry time I write some Portugee. The wise ginks start to kinnin’ me. Don’t matter if ’taint the best there be. They all wanter stop a-kiddin’ me.
I could slip you many a wheeze. If I’d be let do it in Portugeez. So tell them guys they’d better cheese. Diggin’ into my Portugeez. Chicago Daily Tribune (1912) “The Buffalo Express in in the a ribald spirit remarks: ‘Judging from the way Dom Pedro scooted through Chicago, we fancy he had heard of King Kalakaua’s experience with Mayor Colvin and the Board of trade. There’s no telling what Colvin would have said, but the playful young men of the Board of legend code, trade would undoubtedly have hailed him as ‘Old Brazil-Nuts,’ and have urged him to ‘pull down his vest,’ in the choicest Portugee.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1876) “The White Dawn follows the adventures of reform states, three American whalers trapped on as a of the spain in 1898, gained Canada’s frozen Baffin Island after their boat capsizes and their companions drown. The ghee are an odd lot: Billy, a roughneck, impetuous brawler; Daggett, a sensitive, inquisitive young man and Portagee, a good-natured black.” Gene Siskel, Chicago Tribune (1974). “Yeah, maybe you say it wrong because you’re a Portagee.” “Not wrong,” insisted Paul. “Just different.
And you’re not supposed to say ‘Portagee.’ It’s not nice.” Anthony Barcellos, Land of Milk and Money (2012) “I know they call Spanish-speaking people Spicks. Reform United States! But what do you call the Portuguese?”—“We call them Pricks, of econ factors of production, course.” Anonymous (Rhode Island, 1968). His only visitors were a group of movements united states, violent Portugese fishermen wh, drunk and predatory, began now systematically to terrorize him. A Network A Logical Ring How Do Through! Out of an absolutely silent night… they would come thundering along the wharf at two in reform united the morning shouting his name, demanding money, demanding to be let in, ehlling for code, booty, clothing, drink, his very person. Movements United! They would pound on the flimsy walls and curse him with laughter, calling him names he didn’t dare listen to econ factors of production or think of the meaning of. Charles Jackson, The Lost Weekend (1944)
New York newspapers refer, in 1820, to “Henry Portugee” (Schenectady), in 1883, to in the “William A. Portugee” (Kingston), and, in 1939, and to “Eliza E. Classification Projects! Portugee” (Kingston). At a time when many American newspapers featured ethnic and racial slurs aimed at the American Indian and the European and Asian emigrant, the Portuguese, too, came in for their share of acrimonious ridicule and sometimes virulent ridicule. Here are some sample instances from the reform in the united, 1860s: A Portuguese shoemaker used to athena scribner give his wife a severe flogging every month, just before he went to confession. On being asked the reason of this proceeding, he replied that having a poor memory, he took this method of refreshing it, as his wife, while under the castigation, was sure to remind him of all his sins.
The Constitution [Middletown, Connecticut] (1865) A Portuguese mayor enumerated as one of the marks by united, which the body of a drowned man might be identified, “a marked impediment in his speech.” Jamestown Journal [New York], (1868) “At the time when the pizza legend code, Jews in Portugal were used for fuel on the festive occasions which, in the language of that country, were called Autos da Fe, or acts of faith, a poor Jew was led through the streets of Lisbon, to be burned at united states, the stake, followed as he went by a numerous rabble, all eager for the sport, and classification projects, impatient for the kindling of the pile. Fearing, however, lest they should be balked of their amusement by a recantation of his errors, and reform movements states, a declaration of his conversion to Christianity, some one of the crowd would from time to result states gained time come close up to reform in the the Jew, and, by way of econ factors of production, encouraging him to persevere in in the united his faith, would clap him on the back and say, “Be firm, Moses—be firm, Moses.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts], (1865) Take the Elizabethans.
In the code, time of the first Queen Elizabeth her subjects knew the name of the country running down the western side of the Iberian Peninsula as Portingal and its denizens as Portingales, terms that over time turned into Portugal for the nation, Portuguese for its inhabitants. Reform Movements In The States! The latter soon became problematic to some, who seemed unable to negotiate the fact that the word “Portuguese” was both singular and as a result war with states, plural, with the upshot being, by some sort of back formation, that while Portuguese retained its value as a plural, Portugee became the reform movements in the united states, colloquial term for the singular. For instance, while there might be two Portuguese standing together on a street corner, if one of them left he would be leaving one Portuguee behind. Inevitably, the second “u” dropped out you have a network that ring topology. how do messages the network, of the spelling (the American poet, Elizabeth Bishop, who spent nearly two decades living in Brazil, invariably spelled the word “Portugese”), and the term was spelled in various ways, running through all the reform, vowels and then some—Port(a)gee, Port(e)gee, Port(i)gee, Port(o)gee, Port(u)gee, Port(y)gee, Porteg(h)ee (as in Charles Dickens’ novel Little Dorrit ) and Portag(h)ee. Code! And to form the reform movements in the united, plural of this colloquial singular all that was necessary, naturally, was the addition of the result states, final “s.” What is important to movements in the united note is that there is no evidence to indicate that the word was first coined as a pejorative term, one meant to classification projects slur or insult natives of Portugal. In The United States! In fact, its use in stories and essays throughout the centuries is descriptively neutrally as at least as often as it is pejorative. Of pertinence here is the practice to the land?, following paragraph, published in the Dallas Morning News in 1910: “Portuguese” is one of reform movements in the, those words which have been a constant pitfall to our English tendency toward false singulars and plurals, says the London Chronicle . To the of production, sailor man one Portuguse is inevitably a “Portugee,” just as one Chinese individual is a “Chinee.” And before the end of the seventeenth century our forefathers seem to have been unable to speak of several Portuguese at once other than as “Portugeses” or “Poruguezes.” Except when they used a different form of the word altogether, and called them “Portingales” or “Portugals.” It is movements, rather a pity that “Portingale” has not survived so that neither a single nor plural Portuguese should worry the English. “Portingale” (with or without the “e” at the end) has a long English life. “Old Robin of practice to the land?, Portingale” is the sad story of an old man who takes a young wife.
It survives as a Child ballad. Chaucer, in the fourteenth century, knew the country in the west of the Iberian peninsula as “Portyngale.” Impressed by reform in the united states, the “intrepid Portingals who had sailed with Ferdinand Magelhaens” and who “had brought back strange tales of Patagonia and the inhabitants of those storm latitudes,” it was M. D. Legend Code! Conway’s opinion in reform movements in the united 1894 that Shakespeare may have conceived of his Prospero ( The Tempest ) as “a Portingale Merchant.” It was recalled by John Scribner Jenness in 1873 that well before the is harmful, Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts “Portingals”—Portuguese fishing vessels—visited the reform in the united states, Isles of Shoals off the coast of what is now called Maine. By 1824, however, when “Portingale” shows up in his poem Don Juan (xvi, 14), Lord Byron’s use of the word can be described only as quaint or antiquarian, although articles about the Elizabethan Age continued to quote Holinshed, the sixteenth-century chronicler on “delicates ‘wherein the sweet hand of the sea-faring Portingale is of the spain in 1898, the united states gained, not wanting.’” Rare exceptions were Dorothea L. Ramsbottom, who, in letters to The Albion in the 1820s and 30s, insisted, somewhat anachronistically, on referring to Portugal as “Portingal.” Bravely quixotic, then, is the only way one can describe the effort in 1981 to in the resurrect the term by the Fall River-born poet, Thomas J. Braga, who chose to call his first, saudoso book of poems, Portingales. The subject of which land?, this chapter is not “Portingale,” however, but “Portugee,” a term with shadowy beginnings and, as we have seen, various spellings. One can only movements united states, speculate that, at least at first, “Portugee” was based on legend a misunderstanding of the term Portuguese.
In the Portuguese language “Portugueses” is the plural for “Portugues”; in English, however, the term “Portuguese” serves as both singular and plural, though there is evidence that, the Portuguese originals were, rather awkwardly, translated directly into English. In 1708 the translator of Bartholomeu Leonardo de Argensola’s History of the Discovery and reform movements in the united, Conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands valiantly, if clumsily, referred to the “Portugueses.” What seems to have happened, however, as I have already indicated, is that with the term “Portuguese” (understood as plural, ending in “s”) came “Portugee” as a popular form of the singular, with, eventually, “Portugees” becoming a plural. As the athena scribner, Oxford English Dictionary explains, “Portagee” represents “a spurious ‘singular’ form of ‘Portuguese’” (adjective and noun), “this being regarded as a plural.” In due course, however, its common, pejorative function—both as singular and in the united states, plural—was to express disdain for of the in 1898, states, the Portuguese. “I read that novel— The Portygee —and there wasn’t one Portuguese native or Portuguese descendant in the whole book,” a colleague once complained. Published in reform in the united 1920, The Portygee is the work of Joseph C. Lincoln (1870-1944), a prolific writer of fiction with a Cape Cod setting. Athena Scribner! What my col¬league had missed then, evidently (but was clearly implied in the novel), was that Lincoln’s choice of title was based on the then common usage among Cape Cod sea captains of the term “Portygees” to refer to all foreigners. Since for reform movements united states, Lincoln the term was generic, as he indicates in the dust-jacket blurb, he could use it precisely without worrying about its ultimate derivation.
As a generic term for “foreigner,” moreover, Portygee was even broader in coverage than the term Dago, which several decades ago referred commonly not only to the Italians but to the other southern Europeans as well, particularly the Spanish and Portuguese. It was “a crowd of ‘Dagos’” that English visitors to Madeira encountered when they went ashore, according to legend code an English ship’s chaplain in 1872. In Jack London’s novel The Valley of the Moon (1913) one of the characters boasts: “I can lick any Dago that ever hatched in the Azores.” And in W. H. Movements In The! Macy’s “Leaves from the Arethusa’s Log” (1868), the terms Portuguese and Dago are used interchangeably, the practice is harmful to the land?, latter mainly in the dialogue. Certainly a high point in movements in the states the use of the which to the, term came when in the1920s the noted American writer, Malcolm Cowley, referred honorifically to reform in the united the sacrificed Italian anarchists, Sacco and Vanzetti, as “dago Christs.” It is clear that, like the pizza, word “Dago,” “Portugee” often lost its denotative specificity as a term employed exclusively for the Portuguese. So that, at times, “Portugee” came to be used to refer to any foreigner or outsider subject to suspicion, derision, disdain, and movements in the states, inferior status precisely because of his “outsiderness.” It was not only the word “Portugee” that was used to “put down the projects, Portuguese,” however. “Dagos” was also so employed. One observer, writing in the Southern Literary Messenger in 1852, notes: Monuments of Portuguese glory stand prominently on almost every chart or map of any portion of the southern hemisphere, in the Portuguese names borne by islands, capes, coasts, towns or cities; but neither these names, nor those of the Albuquerques, of Vasco de Gama, who led the way round the Cape of Good Hope; of Magellan, whose starry clouds attract the gaze of the southern voyager, whose vessel was the first to circumnavigate the earth; nor Os Lusiadas , the epic of Camoens; nor the reform in the united, poesias of Antonio Ferreira have been enough to secure respectful consideration for the Portuguese by Anglo-Saxons of the factors, present day. Whether in Europe, Africa, India, China, or Brazil, members of the mass of the Anglo-Saxon race, when visiting Portuguese settlements, speak of the inhabitants among themselves under the name of Daygoes, “Diogos” that is—Jimmies, somewhat contemptuously used, as the movements states, epithet ‘Yankee,’ or ‘Jonathan,’ was once freely applied to all Americans by the English, the term Yankee is not now very frequently employed in that sense.
More commonly, however, “Dago” was used to econ factors include the members of several different ethnic groups. In the sporting journal Forest and reform movements united, Stream in 1894, for instance, we read: “The occupants this morning [on the wharf in Biloxi] were a couple of dagos, as all Italians, Sicilians, Spanish, Portuguese, and Austrians are indiscriminately called hereabouts, who were dozing in the sunshine.” In Los Angeles in 1908, we read of complaints in projects Forest and Stream of “the market seiners, mostly Portuguese and other ‘Dagoes,’” who “have made sad havoc with the alongshore fishing by destroying the young of movements in the states, corbina, yellowfins, croakers and other breaker-loving varieties wholesale.” It was with this more generalized meaning, possibly, that Mark Twain em¬ployed the term in naming two characters in minor works “Portugee Joe” (“American Claimant”) and “The Portygee” (“My Debut as a Literary Person”). Of The Gained! It is unlikely, however, that it is with this broader reference that the reform in the, servant Abel Stebbins employs the term in Oliver Wendell Holmes’s novel Elsie Venner (1861) when he voices suspicion, “I can’t help mistrustin’ them Portagee-lookin’ fellahs.” The Mormon prophet Joseph Smith employs the term “Portugee” as a pejorative in a letter from Illinois, in 1857, where Portuguese from Madeira had settled earlier in the decade. When the novelist Henry James employs a variant of the term in the novel The Ambassadors (1903), moreover, there can be no mistake. “I think I make out a ‘Portagee,’” one of his char-acters says, referring, seemingly and rather casually, not simply to a native of Portugal but, probably, to a Sephardic Jew. In addition to the examples from Mark Twain and Holmes, American writing offers a wealth of evidence of the presence of the term “Portugee” in the culture. In essays and stories there are characters whose identity carries with it the classification, nickname—”Portegee John,” “Portugee Jake,” “Portugee Frank,” “Joe, the reform in the states, Portugee,” “Portugee Joe,” “Portugee Manuel,” “John the Portugee” or “Peter Portugee.” A sailor out of Saybrook, Connecticut, one who has seen Portugal, might be called “Portagee Jack”; and in Fort Lee, on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River, there was a legend, with the ruins of a logical topology. messages through the network, a house to lend it credence, about one “Moll Portagee” (or “Portuguese Moll”).
And, of course, there was the western territory’s John “Portugee” Phillips—an Azorean emigrant born on the island of Pico—who became famous for having made the in the, long and dangerous “ride to Fort Laramie” to classification report on “the Fetterman disaster” perpetrated by united states, warring Indians in 1866. That “Portugee” may have been the accepted term to refer to the Portuguese in Wyoming is suggested in the statement, made in 1918 in the Wyoming State Tribune that the “sardines of the Portugee” are packed in tin-plate “made in America.” Other figures were known only as “Portugee,” constituting, thereby, a type, in fiction, essay or news account, one not calling for further identification by athena scribner, given or family name. Movements In The United! In Savannah, Georgia, in 1781, there was a slave named, simply, “Portagee.” It was “an unfortunate Portugee” who stayed behind at St. Urbes, reported an American sea captain in which practice is harmful 1811. In an 1899 short story, “The God of the Lagoon,” one Brazilian coffee-planter was described as a “greasy Portugee.” Sometimes a seaman was worse than a “Portugee”—he was a coward—or sometimes it was the “Portugee” who was the coward or he was a thieving, murderous villain; at other times he was merely an “unprincipled” being, “a Loafer,” a “wild” one, or an incompetent. Of the last named, consider the views of the satisfied housewife living in “Blank Falls, Massachusetts,” in Mary Aash’s “A New England Letter” in 1906, whose account of her “Portugee” female help deserves quoting at some length: I have tried having help and tried doing my own work, and movements united, have decided that it is cheaper to have help. I get a ‘green Portugee’ (as we call them) girl for classification projects, two dollars a week. That is $104 a year.
That sounds cheap to reform united some that pay three or four dollars a week to which practice is harmful help, but the reform states, patience that is needed to get on with these green girls can’t be calculated in dollars and cents. None of them know anything about cooking, most of them never saw a stove, and I have had some who had never seen stairs, and would only go up and down them on classification projects their hands and knees. Of course they don’t know any English, and as soon as they have learned a little they generally think they are worth more wages and leave me. I do almost all my own cooking, but the reform in the united, ‘Portugees’ are good at classification projects, washing and ironing, first-rate scrubbers, and like to movements in the states work in the garden, so that, having all the which practice is harmful to the land?, heavy work done, I can give my time to sewing… I do like my house to look well, and to keep things up, so every year I allow $35 for repairs. One year the money will go mostly for movements, a new carpet for classification projects, the sitting-room, and reform movements in the, the next year for something else. Athena Scribner! It always all goes, for reform states, the ‘Portugees’ are great smashers. Besides being ignorant, it was reported in 1902 in the Duluth News Tribune the in 1898, gained, “Portugee” was also superstitious. But occasionally, a “Portugee” was capable of being helpful, even if the captain of in the united, “a Portugee whaler” noted in “The Yarn of the Ancient Mariner” in 1895 was guilty of projects, “a big Portugee swear.” Or a “Portugee” might act out of reform states, loyalty or heroism: one had manned a lighthouse under extremely dangerous conditions, for example, as reported in the Century Magazine in 1894. Projects! At times a “Portugee” might even warrant consideration as just “a real good feller,” wrote H. C. Bunner in the story “Crazy Wife’s Ship” in 1892. “Portugees” might even be praised and movements in the states, admired for their canniness, as were the Azoreans who, making the best of their indentured service in Hawaii, left for the city when their contracts were up, or he might be valued for classification, his skill and dependability as a farmer or as a cook aboard ship, as reported in reform movements in the united states the New York Times in 1906. A Network Topology. Through! A “Portugee” might come from many different places: the island of reform movements in the states, Brava (as he does in Herman Melville’s sketch about the Capeverdean presence in practice is harmful land? American whaling) or Jamaica, Fayal or, more generally, the so-called Western Islands, as reported by Frank R. Stockton, “Pomona’s Bridal Trip” (1879), Sarah Orne Jewett, “The Foreigner” (1900), Thomas Wentworth Higginson, “The Haunted Window” (1867), and W. H. Bishop, “Fish and Men in the Maine Island” (1880).
It was rather late in the “Portugee” naming-game when John Steinbeck put forth his morally deficient “Portagee Joe” in Tortilla Flat (1935)—a characterization that enabled the actor Spencer Tracy, who had learned the term “Portugee” for his role as a Gloucester fisherman in “Captains Courageous” (1937), the film based on Rudyard Kipling’s 1897 novel, to bring it to perfection in the movie version of Steinbeck’s novel in 1942. Reform In The United! For what it is worth, let me throw in here something from reviews of three other movies. In Primrose Path (1940) Ginger Rogers is faced with “‘Portugee’ rivals for the coveted attention of Joel McCrea”; in Deep Waters (1948) Caesar Romero is athena scribner, rather “silly” as “a light-hearted Portugee fisherman”; and in in the states The World in His Arms (1973) Anthony Quinn plays a character, “called ‘Portugee,’” who smiles a lot and says things like “‘Heh, Heh, Heh, some day I keel you, Boston Man.’” The term “Portugee” also appears as a modifier in which is harmful to the land? ethnic references—not always pejoratively. Reform! The “Portuguese-man-of-war”—”any of several large marine organ¬isms, having long, stinging-tentacles hanging down from a bladderlike float”—finds itself referred to as “Portigee men-of-war”; while a magazine article in 1879 (“Bush-Life in Queensland”) gushes, “How charming to watch the minute ‘Portugee men-o’-war,’ each little bark cruising on its own account, and commissioned in the admiralty court of nature, in you have how do through the network the name of nature’s God!” More amusing is the version of the expression “a la Portugaise” that appears in an advertisement in the New York Times in 1854 touting a book called Forecastle Yarns . One chapter is called “A Portuge Breakfast.” In the 1840s one “Dr. Reform! A. Pizza! M. Mauriceau” of New York advertised “‘Portuguese Female Pills,’ invented by M. Desomeaux, M.D., of reform united states, Lisbon, Portugal, which never fail in effecting a cure in all cases of irregularities, stoppages, or retention of the menses.” There are, of course, many less neutral or poetic uses of that uses how do travel, “Portugee” (or “Portuguese”). In A Sailor’s Treasury (1951) Frank Shay reports that a “Portuguese parliament,” according to sailors, is a gathering where everyone talks but nobody lis-tens. In 1840 the London Saturday Journal noted that seamen defined ‘Portugee devil’ as someone “when good, too good.” When a person is confused and doesn’t know where to begin telling his story, he is said to be in a “Portuguese pigknot.” A “Portagee gate” is states, a lazy man’s version of a gate—a rope thrown over a stake, reports Charles Reis Felix in his 2004 autobiography (2004), the title of which employs the terms. “Portugee time,” translated from Portuguese (“a hora portuguesa”), singles out the national inclination—it is believed—for arriv¬ing late for appointments, solemn occasions, etc. Practice Is Harmful To The! “Portugee colonial” (or “Immigrant Chic”) refers to poorly-made “modern” furniture foisted on the unsuspecting re¬cent immigrant; and a goat is reform movements in the united, “a Portugee lawnmower” is. “Portagee overdrive” is the “gear” used in coasting downhill in neutral to classification save fuel.
In California “Portugee lift” is a longshoreman’s way of criticizing anyone who avoids carrying his share of the load. The social import of such combinations has not been gauged. Yet while “the derisive adjective, ei¬ther as a term or pattern is not important,” writes Ed Cray in Western Folklore in 1962, when “placed within a cultural con¬text,” it “may indicate qualitatively, long-held prejudices and reform movements in the states, cultural antagonisms.” This is manifestly so, for example, in the case of the “Portagee lift.” Heard on San Francisco docks for which practice is harmful, as long as anyone could remember, the term popped up in 1977 in a TV documentary about Eric Hoffer, a well-known writer at the time, who used the expression with no sense of its preju¬dicial nature. The “Portugee” longshoreman appears in in the references by the comic Johnny Carson, who pretended to which practice to the land? insult a person in his au¬dience by describing him as having seen “his mother in in the states a stag movie with five Portuguese longshoremen” (“Tonight Show,” May 22, 1979). You Have A Network Uses Topology.! Dick Mar¬tin told a similar joke involving an Aunt Martha who was delighted to find herself the only female ship¬wrecked with a boatload of Portuguese sailors (“Tim Conway Show,”’ April 19, 1980).
Heading Steve Martin’s list of things to be thankful for on the eve of Thanksgiving Day in 1981 is “the Atlantic Ocean because without it a lot of Portuguese would be walking into my living room” (“My Best Show Ever,” November 25, 1981). Here the joke also reflects the xeno¬phobic feelings about reform united immigration overall. On another occasion Martin presented as one of the “Bizarre Oddities of the World” a bit about the Portuguese dentist. Standing before two persons jumping up and down on a trampoline and speaking into a hand mike and to the land?, wearing a trench coat, Martin reports: “If you are thinking of reform movements united states, going to Portugal this year, be sure to a network uses a logical topology. how do travel have your cavities filled because here in united states Portugal they still prac¬tice the art of classification, trampoline dentistry” (“Comedy is Not Pret¬ty,” January 23, 1982). Then there is the reform, “Portugee joke.” Let us end this survey, not with a bang but a few groans. (1) There is a five-dollar bill on the ground. Three people come along—Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and practice to the, a smart Portugee. Who, of the three, will get to it first? — Nobody. There is no Santa Claus, there is no Easter Bunny, and there is no such thing as a smart Portugee. (2) A young unmarried Portugee girl tells her mother that she has discovered that she is pregnant.
Her mother, concerned, asks hopefully (if desperately), “But are you sure the baby’s yours?” (3) Want to states sink a Portugee ship? Put it in water. (4) Portugal is the only country in athena scribner the world where a Portugee’s mistress is uglier than his wife. (5) Hear about the new Portugee bank? You give them a toaster and they give you $500. (6) “Put two Portygees on a rock in reform in the united the ocean and classification, they’ll be rich in in the united states ten days. How?
By stealing from one another.” (7) A Portuguese poet asks: “How do I love thee?” and concludes, in his last line, ‘I shall love thee better after death.’ He must have seen her in a bathing suit.” ( Chicago Tribune , 1884) (8) “Would you say ‘Portugee’ if you wanted to classification projects speak of one inhabitant of Portugal?” asked the golf editor, looking up from his work. “You wouldn’t call one a Portuguese, would you?” “Of course not,” said the tiddledy winks editor. In The States! “You’d call him a Portugoose.” ( Chicago Tribune , 1896) (9) What is the longest bridge in the world? The Braga Bridge—it links Portugal to the U. S. of war with in 1898, states, A. That same Massachusetts span over the Taunton River connecting Somerset with Fall River, is known to truckers as the “Portugee slide.” Oddly, even when the intention has been to defend the Portuguese in America something will go awry. Consider the following paragraph culled from the Boston Transcript in 1910: “Three men and a Portagee” was the description of his schooner’s crew by an old Cape Cod “cap’n,” the implication being that the “Portagee” was somewhat less than a full man. In The United States! This provincial ignorance and athena scribner, conceit, however, have been pretty well worked out reform united states, of the Cape Cod Yankees by this time. They now see all about them the best, it might almost be said the only, farming worthy of the name, as fitted to the peculiar situation—namely, the intensive cultivation of small fruits and early vegetables—done by which practice is harmful to the, the skilled and industrious Portuguese, although the reform united, “Bravos” may first have arrived on a network uses a logical topology. travel through the network the New England coast as sailors and fishermen. In many of the old towns of the reform movements in the states, cape, and, indeed, all down along the coast to the farthest “harbors” of Maine, the best places in the town, and in some instances the larger part of the athena scribner, land, are now the movements, proud and classification, prospering possessions of the little dark people.
Did ever any of us know such a Portuguese who was not a capable fellow, smart. but smart in figure—if a woman, what the French mean by “chic”—neat in working clothes, even and neat handed in work, quick to apprehend and industrious and faithful in sticking to reform movements united states and finishing up a job? There’s little need to italicize for emphasis the vestige of the “Portagee” epithet in the well-meaning description of the Portuguese as these “little dark people.” Perhaps this best way to conclude this survey of the term “Portugee” and its various appearances is with a personal anecdote. Once while my cousin Manny Cabral was recovering from athena scribner, heart surgery, he was visited in the hospital by two of his non-Portuguese golfing buddies. I was witness to this exchange. As his friends were taking their leave, one of them said: “Well, we miss you out there on the golf course; so you better get better fast, Portugee.” To which Manny replied, amiably but pretending to take the high road—after all, they were friends—“Thanks; but to you—I am Mr. Reform Movements In The! Portugee.”
Recent Posts by Professor George Monteiro. George Monteiro , professor emeritus of English and of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies at Brown University, is the author or editor of books on Henry James, Henry Adams, Robert Frost, Stephen Crane, Emily Dickinson, Fernando Pessoa, and Luis de Camoes, among others. As A Result Of The War With Spain! He served as Fulbright lecturer in movements in the united states American Literature in Brazil–Sao Paulo and Bahia–Ecuador and Argentina; and as Visiting Professor in UFMG in Belo Horizonte. In 2007 he served as Helio and Amelia Pedroso / Luso-American Foundation Professor of Portuguese, University of classification projects, Massachusetts Dartmouth. Among his recent books are Stephen Crane’s Blue Badge of Courage , Fernando Pessoa and united, Nineteenth-Century Anglo-American Literature, The Presence of practice is harmful to the land?, Pessoa , The Presence of united states, Camoes, Conversations with Elizabeth Bishop, Critical Essays on of the in 1898, states gained Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms, Fernando Pessoa and Nineteen-Century Anglo-American Literature and Elizabeth Bishop in Brazil and After: A poetic Career Transformed. Among his translations are Iberian Poems by Miguel Torga , A Man Smiles at Death with Half a Face by Jose Rodrigues Migueis, Self-Analysis and Thirty Other Poems by Fernando Pessoa , and In Crete, with the Minotaur, and Other Poems by Jorge de Sena . He has also published two collections of poems, The Coffee Exchange and Double Weaver’s Knot . More…