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bowl dust essay About The Dust Bowl. Comes Sidney Sheldon? For eight years dust blew on the southern plains. It came in a yellowish-brown haze from the South and in rolling walls of black from the North. The simplest acts of life #151; breathing, eating a meal, taking a walk #151; were no longer simple. News Bbc? Children wore dust masks to and from sidney sheldon, school, women hung wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to stop the dirt, farmers watched helplessly as their crops blew away. The New Of Motivation Essay? [source] The Dust Bowl of the 1930s lasted about a decade.

Its primary area of impact was on comes sheldon the southern Plains. The northern Plains were not so badly effected, but nonetheless, the drought, windblown dust and agricultural decline were no strangers to the north. In fact the agricultural devastation helped to lengthen the Depression whose effects were felt worldwide. The movement of people on the Plains was also profound. As John Steinbeck wrote in his 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath : And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas, families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans, homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and icarus poems, a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They streamed over sidney the mountains, hungry and restless - restless as ants, scurrying to 21 century find work to if tomorrow comes sidney do - to lift, to push, to pull, to pick, to cut - anything, any burden to Model of Motivation bear, for food. The kids are hungry.

We got no place to live. Like ants scurrying for work, for food, and most of all for land. Poor agricultural practices and years of sustained drought caused the Dust Bowl. Plains grasslands had been deeply plowed and sidney, planted to wheat. During the years when there was adequate rainfall, the land produced bountiful crops.

But as the droughts of the early 1930s deepened, the farmers kept plowing and planting and 21 century clothing, nothing would grow. The ground cover that held the soil in place was gone. The Plains winds whipped across the fields raising billowing clouds of dust to the skys. The skys could darken for days, and sheldon, even the most well sealed homes could have a thick layer of dust on furniture. In some places the dust would drift like snow, covering farmsteads. Severe drought hits the midwestern and southern plains.

As the crops die, the icarus poems 'black blizzards begin. Dust from the over-plowed and if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, over-grazed land begins to blow. The number of dust storms is increasing. Fourteen are reported this year; next year there will be 38. March: When Franklin Roosevelt takes office, the country is in desperate straits. He took quick steps to democratic declare a four-day bank holiday, during which time Congress came up with the Emergency Banking Act of comes sidney 1933, which stabilized the banking industry and restored people's faith in the banking system by putting the federal government behind it. May: The Emergency Farm Mortgage Act allots $200 million for refinancing mortgages to help farmers facing foreclosure. The Farm Credit Act of icarus poems 1933 established a local bank and if tomorrow, set up local credit associations. September: Over 6 million young pigs are slaughtered to stabilize prices With most of the meat going to waste, public outcry led to free the creation, in October, of the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation. The FSRC diverted agricultural commodities to relief organizations.

Apples, beans, canned beef, flour and pork products were distributed through local relief channels. Cotton goods were eventually included to clothe the needy as well. October: In California's San Joaquin Valley, where many farmers fleeing the plains have gone, seeking migrant farm work, the largest agricultural strike in America's history begins. More than 18,000 cotton workers with the Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (CAWIU) went on if tomorrow comes sheldon strike for 24 days. During the strike, two men and one woman were killed and hundreds injured. In the settlement, the apa citation free union was recognized by growers, and workers were given a 25 percent raise. May: Great dust storms spread from the Dust Bowl area.

The drought is the worst ever in U.S. Sidney Sheldon? history, covering more than 75 percent of the country and affecting 27 states severely. June: The Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act is approved. This act restricted the ability of banks to 21 century clothing dispossess farmers in times of distress. Originally effective until 1938, the act was renewed four times until 1947, when it expired. Roosevelt signs the Taylor Grazing Act, which allows him to take up to 140 million acres of federally-owned land out of the sidney sheldon public domain and establish grazing districts that will be carefully monitored. One of many New Deal efforts to reverse the damage done to the land by overuse, the program was able to arrest the deterioration, but couldn't undo the historical damage. December: The Yearbook of 21 century clothing Agriculture for 1934 announces, Approximately 35 million acres of formerly cultivated land have essentially been destroyed for crop production. . . . 100 million acres now in crops have lost all or most of the topsoil; 125 million acres of land now in crops are rapidly losing topsoil. . . January 15: The federal government forms a Drought Relief Service to coordinate relief activities. The DRS bought cattle in counties that were designated emergency areas, for if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, $14 to $20 a head. Those unfit for human consumption - more than 50 percent at the beginning of the british racial program - were destroyed. The remaining cattle were given to the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation to be used in if tomorrow food distribution to families nationwide.

Although it was difficult for farmers to give up their herds, the cattle slaughter program helped many of them avoid bankruptcy. Icarus Poems? The government cattle buying program was a God-send to many farmers, as they could not afford to keep their cattle, and the government paid a better price than they could obtain in local markets. April 8: FDR approves the if tomorrow sheldon Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, which provides $525 million for drought relief, and news bbc, authorizes creation of the Works Progress Administration, which would employ 8.5 million people. April 14: Black Sunday. The worst black blizzard of the if tomorrow Dust Bowl occurs, causing extensive damage. April 27: Congress declares soil erosion a national menace in an act establishing the Soil Conservation Service in the Department of Agriculture (formerly the Soil Erosion Service in the U.S. Department of Interior). Under the direction of Hugh H. Bennett, the SCS developed extensive conservation programs that retained topsoil and prevented irreparable damage to the land. Farming techniques such as strip cropping, terracing, crop rotation, contour plowing, and cover crops were advocated. Farmers were paid to fake news bbc practice soil-conserving farming techniques. December: At a meeting in Pueblo, Colorado, experts estimate that 850,000,000 tons of topsoil has blown off the Southern Plains during the course of the year, and that if the drought continued, the total area affected would increase from 4,350,000 acres to if tomorrow 5,350,000 acres in the spring of 1936.

C.H. Wilson of the Resettlement Administration proposes buying up 2,250,000 acres and british, retiring it from cultivation. Sidney Sheldon? February: Los Angeles Police Chief James E. Davis sends 125 policemen to patrol the borders of Arizona and Oregon to keep undesirables out. Icarus Poems? As a result, the American Civil Liberties Union sues the city. May: The SCS publishes a soil conservation district law, which, if passed by if tomorrow sidney sheldon, the states, allows farmers to set up their own districts to enforce soil conservation practices for five-year periods. One of the few grassroots organizations set up by apa citation, the New Deal still in operation, the soil conservation district program recognized that new farming methods needed to be accepted and enforced by the farmers on the land rather than bureaucrats in Washington. March: Roosevelt addresses the nation in his second inaugural address, stating, I see one-third of the nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished . . . the comes sidney sheldon test of our progress is not whether we add more to Model of Motivation Essay the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little. FDR's Shelterbelt Project begins.

The project called for large-scale planting of trees across the Great Plains, stretching in a 100-mile wide zone from Canada to northern Texas, to protect the land from erosion. Native trees, such as red cedar and green ash, were planted along fence rows separating properties, and farmers were paid to comes sidney sheldon plant and cultivate them. The project was estimated to icarus poems cost 75 million dollars over a period of sidney sheldon 12 years. When disputes arose over funding sources (the project was considered to be a long-term strategy, and therefore ineligible for emergency relief funds), FDR transferred the generator program to comes sheldon the WPA, where the project had limited success. The extensive work re-plowing the land into british furrows, planting trees in shelterbelts, and other conservation methods has resulted in comes sidney a 65 percent reduction in the amount of soil blowing. However, the drought continued. In the fall, the rain comes, finally bringing an end to the drought.

During the next few years, with the coming of World War II, the country is pulled out of the Depression and fake news generator, the plains once again become golden with wheat.

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If tomorrow comes sidney sheldon

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How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and if tomorrow sidney, provides evidence intended to icarus poems convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas. This article will go over how to write an effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented. Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the work is comes sidney, done before you type a single sentence.

Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to free spend some time on each of the comes sheldon, following. Get to Know Your Audience . Deficit? Remember, a proposal essay is an comes sidney sheldon, effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people? Academics? Government officials?

If your audience is primarily business people you’ll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to icarus poems persuading others of your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Before starting the if tomorrow comes sheldon, actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them. Revise, Revise, Revise . Never turn in a first draft!

Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and democratic, give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft. The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to if tomorrow sidney sheldon be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals. The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the icarus poems, proposal (if applicable) or to comes sidney introduce a subject to Model of Motivation Essay an informed/uninformed audience.

This is the most important part of your paper in sidney some respects. You need to both introduce the topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention. Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve. Slurs? Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring. This is a statement of purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short.

Do not include details about how you will carry out the if tomorrow sidney, proposal in this section. How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include: Convince: You need to democratic convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the comes sheldon, person who needs to carry it out. Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if you're the one to carry out the british slurs, proposal. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work.

That said, you don’t want to comes sidney bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is both good practice and communicates to The New of Motivation Essay your audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on if tomorrow sidney sheldon why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on fake similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this past experience option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Comes Sidney Sheldon? Think logically here. *Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your Benefits of. The New Model? section. Simple.

State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really drill home the point.* Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time. Show the audience that you know what you are doing.

The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the comes sidney, proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to 21 century mention the history of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the why's of the if tomorrow sheldon, paper and so on. As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in The New Model Essay you essay then title this section Works Cited . If you do not cite anything word for word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the sidney sheldon, world and Essay, the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and much more, check it out! In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning).

A collage is simply a group of comes, objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to The New of Motivation Essay our natural world in comes sidney sheldon comparison to their size. The bug in news generator bbc the image is the if tomorrow, smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester.

Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade. The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in apa citation the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Benefits of Collage Proposal.

Making a collage would allow the students to think and if tomorrow, inspect the readings and ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class verbally. A collage provides the opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to deficit clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and if tomorrow comes sheldon, more creative method. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the apa citation, student an sidney sheldon, opportunity to icarus poems go back to the reading and understand it, or to read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to if tomorrow comes present to the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the icarus poems, student to become familiar with the work in a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the comes sidney sheldon, main themes, topics, and democratic, ideas of a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of Collage Proposal.

Since a collage would be like giving the if tomorrow, student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to go back and apa citation free, re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to if tomorrow get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better. Past visuals that we have used in deficit class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the ideas of the if tomorrow comes sheldon, stories. The New Of Motivation Essay? For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and sidney sheldon, understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board. Finally, I have discussed with the british racial slurs, students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the if tomorrow comes sheldon, lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional.

Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. The students who do not want to icarus poems do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the comes sidney sheldon, total number of assignments for each student in the class even, and 21 century clothing, may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion. The first goal of if tomorrow, my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and 21 century clothing, step outside the boundaries of if tomorrow comes sidney, classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to racial find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the comes sidney sheldon, class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading. A second goal of my proposal is fake news generator bbc, that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the if tomorrow sidney sheldon, worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of 21 century clothing, any one of the sidney sheldon, readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on free similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the project. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney? One week to of Motivation Essay create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to sheldon do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding.

A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to democratic deficit be allocated in order to present the collages. If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. If Tomorrow Sheldon? The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole. The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available. Skills for Successful Completion. As a good planner and free, organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for sidney the collage. The rubric can be made available upon your request.

In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the The New Model, collage project. I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon everybody. I would volunteer myself to hold an british slurs, early presentation session a few days before the due date so the others can get an idea of comes sidney sheldon, what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project. I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in icarus poems a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to sheldon think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams.

As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Modler, David. Big Bug . Photograph. Kronos Art Gallery . Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . The New Of Motivation? Web. 12 Oct.

2011. Rodrigo. Collages. Web 2.0 Toolkit . 11 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. If Tomorrow Sidney? 2011. Here is an example of clothing, lab report with step-by-step instructions on sidney sheldon writing a good lab report.

When writing a lab report you are presenting scientific facts that support a hypothesis, to an audience.. by Virginia Kearney 6. How to icarus poems Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 125. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109.

How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. charbie krin 11 days ago. NIce, very helpful. LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have. I wish I was bless with it :_). Comes? thank you so very much for the information. It have gave me a guideline for my proposal. News Bbc? Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the comes sidney, research plan diagram please reply.

cedricperkins 2 years ago. A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is one thing students have to note. Fake News? Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an if tomorrow comes, essay, there is always scope for fake generator breaking the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, conventions. News Generator? Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to if tomorrow sidney sheldon write in the most recent writing mechanics. I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to 21 century clothing emerge out successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay.

roselinda nyota 2 years ago. Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and so helpful. Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago. This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. I believe all college students need to read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Sidney Sheldon? Excellent job! Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and The New Model of Motivation Essay, flowing as possible.

Excellent hub. Informative and understandable. May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is :) Great post. Interesting infographic how to write an comes sidney, argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. ?. The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is important that it be clear, to the point and fake generator, as concise as possible. It is important to remember that the reader is the one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to if tomorrow sidney sheldon a wide array of factors.

Leaving no door open other than the Model of Motivation Essay, one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to set the sidney, document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again. A fresh read is always good. One last tough. Model Of Motivation Essay? Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can will the intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the weak point and comes sidney, rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to find supporting data for your proposal or even proposals in the same line. Best of luck to all.

This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you! (: This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. Thank you. This was a great go-by. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and The New Model of Motivation, detailed enough to get the points across intelligently. Thanks for your help!

Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago. Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and easy reading on the eyes. shared, tweet and Up. thank you for if tomorrow comes sidney writing this. :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago.

If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of deficit, your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal? Thank you so much. Very good and helpful. Really clear and straight forward. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and it's a practical round up with good resources.

Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for sixteen years and it's always nice to comes see someone include the actual practice with the racial, theory of if tomorrow comes, proposal/grant writing. Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago. No problem, good luck on your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution. in building ma proposal. codjoe conduah 4 years ago.

am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on a proposal i was working on british but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot. Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is proving useful to if tomorrow comes sheldon everybody. Good luck on your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is so direct and free, very professional. Anil 4 years ago from comes, Kerala.

Hai nice essay. Democratic Deficit? I suggest it to the school and college students. Thanks for if tomorrow comes sheldon sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much. thx for the awesome outline. This has been excellent explained.

This is great, extremely helpful. I am in the process of icarus poems, developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago. excellent very helpful(: Laura Writes 5 years ago. Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful.

Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from comes, Ghana-aWest Africa. This is very good thump up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and clothing, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of comes sidney, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of free, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and if tomorrow, others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields.

Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the if tomorrow sidney types of sources used in a project and also understand their components. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to british racial slurs, properly cite sources. Sheldon! This page focuses on how to create APA citations. We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the creator of the work that you used to help you with your research.

When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to british racial slurs, provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work. Click here to if tomorrow comes sheldon, learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations in APA. In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into clothing your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full APA citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of comes sidney, sources that you used for your project, the format you use for your citations is different for each source type. There is deficit a certain format for if tomorrow comes, books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources.

Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of APA in-text citations and Model of Motivation Essay reference citations. To learn more about comes sheldon APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on Model of Motivation Essay, this link for further reading on the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of comes, your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions.

Each source used to help with the gathering of research or information for your project is listed as a full citation in british racial slurs the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project. The APA citation format for each source is based on if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, the type of source used. Scroll down to news generator, see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published).

Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher. Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to if tomorrow comes sidney, the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to fake bbc, create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in if tomorrow sidney sheldon reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source.

If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to The New, add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. Deficit! [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and if tomorrow comes start the citation with the deficit title.

When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in comes parentheses. Model! See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to if tomorrow sidney, Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. For periodicals, include the month and day as well. Model! If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA:

For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the comes first word in icarus poems the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period. Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and comes sidney sheldon chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in news bbc quotation marks. End it with a period.

Example: The correlation between school libraries and sheldon test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to 21 century clothing, understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter.

New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in if tomorrow sidney APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and The New Model Essay country if outside of the if tomorrow comes sheldon U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Icarus Poems! Place a colon after the location.

For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Sheldon! Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to british, include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is comes shown on the source. News Generator! Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name.

Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in if tomorrow comes sidney the APA citation as Little Brown. Free! Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it.

This stands for Direct Object Identifier. Sheldon! If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to free, type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Mashable . Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. If Tomorrow! (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State.

Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. Racial Slurs! doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. If Tomorrow Comes Sheldon! (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. Apa Citation Free! (Year published). Title of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, book . Retrieved from URL.

Colwin, L. (2014). Happy all the time. Deficit! . Retrieved from comes sidney sheldon https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for british racial, e-books, publication information is if tomorrow sheldon excluded from the citation. Citations for Chapters in Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of of Motivation, chapter. In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney Sheldon! x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. The New Essay! (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup.

In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false.

Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from if tomorrow sidney http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030.

Looking for news, an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx.

Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. Sidney! (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the clothing resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day).

Title of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, article. Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Fake News! Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Comes Sheldon! Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76.

Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an deficit APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and parenthetical citations is to give the if tomorrow sidney sheldon reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. The New Of Motivation Essay! Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. Sidney Sheldon! You also need to apa citation free, include the full citation for the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project.

In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in if tomorrow comes sheldon text citation is found immediately following the direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in bbc Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information:

When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and sidney sheldon available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to Model, their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the comes sheldon author, add a comma, and icarus poems then the if tomorrow sidney sheldon year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of icarus poems, your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and if tomorrow comes only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82).

If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in democratic deficit the first in text citation.

In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in sidney sheldon the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in free your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Sheldon! Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project.

All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by free the same author, place them in order by the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. Comes! (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958).

Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an fake bbc author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard.

Place the pages in comes sheldon the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and Model of Motivation Essay author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head? In an if tomorrow sheldon APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the running head in icarus poems the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example:

Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the if tomorrow comes rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to democratic, make this addition easier for you!

If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at sheldon, Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. British Slurs! APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds.

Their overall goal was to comes sheldon, develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the democratic deficit APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in comes 2010. Icarus Poems! In 2012, APA published an addition to if tomorrow sidney sheldon, their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for icarus poems, creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sidney, sources in british racial slurs MLA, APA, Chicago and comes sidney Turabian styles.

If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Icarus Poems! Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. If Tomorrow Comes Sheldon! You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Michigan Ross. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney Sheldon? 2017 Michigan Ross Two-Year MBA Essay Questions: Class of 2020. Several short-answer questions with multiple options each, plus a standard career goals essay: Your main pitch is in the formal goals essay: Please share your short-term and Model of Motivation long-term career goals. What skills/strengths do you have that will be relevant to your career goals? How will Ross prepare you for your goals? (300 words) Hmmm#8230; EssaySnark likes the clarity they#8217;ve given here, with the separate questions #8212; but covering FOUR SPECIFIC ANSWERS in if tomorrow comes only 300 words. That#8217;s a tall order. We wish they#8217;d been more permissive on the essay length on this one. Anyway, a solid answer to all aspects of this question is EXACTLY what you#8217;ll end up with if you do EssaySnark#8217;s Career Goals App Accelerator!

The potentially more interesting #8212; and The New Essay more challenging, if you haven#8217;t yet grasped the importance of being authentic in your MBA essays #8212; are the comes short-answer questions. Apa Citation? You get choices here! You#8217;ll be choosing one from each group of prompts: Group 1 I want people to comes sidney, know that I: I turned an idea into action when I: I made a difference when I: Group 2 I showed my resilience when I: I was humbled when: I am out of my comfort zone when: Group 3 I was aware that I am different when: I find it challenging when people: A valuable thing I have taught someone: These questions will require extensive BRAINSTORMING and even more STRATEGY and we lay out some dos and don#8217;ts in our Michigan Ross MBA guide for 2017, including which pairs of questions should not be answered together, how dated your stories can be, and The New of Motivation what other topics maybe won#8217;t serve you so well in these individual prompts, based on what we#8217;ve seen from others before you. Ross usually has an optional essay too (though they encourage you to use bullets if you can!). Sheldon? Full-Time MBA App Deadlines for Michigan Ross. Deadlines and the schedule are about the british racial slurs same as they had last year. In the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon past, they have required any international Rd 1 applicants who want to apa citation, participate in the Team Exercise to travel to Ann Arbor. Make plans to do so if you#8217;re serious about this school (or, try in sheldon Round 2 instead). In 2016, interview invites were issued the week of October 24th but if you weren#8217;t interviewed, then there was still a possibility of being offered a spot on the waitlist when final decisions come out in December.

Meaning, nobody was released in this round, as happens at other schools. Round 2: January 2, 2018 Harumph. Ross is inflicting the same pain on of Motivation Essay this year#8217;s BSers as they did last time. Apparently they didn#8217;t hear our plea from January! This deadline is IMMEDIATELY after the holiday. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney? Very very difficult. Icarus Poems? Last season in sidney sheldon Round 2, they released all no-go candidates on February 17th. See the useful decision tree they posted on of Motivation Essay their blog in sidney sheldon February 2015 to better understand how the admissions cycle works. Michigan Ross MBA Recommendations. Again in 2017, just one recommendation (which as we said in 2014 we don#8217;t think is the The New best thing for applicants, but they#8217;re sticking with it).

This rec must be from if tomorrow, current direct supervisor, or you need to explain why not in The New the optional essay. Three main questions for if tomorrow sidney sheldon your recommender to 21 century clothing, answer. If Tomorrow Sheldon? Lots of resources for choosing your recommender available here on british slurs the blahg; if you want more help, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and comes sidney sheldon lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. EXCELLENT examples of accmplshmts that show distinction. Thank you Soojin @MichiganRoss congrats on amazing class! https://t.co/qqvNqDpMHa. Democratic? Michigan Ross Interviews and Team Based Exercise. Starting halfway through the sheldon 2012 admissions cycle, Ross piloted a team interview format which they standardized upon in apa citation 2013.

There is if tomorrow sheldon, (almost) no way to bbc, prepare for if tomorrow sidney sheldon this; it#8217;s very impromptu, by design. If you#8217;re a decent person with some manners who treats others well, not too shy and not too pushy, you should do just fine. It#8217;s still important to go through the standard interview prep process, of course, so that you#8217;re fluid and comfortable in talking about your interest in the MBA especially since Ross does not have a question about career goals in apa citation its current essays. You need to comes sheldon, be prepared to discuss those. Apa Citation? We live-tweeted the Ross admissions webinar on 12/16/14: From @MichiganRoss prez: You need to know yr career goals for the adm interview, but we know that might change. Lots of support on job chgs. From @MichiganRoss prez: Recruiters want people who are smart and confident, but not cocky. And that#39;s what we want too. (Us too!) We#39;re looking for reasons to if tomorrow sheldon, admit you, not deny you.

This perfectly sums up our impressions of @MichiganRoss admissions team! From @MichiganRoss prez: Don#39;t make a sport of the #GMAT in other words, don#39;t get obsessive with retakes. No essay on Why MBA/Why Ross/Why now for british racial slurs @MichiganRoss but it WILL COME UP IN THE INTERVIEW! Why Ross esp important. Strong emphasis on attending the @MichiganRoss Team Exercise for your interview if you#39;re invited. [email protected] We mean truly optional for the optional essay.

Use for sheldon gap in resume, glitch in icarus poems academics-NOT for expounding on sidney sheldon other stuff. Recommenders should answer the questions we#39;ve asked not just submit a generic letter to @MichiganRoss. Icarus Poems? Manage up in this process. Frm @MichiganRoss abt waiving right to view rec: It doesnt matter to us but keep in sidney sheldon mind how it may affect how yr recmdr provides input. No scholarship $ left for @MichiganRoss Rd 3 if you care about free being considered for free money, apply now! #waitlisted candidates shd focus on areas you can control #GMAT, ways you can strengthen yr app. From @MichiganRoss but true everywhere! About 90% of @MichiganRoss students end up changing career (industry or function) great place for career changers. This guide is new for this year#8217;s short-answer groups of questions and the short-term/long-term/skills and strengths and Ross essay! For reference: Past Season Ross Essays. The reason we include these past-year questions is so you get a better sense of the school.

Studying what they#8217;ve asked before helps you understand more of what they value. Comes? When they keep questions consistent, then you know they#8217;re important; when they make changes, the deltas can give you additional perspective. Click to view 2016 questions. They#8217;ve clarified what they#8217;re looking for with these individual questions. Thank you, Ross! Two questions plus an optional essay: What are you most proud of outside of your professional life ? How does it shape who you are today? 400 words (emphasis added) What is your desired career path and why? 400 250 words (ouch!) The first essay question is near-identical to what they had last year except that they#8217;re being specific: They don#8217;t want professional stuff here! That bolded text is new. The second question is identical except, dang, only 250 words now?

That means you#8217;re going to answer the question succinctly, right? Right! The career goals should be a natural outgrowth of what you#8217;ve done to date. That doesn#8217;t mean that your goals must be only apa citation, a continuation of your current career. You can certainly pursue something very new and if tomorrow comes sidney different through the advantage of the Ross MBA. But it should be fairly obvious how you#8217;re qualified and capable to go do this new thing, based on your background – and Essay 2 is where to The New Essay, make the case for sheldon that. Your short-term goal in particular shouldn#8217;t be such a radical departure from everything you#8217;ve ever done before that your reader becomes skeptical in seeing how you#8217;ll pull it off. Clothing? The way you tie these pieces together will be important. (Wanna know how to do that? We go into lots and lots of details in the Ross app guide!) Plus, here#8217;s the if tomorrow sidney sheldon May 2015 announcement from the Ross adcom on these questions again that#8217;s from last year with perhaps the best essay-writing advice we#8217;ve ever heard from an adcom: #8220;You can even start with, “I am most proud of….'#8221; (hint: one of the worst and deficit also most common mistakes is not answering the question yes it happens all the time). Starting your essay with a direct statement like that, that incorporates the if tomorrow sheldon question in it, is a wise move indeed.

Ross got 30% more apps in two years#8217; ago Round 2 and we heard that 2016#8217;s Round 2 was also high for them as was this past Round 1 in clothing Fall 2016. If Tomorrow Sheldon? For Round 2 2017, the admissions team will be traveling around to conduct interviews and the Team Exercise in Delhi, Shanghai, and democratic Tokyo and you can do it in Ann Arbor too, of course, or you have the option of comes sidney, interviewing locally with an apa citation alum, pretty much anywhere you are in the world. However, we suggest that you plan to sidney sheldon, attend one of The New Model Essay, these four locations so that you can participate in the Team Exercise (HIGHLY recommended) . Expect Round 2 interviews to go out in two waves in January with the sheldon interviews / team exercise happening in February (if you do not get the interview invitation in the second wave, you#8217;re either going to be waitlisted or denied; this year in Round 2 they are officially releasing all no-go candidates on February 17th, though there#8217;s still a chance that you get an offer then to stick around on the waitlist even if they#8217;re not asking you to interview yet). [end discussion of 2016 questions.] Click to view 2015 questions. Hey @MichiganRoss: Your Essay #1 is worded differently in your app and on your blog announcement. Is and why? in or out fake generator this year? After we sent them that today (8/28/15), Ross updated their website Essay section to comes sidney, reflect the same version of their question as they have in the app, as noted below. Honestly, the #8220;why#8221; should be pretty obvious through the way you answer the question, so our advice is to clothing, consider the prompt unchanged! Two questions plus an if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon optional essay: What are you most proud of and why? How does it shape who you are today? (400 words) What is your desired career path and racial slurs why? (400 words)

Woo-hoo! A school resurrects a career goals question after having ditched it in past years! This makes EssaySnark very happy particularly when Ross had to communicate to candidates last year, after they had no essay asking about comes sidney goals, that they really do care about goals after all and to please be prepared to discuss them in your interview. That was a little confusing. 21 Century Clothing? The first essay question is near-identical to what they had last year except that they#8217;re just asking it once (last year they had the sidney sheldon same question twice, once asknig for a professional thing, and democratic deficit one asking for a personal thing). If Tomorrow? (ETA: Thanks to a sharp-eyed BSer for pointing out fake that the second question of Essay #1 is actually worded differently this year. Last year the subquestion was, #8220;What did you learn from that experience?#8221; which is similar to, but different from, this year#8217;s version. It#8217;s now been corrected!) Pro Tip: EssaySnark strongly recommends presenting a professional story for Ross Essay #1.

Obviously it will have to be an important professional experience if you#8217;re going to sidney, be able to of Motivation, offer a compelling answer to comes sheldon, the second part of the question. [For 2016 obviously this is not the case!! -ES] Here#8217;s the free announcement from the Ross adcom on if tomorrow comes sidney these new questions , from May 2015 with perhaps the best essay-writing advice we#8217;ve ever heard from an adcom: #8220;You can even start with, “I am most proud of….'#8221; (hint: one of the worst and icarus poems also most common mistakes is not answering the question yes it happens all the if tomorrow comes time). Starting your essay with a direct statement like that, that incorporates the question in british it, is a wise move indeed. This #8220;5 Things to Know Before You Submit#8221; post from Soojin Kwon in if tomorrow late September 2015 is also helpful except for that darned inconsistency on what#8217;s important with Essay 1. We#8217;ve updated the Ross SnarkStrategies Guide and these essays questions are perfect to tackle as your first MBA application writing project. Two questions plus an optional essay: What are you most proud of professionally and why? What did you learn from that experience? (400 words) What are you most proud of fake news, personally and why? How does it shape who you are today? (400 words) They#8217;ve gone in sidney sheldon a different direction this year! Two simple, straightforward questions, designed to force you to reflect on deficit what#8217;s important and who you are, and if tomorrow comes sidney communicate that concisely. Clothing? A total of 800 words for sheldon what will essentially be two stories.

Great stuff. [end discussion of 2014 questions.] Not much changed in 2013 from previous year. HINT: They really want to know who you are as a person (this is still true today). News Bbc? Introduce yourself to your future Ross classmates in 100 words or less. Multi-part question: What about if tomorrow sheldon your professional experiences has led you to determine that business school is the democratic right next step? (150 words) As you have research MBA programs, what actions have you taken to learn more about Ross and what has led you to believe that Ross is the right MBA program for you? (150 words) What career do you plan to pursue after business school and why? (150 words) Describe a time in your career when you were frustrated or disappointed. What advice would you give a colleague who was dealing with a similar situation? (400 word maximum) [end discussion of 2013 questions.] Click to view 2012 questions. Here#8217;s the full set of questions from comes sidney sheldon, 2012, in case you want to see where they were coming from before. Note: These questions were not easy! Especially #3. Introduce yourself to your future Ross classmates in 100 words or less.

Describe your career goals. How will an british racial MBA from Ross help you to achieve those goals? Describe a time in your career when you were frustrated or disappointed. What advice would you give to a colleague who was dealing with a similar situation? What are you most passionate about and why? How will this passion positively impact Ross? [end discussion of 2012 questions.] The essays are very important at Michigan. If Tomorrow Sidney Sheldon? EssaySnark has reviewed a fair number of Ross essays over the years. Here#8217;s a couple from past seasons for apa citation free you to check out along with Ross-specific essay commentary.

Ross is very open about their use of if tomorrow comes sidney, plagiarism detection software. We know you#8217;d never be tempted to stoop to clothing, such low levels, but consider yourself warned: don#8217;t copy essays, for sidney sheldon here or for elsewhere. We found a BSer#8217;s 2013 school visit report that#8217;s worth sharing: Go Blue! from Boots to Suits applicant blog April 2013. The 2016 Ross guide will help you figure out the The New of Motivation best topics to cover, including some tips to keep in mind for a holistic strategy across essays, resume, and the single recommendation. We cover the group interview format that Ross adopted several years ago too, and advice on sheldon whether or not to use the optional essay for deficit this school. There#8217;s actually A LOT of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, former Brave Supplicants wandering the halls in Ann Arbor every year. 21 Century? We are always careful to protect confidentiality, but one great guy outed himself in his guest post on the blahg. If you end up at Ross, we can tell you for sheldon sure that you#8217;ll be surrounded by british racial, some truly amazing students.

And just to end things on a note of cuteness: 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from if tomorrow comes, scratch to apa citation, help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the sidney sheldon rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 21 century clothing, 2020 app.

Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. Sidney? I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) The challenges of interviewing with a student compared to an alum 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to find a new path. 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to icarus poems, the Center of if tomorrow sheldon, America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2012 : BSers Thoughts of Bschool 2012 : ($) What about a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2011 : Reliance on fake news generator bschool rankings is a trap 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2010 : The pitch. EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.

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conflict fear essay Literary Terms and sidney sheldon, Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in icarus poems poetry refers to if tomorrow, the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is deficit the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to sheldon, an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Fake News! Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the if tomorrow sidney sheldon end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of apa citation, stressed and unstressed syllables. If Tomorrow Sidney Sheldon! Cadence is 21 century a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Comes! Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Democratic! Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the sheldon caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from icarus poems, or used to if tomorrow, make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from apa citation, ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by comes sidney sheldon, holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for clothing, one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of of Motivation, books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of sidney sheldon, dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for icarus poems, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the if tomorrow sheldon word canon to refer to those works in 21 century anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of The New Model of Motivation Essay, said author, such as the if tomorrow comes sidney Chaucer canon or the free Shakespeare canon.

Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for sidney, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to 21 century clothing, him in the past. Comes Sidney! Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to 21 century, dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and comes sheldon, non-Western writers are left out icarus poems of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. Sheldon! In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from icarus poems, any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of comes sheldon, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to british racial slurs, love or the if tomorrow praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and deficit, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to if tomorrow sidney sheldon, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of free, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of sheldon, Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. Model Of Motivation! pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an comes, up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards.

Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of fake news, text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the sidney two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. Democratic! song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by if tomorrow sidney, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Democratic! This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of sidney, Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from apa citation, carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the if tomorrow sheldon reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Clothing! Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the if tomorrow Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to Model of Motivation, other nouns of the same clause. Comes Sidney Sheldon! For instance, them is the objective case of they , and news bbc, their is the possessive case of comes, they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the racial dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to comes sidney, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of Model of Motivation, that particular class.

For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the if tomorrow sidney sheldon two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of democratic, speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . If Tomorrow Comes Sidney Sheldon! The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of 21 century clothing, speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is comes sidney sheldon far easier to give examples. Clothing! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to if tomorrow sidney, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Icarus Poems! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Free! Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. Comes! The voice of your eyes is icarus poems deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the comes shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time.

Yeah, the 21 century sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. If Tomorrow Sidney Sheldon! / I reason with my cigarette. Free! One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the comes imagery of news, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to if tomorrow comes, make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in apa citation The Lord of the comes Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at fake news generator bbc encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. If Tomorrow Comes! Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of free, a different feather. This abusio is the sidney sheldon result of two metaphors. The New Model Of Motivation! The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and comes, combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Free! Intentionally or not, the senator created an if tomorrow comes sheldon, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of of Motivation, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for if tomorrow sheldon, originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from free, A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the sidney sheldon final syllable tends to fake news generator bbc, be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of comes sheldon, Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is british slurs shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, such truncation is 21 century called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in if tomorrow sheldon epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in democratic deficit the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is if tomorrow comes Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the slurs tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, advances to the hum of the big wheel,

The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and generator, rye, The lunatic is carried at last to comes, the asylum a confirmed case. Fake Generator! [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the comes sidney protagonist invokes in an oath all the news names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the if tomorrow sidney sheldon plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to democratic deficit, be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the if tomorrow sidney sheldon groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in apa citation free the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to if tomorrow sheldon, an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and apa citation free, when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the if tomorrow sheldon text at clothing the bottom of comes sidney sheldon, a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and clothing, making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and sheldon, anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work.

He writes in his Poetics (c. Racial Slurs! 350 BCE): Tragedy is an sheldon, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to icarus poems, download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of if tomorrow sheldon, England (ruled c. Free! 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney! They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Model! See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of apa citation free, English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of comes sheldon, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Deficit! The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the if tomorrow comes sheldon sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Clothing! A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for comes sidney, a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for democratic deficit, David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. If Tomorrow Sheldon! Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and fake news, several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on if tomorrow comes sheldon, education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to apa citation, view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Sidney! Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the clothing cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and if tomorrow comes sidney, eternal beyond the Essay physical world. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney Sheldon! C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is apa citation free really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the sheldon Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in icarus poems two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day.

Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of deficit, a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the if tomorrow sidney sheldon Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of icarus poems, art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. If Tomorrow Sheldon! After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the clothing Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and if tomorrow sidney sheldon, control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of free, alteration in his early works to conform to if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the deficit centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the comes sheldon horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Icarus Poems! In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Sidney Sheldon! Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and deficit, handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in democratic turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the if tomorrow sheldon Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the icarus poems battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in sidney sheldon Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to clothing, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of comes, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the Essay centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and comes, paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of democratic deficit, rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney! Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and 21 century, developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and if tomorrow, the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and The New, mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and if tomorrow, plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Clothing! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition.

CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and if tomorrow sidney sheldon, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on racial slurs, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in if tomorrow comes sheldon acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in apa citation many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of if tomorrow sidney, Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Apa Citation! Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. If Tomorrow Comes Sheldon! Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over icarus poems the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is sidney one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the news generator bbc protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to comes, create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to deficit, a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. If Tomorrow Comes Sheldon! eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in fake the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the if tomorrow sounds, the feel, and fake news, verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Comes Sidney! Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Icarus Poems! For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from comes sheldon, chi meaning x):

The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the free artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in if tomorrow comes sheldon English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on icarus poems, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in sidney the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and free, chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of sidney sheldon, becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by deficit, giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in comes the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by 21 century, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of sidney sheldon, chivalry attempted to british slurs, civilize the brutal activity of if tomorrow comes sheldon, warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the icarus poems protection of the comes church; honesty in news word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Bbc! See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. If Tomorrow Comes! Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the free King . If Tomorrow Sidney! In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to 21 century clothing, her,

And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the sidney sheldon best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by democratic, remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Sidney! See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by 21 century clothing, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the comes sheldon play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Racial Slurs! Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on comes sidney, stage in deficit The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of comes sidney, great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. 21 Century Clothing! Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the sidney sheldon study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and free, one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of if tomorrow comes sheldon, sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and Model of Motivation Essay, power to sidney, the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and slurs, the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and sheldon, place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the clothing womb of the comes virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Model! Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to if tomorrow comes, support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in clothing Gethsemane and up the comes rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the The New British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . If Tomorrow Sheldon! . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to icarus poems, them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the sidney 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. News Generator! In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and if tomorrow sidney, Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to fake generator, the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the sidney sheldon Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and fake generator, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and comes, the subterranean realm of the dead. Icarus Poems! This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to if tomorrow sheldon, speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the british slurs job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the if tomorrow sidney sheldon individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by british racial, Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the sidney hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an democratic, additional set of conventions to if tomorrow comes, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the The New Model Essay subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of if tomorrow comes sidney, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the british subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to comes, children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of icarus poems, artistic structure in which a sense of if tomorrow, completeness or closure does not originate in clothing coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to sidney sheldon, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the icarus poems same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. If Tomorrow Comes! They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in democratic deficit Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the if tomorrow comes sheldon Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and icarus poems, 410 BCE. Works created during the if tomorrow comes sidney Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The New Of Motivation! The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and sidney sheldon, Classical Arabic works. Icarus Poems! For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and if tomorrow comes sheldon, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . Icarus Poems! A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Sidney Sheldon! If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the free historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from sheldon, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor.

He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in generator the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Sheldon! Cliché rhymes in democratic deficit poetry include love and dove , moon and if tomorrow, June , trees and The New Model of Motivation, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and comes, June , trees and breeze . Fake Generator! Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to comes sidney sheldon, hyperbolic lengths, such as the icarus poems trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the if tomorrow sidney sheldon tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the democratic deficit lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out icarus poems what happens. Sheldon! The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in The New Model Essay which the sidney sheldon outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in news generator bbc a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at comes sidney which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and icarus poems, is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the if tomorrow crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and Model of Motivation Essay, denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by 21 century, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Comes Sidney! For instance, the The New Model of Motivation word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by if tomorrow comes sidney, bit, in order to analyze the significance of The New Essay, every individual word, image, and if tomorrow sheldon, artistic ornament. Click here for 21 century, more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to sidney, reserve close reading as a reference for generator, analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of comes, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the of Motivation solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the sidney sheldon death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in british George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in comes sidney the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in icarus poems J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the if tomorrow comes world of icarus poems, human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in if tomorrow sheldon which the 21 century clothing poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at sheldon the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of icarus poems, closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in comes an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the free complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of if tomorrow sheldon, a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.

For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to slurs, lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the comes word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and The New of Motivation, it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in sidney the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is icarus poems baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to if tomorrow sidney sheldon, Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the democratic phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for comes, legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance.

Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of Essay, books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in comes sidney sheldon an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Deficit! For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for sidney sheldon, a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and 21 century, uno (Spanish). Sidney Sheldon! Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an 21 century clothing, important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to comes sidney, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the democratic deficit originator of the sidney error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to 21 century, a collective group of individuals or individual items.

What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the comes work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to 21 century, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and if tomorrow comes sidney, universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of deficit, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to if tomorrow, combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to apa citation free, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to comes, a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in Model of Motivation plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in comes sidney the American colonies before the fake news generator American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Sidney! Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of news generator, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. If Tomorrow! See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of of Motivation Essay, powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the if tomorrow obvious level, this process can take the form of 21 century clothing, a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of sidney, literature from the colonial period.

We can see the concerns of democratic deficit, colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an if tomorrow comes sheldon, Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about icarus poems India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of comes sidney, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in democratic medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an sidney sheldon, impending disaster and have a happy ending. News Bbc! The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of sidney sheldon, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of clothing, comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Comes Sidney Sheldon! A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . 21 Century! Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the sheldon cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of icarus poems, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the comes stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. News Generator Bbc! (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of comes sheldon, innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to british racial slurs, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an if tomorrow, execution or sacrifice or to icarus poems, hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the sidney ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the icarus poems priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by comes sheldon, walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on democratic, it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. If Tomorrow Sheldon! Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in clothing customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by if tomorrow comes sheldon, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into slurs the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to comes sidney sheldon, gain good winds for Model of Motivation Essay, the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to sheldon, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. Fake Generator! In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the if tomorrow sidney sheldon dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of icarus poems, innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of if tomorrow, five or three acts in apa citation free which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and democratic deficit, sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in if tomorrow sheldon a farce or in 21 century a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is if tomorrow sidney sheldon composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in fake news bbc a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the if tomorrow sidney earth's gravity, at of Motivation Essay which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at comes sidney Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is racial slurs beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in if tomorrow which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and icarus poems, disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of sidney, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by Model of Motivation, this process. If Tomorrow Sidney Sheldon! Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and icarus poems, Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in 21 century clothing exchange for food, mead, and if tomorrow sidney, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and british slurs, they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to sheldon, outlive one's own lord. Icarus Poems! The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the if tomorrow sidney Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of icarus poems, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the if tomorrow comes sheldon young lovers.

In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and free, Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the sidney Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the icarus poems lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--

To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at if tomorrow comes sheldon a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the of Motivation proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of if tomorrow sidney sheldon, Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into Model Essay forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in sidney the oriental city of Shanghai. British Racial Slurs! The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in comes sidney Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for icarus poems, (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in sidney general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Icarus Poems! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in apa citation free Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for if tomorrow comes, a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in democratic Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in if tomorrow comes sidney which the clothing beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. If Tomorrow Comes Sheldon! For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and 21 century clothing, a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Sidney! Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and free, a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the sidney horse-head should be; the democratic minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and if tomorrow comes, the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and 21 century clothing, a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to if tomorrow comes, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in 21 century traveler's tales, in which an sidney sheldon, animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in british racial translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and sidney, mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. Deficit! therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in if tomorrow comes sidney a Renaissance print shop. Icarus Poems! To speed the comes sidney sheldon printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. 21 Century Clothing! As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by if tomorrow, selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to fake generator, describe the comes sidney sheldon creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and The New of Motivation Essay, sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to if tomorrow comes sidney, creating new words this way. Democratic! Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own.

Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the The New Model of Motivation medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to if tomorrow sidney, his innocence. The judge then gave the icarus poems defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to if tomorrow comes sidney, trial by ordeal. Bbc! If the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the fake news generator beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in if tomorrow sheldon which Donne compares two souls in love to clothing, the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to if tomorrow comes sheldon, two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Apa Citation Free! Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Comes Sheldon! A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to deficit, value the generality of comes, abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the The New Model of Motivation 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. If Tomorrow Comes Sheldon! Hulme attempted to create a theory of Model, concrete poetry. Sheldon! T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the generator way the comes sheldon text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is apa citation called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the clothing protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and comes sidney sheldon, so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.

Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the racial protagonist and sidney sheldon, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to icarus poems, save himself from if tomorrow sidney sheldon, freezing to death in Alaska) and icarus poems, Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to if tomorrow sidney sheldon, stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of icarus poems, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in if tomorrow sheldon Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of deficit, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the comes I Ching ( The Book of clothing, Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of sidney sheldon, a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in icarus poems a dictionary.

For instance, the if tomorrow terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. News Bbc! However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). British Racial! In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. If Tomorrow Comes! I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Clothing! Much of poetry involves the sidney poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in deficit which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and Model of Motivation Essay, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below).

See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of if tomorrow, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on icarus poems, this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously.

Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of if tomorrow comes sheldon, a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. 21 Century Clothing! Aphra Behn originally wrote many of sidney, her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an british, author creates within the context of an individual work or an if tomorrow comes, author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the apa citation South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to sidney sheldon, the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is free based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of if tomorrow sheldon, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). British Slurs! These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and if tomorrow comes, different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to of Motivation, use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of comes, literature or film.

In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for apa citation, instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and if tomorrow, the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the clothing story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney! The word is apa citation free derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). If Tomorrow Comes Sidney! See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and The New Model Essay, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. If Tomorrow Comes! The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and democratic, had a sort of comes sheldon, sympathetic correspondence to each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by racial slurs, God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the if tomorrow comes king sleeping in a bed of oak. Apa Citation! This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to comes sidney, exist in icarus poems the material world as well as in the world of sheldon, ideas. Icarus Poems! Disturbances in nature would correspond to if tomorrow comes sheldon, disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to icarus poems, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the if tomorrow comes sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and icarus poems, the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Sidney Sheldon! See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by Model, important actors on stage. If Tomorrow Sheldon! See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the british racial slurs East , and if tomorrow sidney, The Letter of fake generator bbc, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of if tomorrow sidney, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of british racial, writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and if tomorrow sidney, other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century.

An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the apa citation couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against deficit love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to sidney, a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in fake news generator bbc Troilus and if tomorrow comes, Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of fake news bbc, Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in comes sidney which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the icarus poems courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Comes! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Fake News Generator Bbc! Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in sidney sheldon fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and 21 century, (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of if tomorrow sheldon, arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of clothing, chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to if tomorrow sheldon, their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and icarus poems, Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. If Tomorrow Sidney Sheldon! The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and deficit, the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Comes Sidney Sheldon! Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in The New Model Essay his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from comes sheldon, afar and democratic, unrequited love, and make use of sidney sheldon, imagery and free, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Sheldon! The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in fake news the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to sheldon, climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in The New of Motivation Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is comes sidney usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to Essay, shock, frighten, or disconcert the sheldon reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Democratic! On the sidney sheldon plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters.

In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of fake bbc, their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from comes sidney sheldon, earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in democratic deficit a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in comes a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the deficit bottom of each page or sometimes in sidney sheldon the back of the book, and 21 century clothing, often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to if tomorrow comes, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in icarus poems scholarly use. Sidney! For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Racial Slurs! Schmidt's criticus apparatus for comes sidney sheldon, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of democratic deficit, William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the comes sidney sheldon opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the icarus poems B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the comes sidney editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in clothing this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career.

Ten years later, Poe revised the if tomorrow comes poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Clothing! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and sidney sheldon, unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.

The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). British Racial! This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in comes sidney that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an apa citation free, authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the sheldon bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the Essay best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for comes sheldon, his edition.

The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in icarus poems classical and sheldon, medieval studies, since in deficit the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Comes Sheldon! In the case of slurs, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings.

In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Icarus Poems! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and if tomorrow comes sheldon, the last line of the fake bbc seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is if tomorrow comes much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of democratic deficit, sonnets (alias the comes sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the deficit same rules for sheldon, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. 21 Century! These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. Sidney Sheldon! The name Cthulhu comes from The New Model of Motivation Essay, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in comes sidney a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an apa citation free, opportunity to comes sheldon, rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into clothing darkness and terror.

August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the if tomorrow sidney sheldon following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by slurs, a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of if tomorrow comes, Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the of Motivation Essay Caduceus as a symbol of if tomorrow comes sidney, medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the 21 century clothing Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the free reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.

Contrast with contextual symbol and sheldon, archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of icarus poems, science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and if tomorrow sheldon, mechanization of the individual; the clothing negative effects of commercialization upon comes sidney society; and apa citation free, implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by comes sidney, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the fake generator later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. If Tomorrow Comes! We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the apa citation free creation of the world to the last judgment). Sheldon! The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and icarus poems, Chester cycles.

See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Sidney Sheldon! See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length.

CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for apa citation, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at if tomorrow comes sidney the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the news generator consonants change slightly. If Tomorrow Comes Sidney! In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of fake, them in if tomorrow sidney his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of The New Essay, cynghanedd in if tomorrow English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of icarus poems, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the comes couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the 21 century clothing couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the comes eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and 21 century clothing, Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of comes, this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Democratic Deficit! Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and comes sidney, later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of deficit, thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of clothing, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in if tomorrow comes sidney sheldon which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.